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8/26/2016

RadioWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Radio
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Radioisthetechnologyofusingradiowavestocarryinformation,such
assound,bysystematicallymodulatingsomepropertyof
electromagneticenergywavestransmittedthroughspace,suchastheir
amplitude,frequency,phase,orpulsewidth.[n1]Whenradiowaves
strikeanelectricalconductor,theoscillatingfieldsinduceanalternating
currentintheconductor.Theinformationinthewavescanbeextracted
andtransformedbackintoitsoriginalform.
Radiosystemsneedatransmittertomodulate(change)somepropertyof
theenergyproducedtoimpressasignalonit,forexampleusing
amplitudemodulationoranglemodulation(whichcanbefrequency
modulationorphasemodulation).Radiosystemsalsoneedanantenna
toconvertelectriccurrentsintoradiowaves,andviceversa.Anantenna
canbeusedforbothtransmittingandreceiving.Theelectricalresonance
oftunedcircuitsinradiosallowindividualstationstobeselected.The
electromagneticwaveisinterceptedbyatunedreceivingantenna.A
radioreceiverreceivesitsinputfromanantennaandconvertsitintoa
formusablefortheconsumer,suchassound,pictures,digitaldata,
measurementvalues,navigationalpositions,etc.[2]Radiofrequencies
occupytherangefroma3kHzto300GHz,althoughcommercially
importantusesofradiouseonlyasmallpartofthisspectrum.[3]

TheAlexandraPalace,here:mastofthe
broadcastingstation

Aradiocommunicationsystemsendssignalsbyradio.[4]Theradio
equipmentinvolvedincommunicationsystemsincludesatransmitteranda
receiver,eachhavinganantennaandappropriateterminalequipmentsuch
asamicrophoneatthetransmitterandaloudspeakeratthereceiverinthe
caseofavoicecommunicationsystem.[5]

Contents
1 Etymology
2 Processes
2.1 Transmitterandmodulation
2.2 Antenna
2.3 Propagation
2.4 Resonance
2.5 Receiveranddemodulation
2.6 Radioband
3 Communicationsystems
4 History
5 Usesofradio
5.1 Audio
5.1.1 Oneway
5.1.2 Twoway
5.2 Telephony
5.3 Video
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio

Classicradioreceiverdial

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RadioWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

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5.3 Video
5.4 Navigation
5.5 Radar
5.6 Data(digitalradio)
5.7 Heating
5.8 Amateurradioservice
5.9 Unlicensedradioservices
5.10 Radiocontrol(RC)
Seealso
Notes
References
Externallinks

Etymology
Theterm"radio"isderivedfromtheLatinword"radius",meaning"spokeofawheel,beamoflight,ray".Itwas
firstappliedtocommunicationsin1881when,atthesuggestionofFrenchscientistErnestMercadier,Alexander
GrahamBelladopted"radiophone"(meaning"radiatedsound")asanalternatenameforhisphotophoneoptical
transmissionsystem.[6]However,thisinventionwouldnotbewidelyadopted.
FollowingHeinrichHertz'sestablishmentoftheexistenceofelectromagneticradiationinthelate1880s,avariety
oftermswereinitiallyusedforthephenomenon,withearlydescriptionsoftheradiationitselfincluding"Hertzian
waves","electricwaves",and"etherwaves",whilephrasesdescribingitsuseincommunicationsincluded"spark
telegraphy","spacetelegraphy","aerography"and,eventuallyandmostcommonly,"wirelesstelegraphy".
However,"wireless"includedabroadvarietyofrelatedelectronictechnologies,includingelectrostaticinduction,
electromagneticinductionandaquaticandearthconduction,sotherewasaneedforamoreprecisetermreferring
exclusivelytoelectromagneticradiation.
ThefirstuseofradioinconjunctionwithelectromagneticradiationappearstohavebeenbyFrenchphysicist
douardBranly,whoin1890developedaversionofacohererreceiverhecalledaradioconducteur.[7]Theradio
prefixwaslaterusedtoformadditionaldescriptivecompoundandhyphenatedwords,especiallyinEurope,for
example,inearly1898theBritishpublicationThePracticalEngineerincludedareferenceto"theradiotelegraph"
and"radiotelegraphy",[8]whiletheFrenchtextofboththe1903and1906BerlinRadiotelegraphicConventions
includesthephrasesradiotlgraphiqueandradiotlgrammes.
Theuseof"radio"asastandaloneworddatesbacktoatleastDecember30,1904,wheninstructionsissuedbythe
BritishPostOfficefortransmittingtelegramsspecifiedthat"Theword'Radio'...issentintheService
Instructions".[9]Thispracticewasuniversallyadopted,andtheword"radio"introducedinternationally,bythe
1906BerlinRadiotelegraphicConvention,whichincludedaServiceRegulationspecifyingthat"Radiotelegrams
shallshowinthepreamblethattheserviceis'Radio'".
Theswitchto"radio"inplaceof"wireless"tookplaceslowlyandunevenlyintheEnglishspeakingworld.Leede
ForesthelpedpopularizethenewwordintheUnitedStatesinearly1907hefoundedtheDeForestRadio
TelephoneCompany,andhisletterintheJune22,1907ElectricalWorldabouttheneedforlegalrestrictions
warnedthat"Radiochaoswillcertainlybetheresultuntilsuchstringentregulationisenforced".[10]TheUnited
StatesNavywouldalsoplayarole.Althoughitstranslationofthe1906BerlinConventionusedtheterms
"wirelesstelegraph"and"wirelesstelegram",by1912itbegantopromotetheuseof"radio"instead.Theterm
startedtobecomepreferredbythegeneralpublicinthe1920swiththeintroductionofbroadcasting.
("Broadcasting"isbaseduponanagriculturaltermmeaningroughly"scatteringseedswidely".)British
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio

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