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Problem 1: [Series RLC circuits; amplitude and phase] Open the Mathlet Series RLC

Circuit. Here we will focus entirely on the current response, so it will be clearer if the

check boxes labelled VR , VL , VC , are left unchecked. But click twice on the I box, to make

a green curve appear in the graphing window, representing the current through any point

in the circuit as a function of time.

The Mathlet uses the International System of Units, SI, formerly known as the mks (meter

kilogram-second) system. The equation

..

L I + RI + (1/C ) I = V

is correct when:

The slider displays millihenries, mH (1 mH= 103 H) and microfarads, F (1F= 106 F),

The Mathlet studies a sinusoidal input signal V (t) = V0 sin(t). Play around with the

various sliders and watch the effect on the (blue) voltage curve and the (green) current

curve.

which the current and the voltage are perfectly in phase. For example, if L = 500 mH and

= 200 radians/second, what values of R, C, and V0 put I in phase with V?

(b) Now calculate the relationship between the system parameters which leads to I and V

being in phase. Do your experiments align with your calculations?

(c) Set R = 100 , L = 1000 mH, C = 100 F, V0 = 500 V. Vary and watch the action.

For what value of is the amplitude of I (t) maximal? What is that amplitude (in amps)?

What is the phase lag between the input signal, V0 sin(t), and the system response, I (t),

for that value of ?

(d) Verify the three observations made in (c) computationally. You should be able to do

this for general values of R, L, C, V0 .

Problem 2: AM Radio Tuning and LRC Circuits

Part II Problems

OCW 18.03SC

An LRC circuit can be modeled using the same DE as in the previous problem. Specically,

1

LI + RI + I = E .

C

Where I = current in amps, L = inductance in henries, R = resistance in ohms, C = capaci

tance in farads and E = input EMF in volts. Often the important output is the voltage drop

VR across the resistor. Ohms law tells us VR = RI. This gives us the DE

1

LVR + RVR + VR = RE .

C

(a) Assume E = E0 cos(t) and solve the DE for VR in phase-amplitude form.

(b) Open the LRC Filter Applet. This applet models an LRC circuit with input voltage a

superposition of sine waves. Play with the applet be sure to learn how to vary 1 and 2

by dragging the dots on the amplitude plot.

Describe what happens to the amplitude response plot as L, R and C are varied.

(c) An LRC circuit can be used as part of a simple AM radio tuner. In an AM radio broad

cast the signal is given by a cos(t) where is the carrier frequency (between 530 and

1600 khz). To really carry information the amplitude a must vary this is the amplitude

modulation but, we will ignore this right here.

The range of values for this simple variable capacitor AM radio tuner is L .5 microhen

ries, R is the resistance in the wire (very small) and C is between .02 and .2 microfarads. To

keep things simple we will use different ranges however the idea is the same.

In the LRC Filter applet set 1 = 1 and w2 = 4 (set them as close as you can on your

system). Set the input amplitudes a and b to 1. Find settings for L, R and C so that the

output lters out the 2 part of the signal i.e. the output looks (a lot) like a sine wave of

frequency 1 . Give your values for L, R and C.

How does the quality of the lter change as you vary R?

(d) An antenna on a radio picks up electomagnetic signals from all frequencies. It responds

by outputing a signal consisting of voltages at each of these frequencies. This signal is used

as input to a tuner circuit.

Using the applet, set L = 1, R = .5. Now, vary C and then explain why a variable capacitor

circuit could be used as an AM radio tuner.

(e) Show that the

natural frequency (undamped, unforced resonant frequency) of the sys

tem is 0 = 1/ LC. Show that even with damping, i.e., R > 0, 0 is always the practical

resonant frequency. (Hint: this can be done without calculus by writing A( ) in the proper

way.)

Problem 1: [Series RLC circuits; amplitude and phase] Open the Mathlet Series RLC

Circuit. Here we will focus entirely on the current response, so it will be clearer if the

check boxes labelled VR , VL , VC , are left unchecked. But click twice on the I box, to make

a green curve appear in the graphing window, representing the current through any point

in the circuit as a function of time.

The Mathlet uses the International System of Units, SI, formerly known as the mks (meter

kilogram-second) system. The equation

..

L I + RI + (1/C ) I = V

is correct when:

The slider displays millihenries, mH (1 mH= 103 H) and microfarads, F (1F= 106 F),

and milliseconds, ms (1 ms = 103 sec).

The Mathlet studies a sinusoidal input signal V (t) = V0 sin(t). Play around with the

various sliders and watch the effect on the (blue) voltage curve and the (green) current

curve.

(a) By experimenting, identify a few values of the system parameters R, L, C, V0 , , for

which the current and the voltage are perfectly in phase. For example, if L = 500 mH and

= 200 radians/second, what values of R, C, and V0 put I in phase with V?

(b) Now calculate the relationship between the system parameters which leads to I and V

being in phase. Do your experiments align with your calculations?

(c) Set R = 100 , L = 1000 mH, C = 100 F, V0 = 500 V. Vary and watch the action.

For what value of is the amplitude of I (t) maximal? What is that amplitude (in amps)?

What is the phase lag between the input signal, V0 sin(t), and the system response, I (t),

for that value of ?

(d) Verify the three observations made in (c) computationally. You should be able to do

this for general values of R, L, C, V0 .

Solution: (a) It seems that C must be close to 50 F. The values of V0 and R dont seem to

matter.

OCW 18.03SC

..

L I + RI + (1/C ) I = V0 cos(t).

To undersand its sinusoidal solution, make the complex replacement

..

L z + Rz + (1/C )z = V0 eit ,

V0 eit

. To be in phase

p(i )

with sin(t), the real part of this must be a positive multiple of sin(t). This occurs

precisely when the real part of p(i ) is zero. Re p(i ) = (1/C ) L 2 , so the relation

is 1/C = L 2 .

so that I p = Re(z p ). By the ERF, the exponential solution is z p =

To check, when L = 500 mH= .5 H and = 200 rad/sec, the system response is in phase

when C = 1/(.5 (200)2 ) = 50 106 F = 50 F.

(c) It seems that the maximal system response amplitude Ir occurs when = 100 rad/sec,

and that it is about 5 amps. Then the solution is in phase with the input voltage.

V0 eit

(d) In (b) we saw that the solution is the real part of z p =

. The amplitude of

p(i

V0

(1/C L 2 ) + Ri

this sinusoid is

p

(

i

)

V

0

complex number moves along the horizontal straight line with imaginary part R. The

point on that line with minimal

magnitude is Ri, which occurs when the real part is zero:

only on V0 and R, not on L or C! Finally, this is the same as the condition for phase lag

zero, so the phase lag at = r is zero.

With the given values R = 100 , L = 1 H, C = 104 F, r = 100 rad/sec, as observed.

When V0 = 500 V and R = 100 , Ir = 5 Amps, as observed.

Problem 2: AM Radio Tuning and LRC Circuits

An LRC circuit can be modeled using the same DE as in the previous problem. Specically,

1

LI + RI + I = E .

C

Where I = current in amps, L = inductance in henries, R = resistance in ohms, C = capaci

tance in farads and E = input EMF in volts. Often the important output is the voltage drop

VR across the resistor. Ohms law tells us VR = RI. This gives us the DE

2

OCW 18.03SC

LVR + RVR +

1

VR = RE .

C

(b) Open the LRC Filter Applet. This applet models an LRC circuit with input voltage a

superposition of sine waves. Play with the applet be sure to learn how to vary 1 and 2

by dragging the dots on the amplitude plot.

Describe what happens to the amplitude response plot as L, R and C are varied.

(c) An LRC circuit can be used as part of a simple AM radio tuner. In an AM radio broad

cast the signal is given by a cos(t) where is the carrier frequency (between 530 and

1600 khz). To really carry information the amplitude a must vary this is the amplitude

modulation but, we will ignore this right here.

The range of values for this simple variable capacitor AM radio tuner is L .5 microhen

ries, R is the resistance in the wire (very small) and C is between .02 and .2 microfarads. To

keep things simple we will use different ranges however the idea is the same.

In the LRC Filter applet set 1 = 1 and w2 = 4 (set them as close as you can on your

system). Set the input amplitudes a and b to 1. Find settings for L, R and C so that the

output lters out the 2 part of the signal i.e. the output looks (a lot) like a sine wave of

frequency 1 . Give your values for L, R and C.

How does the quality of the lter change as you vary R?

(d) An antenna on a radio picks up electomagnetic signals from all frequencies. It responds

by outputing a signal consisting of voltages at each of these frequencies. This signal is used

as input to a tuner circuit.

Using the applet, set L = 1, R = .5. Now, vary C and then explain why a variable capacitor

circuit could be used as an AM radio tuner.

(e) Show that the

natural frequency (undamped, unforced resonant frequency) of the sys

tem is 0 = 1/ LC. Show that even with damping, i.e., R > 0, 0 is always the practical

resonant frequency. (Hint: this can be done without calculus by writing A( ) in the proper

way.)

Solution: (a) Here is the answer with very little comment. (Note we complexify the input

1

Char. polynomial: P(iw) = L 2 + Ri.

C

OCW 18.03SC

(1 LC 2 )2 + ( RC )2

Note: | P(i )| =

,

C

i

C

=

( RC + i (1 LC 2 )).

2

P (i )

(1 LC )2 + ( RC )2

iRE0 it

Exp. Input Thm: V p =

e , Vp = Re(V p ).

P(i )

Amplitude-Phase Form:

Vp = A cos(t ) , where

iRE0

RCE0

E0

A =

A =

2

2

2

2

P(i )

(1 LC ) + ( RC )

1 LC 2

RC

+1

2

iRE0

i

1 1 LC

= Arg

= Arg

= tan

,

P(i )

P(i )

RC

where, since the complex number RC + i (1 LC 2 ) is in the 1st or 4th quadrants, is

between /2 and /2.

(b) Except for the fact that C corresponds to 1/k we get the same answer as the previous

problems.

As L increases the amplitude peak moves to the left and the graph gets a little spikier.

As R decreases the peak doesnt move and the amplitude graph gets spikier.

(c) One possibility is L = 3, C = .33, R = .4. In any case, LC = 1. The smaller R is the less

of the 2 frequency signal gets through. In general, the smaller the value of R the smaller

(d) As C varies the spike in the amplitude graph moves. Thus changing the frequency that

1

(e) Without damping or forcing the DE is LI + C1 I = 0 I + LC

I = 0 resonant

frequency is 0 = 1/ LC.

The boxed formula for A in part (a) shows that A is maximized when the term under

the square root is minimized.

This happens when the term in parentheses is 0, i.e. when

2

LC 1 = 0 = 1/ LC = 0 .

MIT OpenCourseWare

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Fall 2011

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

Part I Problems

Problem 1: Find the smallest period for each of the following:

a) sin t/3

b) | sin t|

c) cos2 3t

Problem 2:

Find the Fourier series of the function f (t) of period 2 which is given over the interval

< t by

0, < t 0

f (t) =

1, 0 < t

Problem 1: Find the smallest period for each of the following:

a) sin t/3

b) | sin t|

c) cos2 3t

Solution: For the functions sin t, cos t, the frequency is , and the the frequency and

the period are related by (frequency) (period) = 2. Applying this gives:

a) for sin t/3,

P = 2 P = 6.

2

c) for cos2 3t, note that cos 3t has period 2

3

. Thus (analogously to | sin t |), (cos 3t ) has

1 2

period 2 3 = 3 .

(Check: (cos 3(t + 3 ))2 = (cos(3t + ))2 = ( cos(3t))2 = (cos(3t))2 .

Problem 2:

Find the Fourier series of the function f (t) of period 2 which is given over the interval

< t by

0, < t 0

f (t) =

1, 0 < t

OCW 18.03SC

Solution:

1

sin nt

an =

cos nt dt =

=0

0

n 0

1

a0 =

dt = 1

0

1

cos nt

(1)n (1)

bn =

sin nt dt =

=

0

n

n

0

n

0

n even

1 (1)

=

= 2

n

n odd

n

1

2

f (t) = +

2

1

1

2

n sin nt = 2 +

n odd

sin 3t sin 5t

sin t +

+

+

3

5

MIT OpenCourseWare

http://ocw.mit.edu

Fall 2011

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

Part II Problems

Problem 1: [Fourier Series] This problem will use the Mathlet Fourier Coefficients.

When the applet opens you are presented with a series of sliders labeled bn . By pressing

the [Formula] radio button you can see that they are coefcients of sines in a Fourier series

made up entirely of sine functions. If you press the [Cosine] radio button youll see an s,

coefcients of cosines. Move one of the slider handles: a cosine or sine curve appears and

changes amplitude. Release it at some value and move another one. The white curves

shows the new sinusoid, and the yellow curve shows the sum of the two. By moving more

sliders you can build up more complicated sums and more complicated functions.

Now select the Target [B]. Is it an even function or an odd function? Based on this, de

cide whether to appoximate it using sines or cosines. Select one or the other appropriately

(using [All terms]) and do the best you can by eyeballing the result to get the best ap

proximation you can to the green target curve. Does it appear that only even terms are

needed? Only odd term? or both? The [Odd terms] and [Even terms] buttons allow you

to choose just the even terms or the odd terms, and gives you more of the one you select.

If it seems that just the even or odd terms will be useful, explain (in words) why.

(a) Write down these values of the coefcients.

(b) The target function [B] is the periodic function with period 2 which is given by f (t) =

2 , f ( t ) = 4 for

2 < t <

2 , and f ( 2 )

=

0. Compute the Fourier

coefcients for this function, using the integral formulas for them, and compare with your

answers from (a). Reset the sliders to the computed values and see if it looks like a better

t.

(c) Now set the sliders to some random set of values. Still with target function [B] dis

played, select the [Distance] button. A number appears at the upper right corner of the

screen. This is the root mean square distance from the target function to the selected

nite Fourier sum. It is a measure of goodness of t. Instead of eyeballing the t as before,

start from the bottom and successively adjust the sliders to minimize the distance. Write

down the optimal values of the coefcients. Compare with the computed values.

Lessons: (1) The Fourier coefcients are the coefcients resulting in the best possible t,

and (2) the process of optimizing one coefcient is independent of the process of optimiz

ing any of the others. (This is orthogonality.)

Problem 1: [Fourier Series] This problem will use the Mathlet Fourier Coefficients.

When the applet opens you are presented with a series of sliders labeled bn . By pressing

the [Formula] radio button you can see that they are coefcients of sines in a Fourier series

made up entirely of sine functions. If you press the [Cosine] radio button youll see an s,

coefcients of cosines. Move one of the slider handles: a cosine or sine curve appears and

changes amplitude. Release it at some value and move another one. The white curves

shows the new sinusoid, and the yellow curve shows the sum of the two. By moving more

sliders you can build up more complicated sums and more complicated functions.

Now select the Target [B]. Is it an even function or an odd function? Based on this, de

cide whether to appoximate it using sines or cosines. Select one or the other appropriately

(using [All terms]) and do the best you can by eyeballing the result to get the best ap

proximation you can to the green target curve. Does it appear that only even terms are

needed? Only odd term? or both? The [Odd terms] and [Even terms] buttons allow you

to choose just the even terms or the odd terms, and gives you more of the one you select.

If it seems that just the even or odd terms will be useful, explain (in words) why.

(a) Write down these values of the coefcients.

(b) The target function [B] is the periodic function with period 2 which is given by f (t) =

4 for 2 < t < 2 , f ( t ) = 4 for 2 < t < 2 , and f ( 2 ) = 0. Compute the Fourier

coefcients for this function, using the integral formulas for them, and compare with your

answers from (a). Reset the sliders to the computed values and see if it looks like a better

t.

(c) Now set the sliders to some random set of values. Still with target function [B] dis

played, select the [Distance] button. A number appears at the upper right corner of the

screen. This is the root mean square distance from the target function to the selected

nite Fourier sum. It is a measure of goodness of t. Instead of eyeballing the t as before,

start from the bottom and successively adjust the sliders to minimize the distance. Write

down the optimal values of the coefcients. Compare with the computed values.

Lessons: (1) The Fourier coefcients are the coefcients resulting in the best possible t,

and (2) the process of optimizing one coefcient is independent of the process of optimiz

ing any of the others. (This is orthogonality.)

Solution: (a) Odd cosines work best; a1 = 1, a3 = 13 , a5 = 15 , . . ..

2

(b) f (t) is even, so bn = 0. For n > 0, an =

f (t) cos(nt) dt =

0

/2

2

sin(nt) /2

sin(nt)

cos(nt) dt +

( cos(nt)) dt =

4

4

n

n

0

/2 4

0

/2

OCW 18.03SC

Now sin(0) = sin(n ) = 0, and the upper limit of the rst term coincides with the lower

limit of the second, so an = n1 sin( n2 ). When n is even these sine values are zero. The

average value is 0, so a0 = 0. When n is odd they alternate between +1 and 1. So the

Fourier series is f (t) = cos(t) 13 cos(3t) + 15 cos(5t) .

(c)

MIT OpenCourseWare

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Fall 2011

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

Part I Problems

Problem 1: Find the Fourier series of the function f (t) of period 2 which is given over

the interval < t by

0, < t 0

f (t) =

1, 0 < t

as in the same problem in the previous session but this time use the known Fourier series

for sq(t) = the standard square wave.

Problem 2: Find the Fourier series of the function f (t) with period 2 given by f (t) = |t|

on (, ) by integrating the Fourier series of the derivative f (t).

Problem 1: Find the Fourier series of the function f (t) of period 2 which is given over

the interval < t by

0, < t 0

f (t) =

1, 0 < t

as in the same problem in the previous session but this time use the known Fourier series

for sq(t) = the standard square wave.

Solution:

sq(t) =

f (t) =

1

2

1 < t < 0

1

0<t<

sq(t) =

so

f (t) =

4

1

sin nt

5 n odd n

1

1

2

(1 + sq(t)) = +

2

2

1

sin nt

n

n odd

This is the same as was shown in the same problem in the previous session.

Problem 2: Find the Fourier series of the function f (t) with period 2 given by f (t) = |t|

on (, ) by integrating the Fourier series of the derivative f (t).

t < t 0

Solution: Note that f (t) =

so that

t

0t<

1 < t < 0

f (t) =

= sq(t)

1

0t<

the standard square wave. Also note that f (t) is an even function, so that

f (t) =

For n = 0, a0 =

1

4

f (t)dt =

1

4

a0

+ an cos(nt)

2

n =1

| t | dt =

tdt =

2 t2

2 0

OCW 18.03SC

f (t) =

1

cos(nt)

n2

n odd

MIT OpenCourseWare

http://ocw.mit.edu

Fall 2011

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

Part II Problems

Problem 1: [Fourier Series]

(a) Find the Fourier series for 2 sin(t 3 ) (Hint: A function of period 2 has just one

expression as a linear combination of cos(mt)s and sin(nt)s.)

The square wave sq(t) is the odd function of period 2 such that sq(t) = 1 for 0 < t <

and sq( ) = 0. In class we calculated its Fourier series.

(b) sq(t) has minimal period 2, but it is also a function of period 4. Use the integral

formulas for the Fourier coefcients to calculate its Fourier series, regarded as a function

of period 4. Comment on the relationship between your answer and the Fourier series

for sq(t).

Use the Fourier series for sq(t), along with calculus and algebraic manipulations, to com

pute the Fourier series of each of the following functions without evaluating any of the

integrals for the Fourier coefcients. In each case, sketch a graph of the function, as well,

and give the minimal period.

(c) sq(t 4 ).

(d) 1 + 2 sq(2t).

(e) The f (t) of [B] in the Fourier Coefficients Applet explored in this session.

(f) The periodic function g(t) with period 2 such that g(t) = t for 2 t

g(t) = t for 2 t 32 . (Hint: what is g (t) in terms of sq(t)?)

and

Problem 1: [Fourier Series]

(a) Find the Fourier series for 2 sin(t 3 ) (Hint: A function of period 2 has just one

expression as a linear combination of cos(mt)s and sin(nt)s.)

The square wave sq(t) is the odd function of period 2 such that sq(t) = 1 for 0 < t <

and sq( ) = 0. In class we calculated its Fourier series.

(b) sq(t) has minimal period 2, but it is also a function of period 4. Use the integral

formulas for the Fourier coefcients to calculate its Fourier series, regarded as a function

of period 4. Comment on the relationship between your answer and the Fourier series

for sq(t).

Use the Fourier series for sq(t), along with calculus and algebraic manipulations, to com

pute the Fourier series of each of the following functions without evaluating any of the

integrals for the Fourier coefcients. In each case, sketch a graph of the function, as well,

and give the minimal period.

(c) sq(t 4 ).

(d) 1 + 2 sq(2t).

(e) The f (t) of [B] in the Fourier Coefficients Applet explored in this session.

(f) The periodic function g(t) with period 2 such that g(t) = t for 2 t

g(t) = t for 2 t 32 . (Hint: what is g (t) in terms of sq(t)?)

and

2 sin(t

) = 2

cos(

) sin t sin(

) cos t

=

3 cos t + sin t

and this is the Fourier series. (If you dont remember the angle difference formula, you

can use the complex exponential!: sin(t 3 ) = Im(ei(t/3) ) = Im(ei/3 eit ) = Im(( 12

3

2 i )(cos t

+ i sin t)) =

3

2

2

2

sq(t) sin(nt/2) dt

20

1

=

sin(nt/2) dt +

sin(nt/2) dt

=

cos(nt/2)

cos(nt/2)

n

n

0

cn ,

n

bn =

OCW 18.03SC

n

0

1

2

3

cos( n

2 )

1

0

1

0

cos(n)

1

1

1

1

cn

0

0

4

0

The Fourier series is sq(t) = 8 ( 12 sin( 22t ) + 16 sin( 62t ) + ) This is the same series as the

Fourier series for sq(t) when it is regarded as having period 2. The numbering of the terms

is differentonly every fourth term is nonzero instead of every other termbut the series

itself is identical.

(c) We know sq(t 4 ) = 4 (sin(t 4 ) + 13 sin(3t 34 )) + ).

Now sin(nt n4 ) = sin( n4 ) cos(nt) + cos( n4 ) sin(nt) and

n=

sin(n/4)

cos(n/4)

2/2

2/2

2/2

2/2

2/2

2/2

7

2/2

2/2

so,

sq t

=

4

2 2

1

1

1

cos(t) cos(3t) + cos(5t) + cos(7t) + +

3

5

7

1

1

1

+ sin(t) sin(3t) sin(5t) + sin(7t) + + .

3

5

7

(e) f (t) =

3

2 )

f (t) = cos t

= cos , so

1

1

cos(3t) + cos(5t) + .

3

5

the integral of the Fourier series of 4 sq(t):

4

g(t) =

4

sq ( t ),

1

1

sin(t) 2 sin(3t) + 2 sin(5t)

3

5

MIT OpenCourseWare

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Fall 2011

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

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