Anda di halaman 1dari 9

Page | 1

Name of Student: MADRID, Ariel Joshua Juego


Nov. 28, 2012
Section:
Y 21L
Submitted: Dec. 5, 2012
Group Number: 2

Date Performed:
Date

COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES

I. Introduction
A solution is a mixture with two main components: a solute and a solvent. It
has particular chemical properties that the solvent alone does not possess since
another property from the solute may be inherited. The physical properties are also
changed when substances are dissolved in the solvent.
The behavior of solutions is qualitatively similar to those pure solvents but is
quantitatively different. To exemplify, generally after a blizzard or snowfall, people
on temperate countries remove the snow to travel with ease. One method of doing
so is by removing it physically with a tool, such as a shovel, but for those who dont
want to stretch their bones, they add salts to the icy sidewalks. The dissolved salt
lowers the freezing point of water causing the ice to melt at lower temperature than
it normally would. The property of the pure solvent (water, in the form of snow) is
changed, particularly its freezing point, which was lowered. This, change is called
freezing-point depression. Nonvolatile solutes, such as salt, also increase the boiling
point of solvent, termed as boiling-point elevation. For example, ethylene glycol is
added to water in radiators of cars to raise the boiling point of the solution, making
it possible to operate the engine even at higher temperature. It also lowers the
freezing point of the solution preventing freezing in cold weather. These changes
are observed by comparing a pure solvent with a solution.
Properties that depend on the amount of solute dissolved, not on its chemical
identity, are called colligative properties. Colligative means depending on the
collection, which when used in solutions, colligative property means property that
depends on the collective effect of the solute particles in the solvent These
properties include vapor pressure lowering, boiling point elevation, freezing point
depression and osmotic pressure. The properties to be observed in this experiment
are boiling point elevation and freezing point depression only.
The objectives of this exercise are: first, to describe colligative properties of
solution like boiling point elevation and freezing point depression, second, to
determine the effect of solute concentration on boiling point and freezing point of
the solution, and lastly, to compute for the molar mass of an unknown solute using
freezing point depression data.

Page | 2

II. Materials
A. Reagents
lard
distilled water
naphthalene
unknown solutes
B. Apparatus and Equipment
test tubes
iron ring
250-mL beaker
iron stand
digital weighing scale/platform beam balancewire gauze
hot plate
iron clamp
thermometer
bunsen burner
100-mL graduated cylinder
cotton plug/ tissue

III. Procedure
A. Freezing Point of Naphthalene
The freezing point of naphthalene was determined by conducting a
cooling curve experiment. First, a dry and clean test tube was placed with 2.0
g of naphthalene and was heated on a water bath (such that the water level
was above the sample and the test tube was not touching the bottom of the
beaker). The test tube was plugged loosely with a tissue paper which kept out
moisture from the water bath and held the thermometer as well. It was
heated until all the sample has melted and the temperature has reached 90 0.
After the given temperature has been reached, the source of heat was
removed, and the change in temperature and in state was recorded every 15
seconds until the temperature reached 700. The cooling curve of naphthalene
was then plotted.
B. Freezing Point Depression of Naphthalene
In a clean and dry test tube, 0.20 g of unknown solute was mixed with
2.0 g of naphthalene. The mixture was placed in a hot water bath (with the
water level above the mixture and the test tube was not touching the bottom
of the beaker) until the mixture has melted and the temperature has reached
900. The test tube was plugged with tissue which kept any moisture away
from the water bath and it also held the thermometer. After the given
temperature has been reached, the flame was put off and the change in
temperature and in state was recorded every 15 seconds until the
temperature has dropped to 700. The cooling curve of the mixture was plotted
together with the cooling curve of the pure naphthalene. The results of the
cooling curve of the two experiments were then compared.
C. Boiling Point Elevation of Water

Page | 3
The boiling point of pure water was determined by heating 100-mL
distilled water in a 250-mL beaker. After the water has boiled, the
temperature was measured with a thermometer and was recorded. Then, the
assigned amount of solute from the instructor was dissolved in 100-mL
distilled water. The solution was set to boil and the boiling temperature was
again measured and recorded. The results from the same experiment
conducted by other groups were gathered.

IV. Data/ Observations


Table 2.1. Mass of Naphthalene
Mass of paper box, g
Mass of paper box + naphthalene, g
Mass of naphthalene, g
Table 2.2. Mass of Unknown Solute A
Mass of paper box, g
Mass of paper box + naphthalene, g
Mass of paper box + naphthalene +
unknown solute, g
Mass of unknown solute, g

1.3 g
3.3 g
2.0 g

1.96 g
3.96 g
4.16 g
0.20 g

Table 2.3. Determination of the freezing point of naphthalene.


Temperatu Observatio
Time
Temperature
re
ns
elapsed
(OC)
(OC)
(s)
Naphthalene
Room
Solid
390
80
crystals
temp.
Naphthalene
900
liquid
405
80
crystals at 900
After 15
89
420
80
seconds
30 s
89
435
80
45 s
88
450
80
60 s
88
465
80
75 s
87
480
79
90 s
86
495
79
105 s
86
510
79
120 s
85
525
78
135 s
84
540
78
150 s
84
555
78
165 s
83
570
77
180 s
83
585
77
195 s
82
600
76
210 s
82
615
75
225 s
81
630
74

Observations

solid

Page | 4
240
255
270
285
300
315
330
345
360
375

s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s

80
80
79
79
81
81
81
81
81
80

645
660
675
690

73
72
71
70

Solid +
liquid

Table 2.4. Determination of the freezing point depression of naphthalene.


Temperatu Observatio
Time
Temperature Observations
re
ns
elapsed
(OC)
O
( C)
(s)
Naphthalene
Room
Solid
390
77
temp.
Unknown solute
Room
solid
405
77
temp.
Unknown solute
Room
Solid
420
77
+ naphthalene
temp.
Unknown solute
900
liquid
435
77
+ naphthalene
at 900
After 15
89
450
77
seconds
After 30
89
465
77
seconds
After 45
88
480
77
seconds
After 60
87
495
76
seconds
After 75
87
510
76
seconds
After 90
86
525
76
seconds
After 105
85
540
75
seconds
120
85
555
75
135
84
570
75
150
84
585
74
165
83
600
74
solid
180
82
615
74
195
82
630
73
210
81
645
73

Page | 5
225
240
255
270
285
300
315
330

81
80
80
79
79
78
78
77

345
360
375

77
76
77

660
675
690
705
720
735
750

72
72
71
71
71
71
70

Solid +
liquid

Table 2.5. Comparison of the freezing point of a pure substance and a solution.
Freezing point (0C)
Pure substance (naphthalene)

80

Solution (unknown solute A +


naphthalene)

77

Table 2.6. Mass of Unknown Solute B


Mass of paper box, g
Mass of paper box + unknown solute B, g
Mass of unknown solute B, g

1.96 g
2.96 g
1.00 g

Table 2.7. Determination of the boiling point elevation of water.


Group
Amount of
Boiling point (0C)
Pure distilled water
Distilled water + unknown
Number
solute
solute
assigned (g)
1
0.5
100.0
101.0
2

1.0

99.0

100.0

1.5

99.0

99.5

2.0

100.0

98.0

V. Discussion
Vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by the gas above the
liquid. The vapor pressure of a solvent is lowered by the presence of

Page | 6
nonvolatile solutes. Thus we can infer that the vapor pressure of the solution
is lower than that of the pure solvent. To illustrate:

(a) is a solution
(b) is a pure solvent

In the figure, we see that the solvent in the solution has lower vapor
pressure. This is due to the presence of nonvolatile solute. The nonvolatile
solute prevents the solvent molecules from escaping the solution, thus, the
solute-solvent interaction is higher. While in the pure solvent, the solvent
molecules readily escape from the solvent itself. Thus, the solution requires a
higher temperature to break the solute-solvent interaction and reach the
boiling point of the solution.
The normal boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which the
vapor pressure is equal to 1 atm. Since a nonvolatile solute lowers the vapor
pressure of the solvent, the solution must be heated to a higher temperature
than the boiling point of the solvent to reach a vapor pressure of 1 atm. This
means that a nonvolatile solute elevates the boiling point of a solvent. The
change in boiling point is represented by the equation
T = Kbmsolution
Tb Tb0 = Kbmsolution
where T is the difference between the boiling point of the solution and that
of the pure solvent, Kb is a constant called the molal boiling point elevation
constant, and msolute is the molality of the solute in the solution.
The temperature difference between the pure solvent and the solution
on the second experiment is equated to
T = Tb Tb0
T = 1000C 990C

Page | 7
T = 10C
Thus on the second experiment - the boiling point elevation of
water, the boiling point of distilled water was increased after a solute was
mixed with it. And from the above explanations, we can infer that the greater
the solute concentration, the greater the boiling point elevation is. We can
relate the phenomenon of freezing-point depression from this.
On the first experiment conducted - the freezing point depression
of naphthalene, the freezing point of the solution (77 0C) is lower than that
of the pure solvent (800C) because the solvent in the solution (naphthalene +
unknown solute) has lower vapor pressure than that of the pure solvent
(naphthalene). Since the vapor pressure is low, the solute-solvent interaction
is greater. The solute lowers the rate at which the solvent (in liquid state)
returns to its solid state. Thus lower temperature is required to solidify the
solvent.
The freezing-point depression of a solution relative to that of the pure
solvent depends on the concentration of solute particles, just as boiling-point
elevation does. The change in the freezing point is represented by the
equation
T = Kfmsolution
O
T f Tf = Kfmsolution
where Kf the molal freezing-point constant. Like Kb, Kf is a property of the
solvent which is independent of the nature of solutes.
Any solute contributes to the colligative property of a solvent. The
degree of the effect depends on the concentration of the solute in a given
amount of solvent. The greater the particle concentration is, the greater the
boiling-point elevation or freezing point depression is.
The molar mass of the solute from the first experiment can be derived
from the equation
TOf Tf = Kfmsolution
800C - 770C = 6.9 0C-kg (mass/MM)
mol (kg solute)
(800C - 770C) = (6.9 0C-kg) (0.20g solute)
(0.002kg solvent)(MM)
MM = (6.9 0C-kg) (0.20g solute)
(800C - 770C) (0.02kg solvent)
MM = 230 MM

Page | 8
The sources of error committed in the experiment are as follows:
1. In the boiling point elevation of water, though the sample used is
distilled water, there may have impurities in the container (beaker), which
caused the boiling point of pure water to decrease.
2. The assigned amount of solute was not all mixed with water, there
may have spillage during transfer which caused the boiling point to have
lowered (compared to the expected outcome)
3. In the freezing point depression of naphthalene, misreading the
change in temperature
4. The test tube was wrongly plugged, thus the sample may have
acquired moisture from the environment thus the lower the temperature is
required for the freezing point.
It is recommended that the apparatuses used in the experiment are
properly washed with distilled water to ensure the purity of the results and
that the students should follow the correct procedure on how to transfer
solids from a container to avoid spillage.
Sample calculations:

VI. Conclusion
The colligative properties of a solvent depend on the concentration or
amount of solute in the solution. The boiling point is elevated and the
freezing point is depressed due to the low vapor pressure in the solution, in
which the solute-solvent interaction is greater than the solvent-solvent
interaction. This means that higher temperature is required to break the
solute-solvent interaction and boil the solvent, likewise lower temperature is
required to break solute-solvent interaction and freeze the solvent. The more
the amount of solute is present on the solution, the greater the boiling point
elevation and freezing point depression is.
VII. Bibliography
Brown, LeMay, and Bursten. 2003. Chemistry: The Central Science. 9 th edition.
United States of America. Pearson Education, Inc. pp. 502 506.

Page | 9
McMurry and Fay. Chemistry. Fourth edition. pp 443 452.
Myers, Tocci and Oldham. 2006. United States of America: Holt, Rinehart and
Winston. pp 481 483.
Rosenberg and Epstein. College Chemistry. pp. 92 96.
Zumdahl. 2009. Chemical Principles. Sixth Edition. United States of America:
Houghton Mifflin Company. pp. 864 867.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colligative_properties