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MODUL TOPIKAL

KEMAHIRAN BERFIKIR ARAS


TINGGI

Koleksi Soalan-Soalan Trends in International Mathematics


and Science Study (TIMSS) dan Programme for
International Students Assessment (PISA) dalam
Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran

SAINS
TINGKATAN DUA

KE ARAH MEMBUDAYAKAN KEMAHIRAN BERFIKIR ARAS TINGGI

Sektor Pengurusan Akademik


Jabatan Pendidikan Negeri Johor
2016

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SAINS TINGKATAN 2

BAB

MUKA
SURAT

TAJUK

DUNIA MELALUI DERIA KITA

NUTRISI

BIODIVERSITI

13

SALING BERSANDARAN ANTARA ORGANISMA HIDUP


DENGAN PERSEKITARAN

16

AIR DAN LARUTAN

24

DINAMIK

33

MESIN RINGKAS

38

10

SKEMA JAWAPAN

44

KANDUNGAN

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SAINS TINGKATAN 2

Tema D:
PENYENGGARAAN DAN
KESINAMBUNGAN HIDUP

Bab 1:
DUNIA MELALUI DERIA KITA

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SAINS TINGKATAN 2

BAB 1: DUNIA MELALUI DERIA KITA


1

When a person sees something, what carries the message from the eyes to the
brain?
Bila seseorang melihat sesuatu, apakah yang membawa maklumat dari mata ke otak?
A
B.
C.
D.

Arteries.
Arteri.
Glands.
Kelenjar.
Muscles.
Otot.
Nerves.
Saraf.

Briefly explain how eye glasses and contact lenses help some people to see more
clearly.
Terangkan secara ringkas bagaimana cermin mata dan kanta sentuh membantu
sesetengah orang melihat dengan lebih jelas.

The picture shows a pencil that is lying on a shelf in front of a mirror. Draw a picture of
the pencil as you would see it in the mirror. Use the patterns of lines on the shelf to help
you.
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan sebatang pensil yang diletakkan pada kepingan papan di
hadapan sekeping cermin. Lukis imej pensil yang anda lihat dari dalam cermin. Gunakan
corak garisan yang terdapat pada kepingan papan untuk membantu anda.

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A candle is placed on a ruled grid in front of mirror, as shown. At what point will the
reflection of the candle appear to be?
Sebatang lilin diletakkan di garisan grid di hadapan sekeping cermin. Pada kedudukan
manakah pantulan lilin tersebut akan kelihatan?

A.
B.
C.
D.

SAINS TINGKATAN 2

Point A.
Kedudukan A.
Point B.
Kedudukan B.
Point C.
Kedudukan C.
Point D.
Kedudukan D.

A beam of light strikes a mirror as shown.


Satu alur cahaya dihalakan kepada sekeping cermin seperti rajah di bawah.

Which picture best shows what the reflected light would look like?
Di antara berikut yang manakah menunjukkan pantulan cahaya yang paling tepat?

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SAINS TINGKATAN 2

6.

Which picture best shows the direction of the reflected light?


Antara rajah berikut yang manakah menunjukkan arah pantulan cahaya yang paling
tepat?

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The crews of two boats at sea can communicate with each other by shouting.
Why it is impossible for the crews of two spaceships a similar distance apart in space to
do this?
Anak-anak kapal antara dua buah bot boleh berkomunikasi secara melaung di laut.
Mengapa anak-anak kapal antara dua kapal angkasa yang mempunyai jarak yang sama
seperti situasi di atas tidak boleh berbuat demikian?
A.
B.
C.
D.

8.

SAINS TINGKATAN 2

The sound is reflected more in space.


Bunyi dipantulkan lebih di angkasa lepas.
The pressure is too high inside the spaceships.
Tekanan terlalu tinggi di dalam kapal angkasa.
The spaceships are traveling faster than sound.
Kapal angkasa bergerak lebih laju daripada bunyi.
There is no air in space for the sound to travel through.
Tiada udara di angkasa lepas untuk bunyi bergerak melaluinya.

What is the advantage of having two eyes to see with rather than one eye?
Apakah kelebihan melihat dengan menggunakan dua mata berbanding satu mata?
.
.

9.

What is the advantage of having two ears to hear with rather


Apakah kelebihan mempunyai dua telinga berbanding satu telinga?
.
.

10.

Marry was looking out her window on stormy night. She saw lightning and then heard
thunder a few second later. Explain why she saw lightning before she heard thunder.
Marry melihat ribut pada waktu malam melalui tingkap. Dia melihat kilat dan mendengar
bunyi guruh beberapa saat selepas itu. Huraikan kenapa dia melihat kilat terlebih dahulu
sebelum mendengar bunyi guruh.

11

A girl has an idea that green plants need sand in the soil for healthy growth. In order to
test her idea she uses two pots of plants. She sets up one pot of plants as shown below.
Seorang gadis menyatakan bahawa tumbuhan hijau perlukan pasir dalam tanah untuk
pertumbuhan yang sihat. Bagi menguji kesahihan idea tersebut, beliau menggunakan
dua pasu tumbuhan. Beliau membina pasu pertama seperti yang ditunjukkan di bawah.

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SAINS TINGKATAN 2

Sunlight
Sinaran matahari

Sand, soil and water


Pasir, tanah dan air
Which ONE of the following should she use for the second pot of plants?
Yang mana SATU daripada yang berikut harus digunakan sebagai pasu kedua?
A.

B.
Dark cupboard
Almari gelap

Sunlight
Sinaran matahari

Sand and water


Pasir dan air

Sand, soil and water


Pasir, tanah dan air

C.

D.
Sunlight

Dark cupboard
Almari gelap

Sinaran matahari

Soil and water / Tanah dan air

Soil and water / Tanah dan air

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SAINS TINGKATAN 2

12.

What can be predicted about the height of the pea plans?


Apakah yang boleh diramalkan mengenai ketinggian tumbuhan kacang?
Explain your answer.Terangkan jawapan anda.

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SAINS TINGKATAN 2

Tema D:
PENYENGGARAAN DAN
KESINAMBUNGAN HIDUP

Bab 2:
NUTRISI

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SAINS TINGKATAN 2

BAB 2: NUTRISI
1.

What is the BEST reason for including protein in a healthy diet?


Apakah sebab terbaik mengambil protein dalam pemakanan seimbang?
A.
B.
C.
D.

2.

Which food contains the highest percentage of protein?


Makanan yang manakah mengandungi peratus protein yang paling tinggi?
A.
B.
C.
D.

3.

Rice
Nasi
Dates
Buah kurma
Carrots
Lobak merah
Chicken
Ayam

What are vitamins


Apakah vitamin?
A.
B.
C.
D.

4.

Energy for the body.


Tenaga untuk tubuh.
Fiber for digestion.
Serat untuk pencernaan.
Raw materials for cell growth and repair.
Bahan untuk pertumbuhan dan memperbaiki sel.
Vitamins for fighting disease.
Vitamin untuk melawan penyakit.

Substances that break down food.


Bahan yang menguraikan makanan.
Bacteria that people get when they eat some foods.
Bakteria yang menjangkiti manusia apabila memakan makanan tertentu.
Substances that people make from protein.
Bahan yang dibuat daripada protein.
Substances that people need in small amounts in order for their bodies to function
normally.
Bahan yang diperlukan dalam jumlah yang kecil untuk membolehkan badan
berfungsi dengan normal.

Which of these meals would give you most of the nutrients that you need?
Di antara berikut yang manakah memenuhi keperluan nutrien yang paling banyak?
A.
B.

Meat, milk, and a piece of chocolate.


Daging, susu dan sekeping coklat.
Bread, vegetables and fish.
Roti, sayur-sayuran dan ikan.
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C.
D.

5.

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Vegetables, fruits and water.


Sayur-sayuran, buah-buahan dan air.
Meat, fish and bread.
Daging, ikan dan roti.

Which of the following organs is NOT situated in the abdomen?


Yang manakah di antara organ-organ berikut TIDAK terletak di bahagian abdomen?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Liver
Hati
Kidney
Ginjal
Urinary Bladder
Pundi kencing
Stomach
Perut

6.

What is organ X
Apakah organ X?
A.
B.
C.
D.

7.

Liver
Hati
Stomach
Perut
Small intestine
Usus kecil
Large intestine
Usus besar

In living things, large and complex molecules are broken down into small and simple
molecules. What is the process called?
Dalam benda hidup, molekul yang besar dan kompleks dipecahkan kepada molekul
kecil dan ringkas. Apakah proses tersebut?
A.

Excretion
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B.
C.
D.

8.

SAINS TINGKATAN 2

Perkumuhan
Absorption
Penyerapan
Digestion
Penghadaman
Circulation
Peredaran

What digestive substance is found in the mouth? What does it do?


Apakah bahan pencernaan yang terdapat di dalam mulut? Apakah yang dilakukannya?
.
.
.

9.

The gall bladder stores bile, a fluid that aids in digestion of fat. Which of the following
types of food should be avoided by a person whose gall bladder has been removed?
Pundi hempedu menyimpan hempedu iaitu bendalir yang membantu dalam pencernaan
lemak. Jenismakanan yang manakah patut dielakkan oleh seseorang yang tiada pundi
hempedu?
A.
B.
C.
D.

10.

Fruits
Buah-buahan
Grains
Bijirin
Cheese
Keju
Vegetables
Sayur-sayuran

State two reasons why famine (a great shortage of food) occurs.


Nyatakan dua sebab berlakunya kebuluran (kekurangan bekalan makanan).
.
.
.

12

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SAINS TINGKATAN 2

Tema B:
MANUSIA DAN KEPELBAGAIAN
BENDA HIDUP
Bab 3:
BIODIVERSITI

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SAINS TINGKATAN 2

BAB 3: BIODIVERSITI
1. 1. Which characteristic is found ONLY in mammals?
Ciri manakah yang HANYA terdapat pada mamalia?
A.
B.
C.
D.

2.

An animal has scales and use only its lungs to exchange gases.
What is the animal most likely to be classified?
Haiwan ini mempunyai sisik dan menggunakan paru-paru untuk pertukaran gas.
Apakah kelas haiwan tersebut?
A.
B.
C.
D.

3.

A fish / Ikan
A reptile / Reptilia
A mammal / Mamalia
An amphibian / Amfibia

Cats are most closely related to which of the following animals?


Manakah antara haiwan berikut yang berkaitrapat dengan kucing?
A.
B.
C.
D.

4.

Eyes that detect colour.


Mata yang mengesan warna.
Glands that make milk.
Kelenjar yang menghasilkan susu.
Skin that absorbs oxygen.
Kulit yang menyerap oksigen.
Bodies that are protected by scales.
Badan yang dilindungi oleh sisik.

Crocodiles / Buaya
Whales / Ikan paus
Frogs / Katak
Penguins / Penguin

Which statement best explains why mammals are found in very cold regions of the world
but lizards are not?
Manakah antara berikut merupakan pernyataan terbaik bagi menerangkan sebab
mamalia boleh ditemui di kawasan yang sangat sejuk di dunia ini tetapi tidak bagi cicak?
A. Both mammals and lizards are cold-blooded, but mammals have fur to keep them
warm
Kedua-dua mamalia dan cicak adalah berdarah sejuk, tetapi mamalia mempunyai
bulu untuk memanaskan badan
B. Both mammals and lizards are warm-blooded, but lizards get too cold when they
shed their skin
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C.

D.

5.

SAINS TINGKATAN 2

Kedua-dua mamalia dan cicak adalah berdarah panas, tetapi cicak akan menjadi
sejuk apabila menyingkirkan kulit mereka
Since mammals, but not lizards, are warm-blooded, their body temperature will
adjust to match the external temperature
Disebabkan mamalia adalah berdarah panas tidak seperti cicak, suhu badan
mereka akan disesuaikan dengan suhu luar
Since mammals, but not lizards, are warm-blooded, they will maintain their body
temperature using heat from metabolic processes
Disebabkan mamalia adalah berdarah panas tidak seperti cicak, mereka akan
mengekalkan suhu badan menggunakan haba dari proses metabolik badan

How does the average body temperature of people living in hot climates compare
to the average body temperature of people living in cold climates?
(Tick one box)
Bagaimanakah purata suhu badan mereka yang tinggal di iklim panas berbanding
purata suhu badan mereka yang tinggal di iklim sejuk?
(Tandakan satu kotak)
Higher in hot climates
Lebih tinggi di iklim panas
Lower in hot climates
Lebih rendah di iklim panas
The same in both climates
Sama pada kedua-dua iklim
Explain your answer.
Terangkan jawapan anda.
.
.
.

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SAINS TINGKATAN 2

Tema B:
MANUSIA DAN KEPELBAGAIAN
BENDA HIDUP
Bab 4:
SALING BERSANDARAN
ANTARA ORGANISMA HIDUP
DENGAN PERSEKITARAN

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SAINS TINGKATAN 2

BAB 4: SALING BERSANDARAN ANTARA ORGANISMA HIDUP DENGAN PERSEKITARAN

A girl had an idea that plants needed minerals from the soil for
healthy growth. She placed a plant in the Sun, as shown in the
diagram below.
Seorang budak perempuan mendapat idea bahawa pokok
memerlukan mineral daripada tanah untuk pertumbuhan yang sihat.
Beliau meletakkan pokok di bawah cahaya matahari seperti di dalam
gambar rajah di bawah.

The diagram shows a community consisting of mice, snakes and wheat plants.
What would happen to this community if people killed the snakes?
Rajah menunjukkan suatu komuniti yang terdiri daripada tikus, ular dan pokok
gandum. Apakah yang akan berlaku kepada komuniti ini sekiranya manusia
membunuh ular?
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...
2

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SAINS TINGKATAN 2

Matahari

Pasir, mineral dan air

In order to check her idea she also needed to use another plant. Which of the following
should she use?
Untuk memastikan ideanya, dia juga memerlukan pokok yang lain. Manakah antara
berikut yang perlu dia gunakan?
A

Dark Cupboard
Almari gelap

Sand and water


Pasir dan air

Sand, Minerals and water


Pasir, mineral dan air

Dark cupboard
Almari gelap

Sunlight
Cahaya matahari

Sand and mineral


Pasir dan mineral

Sand and water


Pasir dan air

Sunlight
Cahaya matahari

Sunlight
Cahaya matahari
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SAINS TINGKATAN 2

Sand only
Pasir sahaja

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3
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(a)

(b)

In the picture of an aquarium, six items are


labeled.
Dalam gambar akuarium berikut,
sebanyak
SAINS
TINGKATAN 2
enam item dilabelkan.

On a river near a town the government


decided to build a dam for electricity and
irrigation purposes. Write down one effect
the dam could have on wildlife (animals and
plants).
Di sebuah sungai berhampiran dengan
bandar,
kerajaan
memutuskan
untuk
membina empangan bagi tujuan pengairan
dan penjanaan elektrik. Tuliskan satu kesan
pembinaan empangan kepada hidupan liar
(haiwan dan tumbuhan).
Explain why each of the following is important in maintaining the ecosystem in the
aquarium.
Jelaskan kenapa setiap perkara berikut adalah penting dalam mengekalkan ekosistem
dalam akuarium tersebut.
The following diagram shows a cross-section through an
the plant
ocean. A number of organisms (plants and animals) live in
tumbuhan
the different regions of the ocean and depend on one
another and on the Sun for survival.
..........................................................................................................................................
Rajah berikut menunjukkan keratan rentas lautan.
Sebilangan organisma (tumbuhan dan haiwan) tinggal di
........................................................................................................................................
kawasan yang berbeza di dalam lautan itu serta bergantung
antara satu sama lain dan sinaran matahari untuk terus
the light
hidup.
cahaya
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................

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SAINS TINGKATAN 2

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.......
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.......
7 People get energy from the food they eat. Where does the energy stored in food come
from?
Manusia mendapat tenaga daripada makanan yang dimakan. Dari manakah tenaga
tersimpan dalam makanan diperoleh?
A Fertilizers
Baja
B The sun
Matahari
C Vitamins
Vitamin
D The soil
Tanah

8 The diagram below shows an example of interdependence among aquatic organisms.


During the day the organisms either use up or give off (a) or (b) as shown by the arrows.
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan satu contoh saling bersandaran dalam kalangan
organisma akuatik. Sepanjang hari organisma sama ada menggunakan atau
membebaskan (a) atau (b) seperti yang ditunjukkan oleh anak panah berikut.

(a) is oxygen and (b) is carbon dioxide.


(a) ialah oksigen dan (b) ialah karbon dioksida

(a) is oxygen and (b) is carbohydrate.


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SAINS TINGKATAN 2

(a) ialah oksigen dan (b) ialah karbohidrat


C

(a) is nitrogen and (b) is carbon dioxide.


(a) ialah nitrogen dan (b) ialah karbon dioksida

(a) is carbon dioxide and (b) is oxygen.


(a) ialah karbon dioksida dan (b) ialah oksigen

(a) is carbon dioxide and (b) is carbohydrate.


(a) ialah karbon dioksida dan (b) ialah karbohidrat

Tema C:
JIRIM DALAM ALAM

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SAINS TINGKATAN 2

Bab 5:
AIR DAN LARUTAN

BAB 5: AIR DAN LARUTAN

Draw a diagram to show how the water that falls as rain in one place may come from
another place that is far away.
Lukis gambar rajah yang menunjukkan bagaimana air yang turun sebagai hujan di
sesuatu tempat datang daripada tempat yang lebih jauh.

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SAINS TINGKATAN 2

Sea water contains dissolve salts and is not suitable for drinking. Describe a procedure that
can be used to obtain a cup of drinking water from a bucket of sea water.
Air laut mengandungi garam dan ia tidak sesuai untuk diminum. Perihalkan kaedah yang
boleh digunakan untuk mendapatkan secawan air minuman daripada sebaldi air.
....................................................................................................................................................
.
....................................................................................................................................................
.
...

3 David makes a solution by dissolving 10 grams of salt in 100 ml of water. He wants a solution
that is half as concentrated .What should he add to the original solution to obtain a solution
that is about half as concentrated?
David membancuh suatu larutan dengan melarutkan 10 gram garam di dalam 100 ml air.
Beliau memerlukan satu larutan yang separa pekat. Apakah yang perlu ditambah kepada
larutan asal bagi mendapatkan larutan separa pekat tersebut?
A 50 ml of water
50 ml air
B 100 ml of water
100 ml air
C 5 grams of salts
5 gram garam
D 10 grams of salt
10 gram garam
4

A solution of hydrochloric acid (HCl) in water will turn blue litmus paper red. A solution of
the base sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in water will turn red litmus paper blue. If the acid
and base solution above are mixed in the right proportion, the resulting solution will
cause neither red nor blue litmus paper to change color. Explain why the litmus paper
does not change color in the mixed solution.
Larutan asid hidroklorik (HCI) dalam air akan menukarkan warna kertas litmus biru
kepada merah. Larutan beralkali natrium hidroksida (NaOH) dalam air akan
menukarkan warna kertas litmus merah kepada biru. Jika kedua-dua larutan tersebut
dicampurkan dengan sama banyak, larutan tersebut akan menyebabkan tiada
perubahan warna pada kertas litmus merah atau biru. Mengapa kertas litmus tidak
bertukar warna dalam larutan yang bercampur itu? Jelaskan.
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.........................................................................................................................................

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A wet towel will dry when it is left in the sun. Which process occurs to make this happen?
Tuala yang basah akan kering jika dibiarkan di bawah matahari. Apakah proses yang
terlibat pada keadaan ini?
A Melting
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SAINS TINGKATAN 2

Peleburan
B Boiling
Pendidihan
C Condensation
Kondensasi
D Evaporation
Penyejatan
6

Tom took a glass of milk and tested it with blue litmus paper. The litmus paper stayed
blue. After two days, Tom tested the same milk with blue litmus paper again, and the
blue litmus paper turned red. What kind of change took place in the milk?
Tom mengambil segelas susu dan mengujinya dengan kertas litmus biru. Kertas litmus
biru tidak berubah warna.Selepas dua hari, Tom menguji semula susu yang sama
dengan kertas litmus biru. Kertas litmus biru bertukar kepada warna merah. Apakah
perubahan yang berlaku dalam susu?
(Tick one box)
Tanda pada satu kotak.
Chemical change
Perubahan kimia
Physical change
Perubahan fizikal
Explain you answer.
Jelaskan jawapan anda

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..............................................................................................
..
..

James put a pot of water on the stove and heated it. He took the temperature of the
water as soon as it started to boil. The thermometer showed 100 oC. James turned the
heat up and the water continued to boil for 5 minutes. He then took the temperature of
the boiling water again. Would the thermometer show a temperature greater than, less
than, or equal to 100oC?
James meletakkan seteko air di atas dapur gas dan dipanaskan. Beliau mengambil
suhu air setelah ia mula mendidih. Termometer menunjukkan bacaan suhu 100 oC.
James panaskan lagi air selama 5 minit. Kemudian beliau mengambil semula suhu air
tersebut. Adakah thermometer menunjukkan suhu melebihi, kurang atau sama dengan
100 oC?
Answer:
Jawapan
Explain you answer.

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Jelaskan jawapan anda

SAINS TINGKATAN 2

..
..

Pauline took two small identical containers and filled them with same amount of water.
She dissolved a tablespoon of salt in one of them and placed both containers in a
freezer. Pauline then observed them every five minutes until one of them had frozen.
What can Pauline find out from her experiment?
Pauline mengambil dua bekas yang sama besar dan mengisinya dengan jumlah air
yang sama.Beliau melarutkan sesudu besar garam di dalam satu daripada bekas
tersebut dan bekas itu ditempatkan di dalam peti sejuk. Pauline kemudiannya membuat
pemerhatian setiap lima minit sehingga satu daripadanya membeku. Apakah
pemerhatian Pauline daripada eksperimen berikut?
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................

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Describe one way groundwater can become polluted.
Perihalkan satu kaedah air bawah tanah boleh tercemar.
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1
0

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Sugar is made up of many molecules. When sugar is dissolved in water, what happens to
these molecules?
Gula terbina daripada pelbagai molekul. Apabila gula melarut di dalam air, apakah yang
berlaku kepada molekul ini?
A They no longer exist
Ia tidak lagi wujud
B They exist in solution
Ia wujud dalam larutan
C They evaporate
Ia tersejat
D They combine with water to form new elements
Ia bergabung dengan air untuk membentuk unsur baharu.

11

There are many ways that science and technology are used to help the environment.
For examples, some newer plastics used to make garbage bags have been developed
that break down more easily when buried in landfill. Describe how science and
technology can be used to help each of the following environmental problems.
Terdapat pelbagai kaedah yang telah digunakan oleh sains dan teknologi untuk
menyelamatkan alam sekitar. Sebagai contoh, sesetengah plastik yang baharu
dijadikan sebagai beg sampah boleh diuraikan dengan mudah apabila ditanam.
Perihalkan bagaimana sains dan teknologi boleh digunakan untuk membantu masalah
alam sekitar berikut.
A

Oil spills in the oceans:


Tumpahan minyak di lautan:
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SAINS TINGKATAN 2

...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
B

Global warming due to increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere:


Pemanasan global disebabkan oleh peningkatan paras karbon dioksida dalam
atmosfera:
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................

SOALAN PISA

1. AIR DARI UDARA

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Gambar di atas menunjukkan padang pasir yang paling kering di dunia di mana beberapa
stesen kaji cuaca pernah mencatatkan bacaan tanpa sebarang hujan . Gurun Atacama di utara
Chile dijadikan tapak penyelidikan untuk memerangkap air yang dikumpulkan daripada kabus.
Jurugambar Neil Hall merakam beberapa gambar penduduk tempatan di Kampung Chanaral
yang menggunakan jaring besar yang direka khas untuk mengumpul air dari titisan kabus di
udara. Perangkap kabus adalah jaring besar yang digantung di antara dua tiang dan
diperbuat
daripada
polipropilena
yang
boleh
memerangkap
titisan
kabus.
Titisan kabus akan dikumpul dan disalurkan ke dalam tangki simpanan . Air tersebut digunakan
sebagai minuman dan juga untuk kegunaan pertanian.

1. Apakah proses yang berlaku apabila titisan kabus bertukar menjadi air?
A

Pemejalwapan

Kondensasi

Penyejatan

Peleburan

2. Polipropilena merupakan sejenis termoplastik. Mengapakah jaring polipropilena paling


sesuai digunakan untuk memerangkap titisan kabus?
Tandakan [ ] pada petak yang betul.
Ia merupakan bahan kalis air
Ia tahan lasak
Ia ringan

3. Berdasarkan gambarajah di atas, jelaskan bagaimana titisan kabus boleh bertukar


menjadi air.

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4.

Satu jaring berukuran 11 x 9


meter dapat mengumpul 450 liter
sehari

Kampung Chanaral mempunyai populasi penduduk seramai 150 keluarga. Dianggarkan


setiap keluarga menggunakan 20 liter air sehari. Berapakah bilangan jaring yang minima
diperlukan untuk menghasilkan air bagi menampung keperluan penduduk tersebut?
jaring

5. Terangkan bagaimana saintis menentukan polipropilena ialah bahan yang paling sesuai
digunakan untuk memerangkap air daripada kabus?

2. PENAPIS SARI

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MODUL TOPIKAL KBAT

1. Perihalkan bagaimana penapis sari


ialah teknologi mudah dan kos efektif
untuk mengurangkan kontaminasi air
minuman.

SAINS TINGKATAN 2

Direka kegunaannya di Bangladesh, penapis


sari adalah satu cara yang mudah dan kos
efektif menggunakan kaedah teknologi mudah
untuk
mengurangkan
pencemaran
air
minuman. Air yang dikumpul dengan cara
begini banyak mengurangkan bilangan
patogen walaupun tidak semestinya
selamat,
tetapi
ia
merupakan
penambahbaikan kepada golongan miskin
yang tidak mempunyai apa-apa pilihan.
Kaedah yang digunakan adalah seperti
berikut: kain sari yang lama dilipat menjadi
empat atau lapan lapisan. Kain yang dilipat
diikat pada bekas yang mulutnya besar yang
digunakan untuk mengumpul air. Kain itu
kemudian dibilas dan dikeringkan bawah
matahari untuk beberapa jam. Pada musim
tengkujuh, dinasihat untuk menggunakan ubat
pembasmi kuman yang murah untuk
dekontiminasi kain tersebut.

2. Kain sari yang lama adalah lebih efektif


daripada kain yang baharu. Jelaskan.

Jenis kain yang baik ialah jenis kain sari


kapas. Kain sari yang lama adalah lebih baik
daripada kain yang baharu disebabkan
basuhan yang banyak kali akan mengecilkan
ruang di antara serat dalam kain. Kain sari
lama apabila dilipat menghasilkan jaringan
halus (lebih kurang 20 m). Ini boleh
menghalang semua zooplankton dan
kebanyakan bakteria yang menyebabkan taun
(99% mengikut kajian makmal). Walau
bagaimana pun menggunakan jaring nilon
dengan saiz jaringan yang lebih besar juga

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didapati hampir sama efektifnya.


Telah dibuktikan bahawa kaedah ini dapat
mengurangkan jangkitan penyakit taun dalam
kampung yang miskin di mana tiada bekalan
ubat pembasmi kuman dan bahan api untuk
mendidihkan air.
3. Apakah kesimpulan yang boleh dibuat
daripada kajian ini?

4. Adakah yang berikut merupakan sebab untuk kaedah di atas? Bulatkan Ya atau Tidak pada
setiap pernyataan.
Sebab menggunakan kaedah menapis
menggunakan kain:

Bulatkan Ya atau Tidak

membeli kain yang lebih murah.

Ya / Tidak

mengurangkan patogen.

Ya / Tidak

mengurangkan jangkitan selsema.

Ya / Tidak

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Tema E:
DAYA DAN GERAKAN

Bab 7:
DINAMIK

BAB 7: DINAMIK
1

The drawing shows an apple falling to the ground. In which of the three positions does
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gravity act on the apple?


Rajah menunjukkan sebiji epal jatuh ke tanah. Pada kedudukan yang manakah
tindakan graviti berlaku ke atas epal?

A 2 only
2 sahaja
B 1 and 2 only
1 dan 2 sahaja
C 1 and 3 only
1 dan 3 sahaja
D 1. 2 and 3
1, 2 dan 3
2

The diagram above shows a person holding a ball standing at three different places on
Earth. If the person drops the ball, gravity will make it fall. Which of the following
diagrams best shows the direction the dropped ball will fall at the three different
position?
Rajah di atas menunjukkan individu memegang sebiji bola dan berdiri di tiga tempat
berbeza di bumi. Jika individu tersebut melepaskan bola, graviti akan menyebabkan
bola itu jatuh. Rajah yang manakah menunjukkan arah bola akan jatuh pada 3
kedudukan yang berbeza tersebut?

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The diagrams show nine different trials Usman carried out using carts with wheels of
two different sizes and different numbers of blocks of equal mass. He used the same
ramp for all trials, starting the charts from different heights.
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan sembilan cubaan yang dilakukan oleh Usman
menggunakan kereta mainan dengan dua saiz yang berbeza dan beberapa blok kayu
yang mempunyai jisim yang sama. Dia menggunakan landasan yang sama bagi semua
cubaan, kereta dilepaskan pada ketinggian yang berbeza.

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He wants to test this idea. The higher the ramp is placed, the faster the cart will travel at
the bottom of the ramp. Which three trials should he compare?
Dia ingin menguji idea ini. Semakin tinggi landasan, semakin laju pergerakan kereta ke
bawah. Tiga cubaan manakah yang perlu dibuat perbandingan?
A
B
C
D
E
4

G, H and I
I, W and Z
I, V and X
U, W and X
H, V and Y

The table below shows the results of an experiment to investigate how the length of a
spring changes as different masses are hug from it.
Jadual di bawah menunjukkan keputusan eksperimen untuk mengkaji bagaimana
panjang spring berubah apabila jisim yang berbeza digantung padanya.

Describe how length of the spring change as different masses was hug from it.
Jelaskan bagaimana panjang spring berubah apabila jisim digantung padanya.
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................

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Work is done when an object is moved in the direction of an applied force. A person
performed different tasks as shown in the diagrams below. In which diagram is the
person doing work?
Kerja dilakukan apabila objek digerakkan dalam arah daya yang dikenakan. Individu
melakukan tugas berbeza seperti rajah di bawah. Rajah yang manakah menunjukkan
kerja sedang dilakukan?

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Tema H:
PERKEMBANGAN TEKNOLOGI
DAN
INDUSTRI DALAM MASYARAKAT
Bab 10:
MESIN RINGKAS

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BAB 10: MESIN RINGKAS


1

When you bend your arm at the elbow, the bones and muscles in your arm are acting
as a system. What simple machine does this system represent?
Apabila anda membengkokkan lengan, tulang dan otot pada lengan bertindak sebagai
satu sistem. Apakah sistem mesin ringkas ini?
A Inclined plane
Satah condong
B Pulley
Takal
C Wedge
Baji
D Lever
Tuas

A uniform rod is pivoted at its center. It is acted on by two forces in the same plane. Each
force has the same size, equal to 10 N (newtons). In which case is there a turning effect?
Satu rod seragam dipangsi pada bahagian tengah. Ia ditindakkan oleh dua daya yang
sama. Nilai daya ialah 10N. Pada keadaan yang manakah kesan putaran berlaku?

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A girl wanted to play on a seesaw with her little brother. Which picture shows the best
way for the girl, who weighed 50 kg (kilograms), to balance her brother, who weighed 25
kg?
Seorang budak perempuan bermain jongkang-jongkit bersama-sama adiknya. Gambar
yang manakah menunjukkan cara yang terbaik untuk budak perempuan itu (50 kg)
mengimbangi adiknya (25 kg)?

A uniform wheel is free to rotate on its axle at its center. It is acted on by two forces in the
same plane. Each force has the same size, equal to 5N (Newtons). In which case will the
wheel rotate?
Sebuah roda yang berputar secara seragam di atas paksi pada titik tengah. Terdapat
dua daya bertindak ke atasnya pada satah yang sama. Setiap daya mempunyai nilai
yang sama iaitu 5N (Newton). Kedudukan manakah yang akan menyebabkan roda itu
boleh berputar?

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Which picture shows the best way for the man to balance a ten-liter bucket of water and a
five-liter bucket of water?
Gambar manakah menunjukkan kedudukan yang paling seimbang untuk membawa 10
liter air dan 5 liter air dalam baldi?

Peter and Joan are learning about the Great Pyramid of Cheops (Khufu) that found is
Egypt.
Peter dan Joan sedang mempelajari tentang Piramid Agung Cheops (Khufu) yang
terdapat di Mesir
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They wondered how the ancient Egyptians managed to lift the stone blocks to build the
pyramid. They did some research on the Internet and found the diagram shown below.
Mereka ingin tahu bagaimana masyarakat purba Mesir mampu mengangkat
Blok batu untuk membina piramid. Mereka menjalankan kajian melalui internet dan
menjumpai rajah seperti di bawah.

Peter was not sure he understood the diagram so Joan drew a diagram to help him
understand how the stone was lifted. Her diagram is shown below.
Peter tidak memahami rajah itu, jadi Joan melukis kembali rajah tersebut seperti di
bawah untuk membantu Peter memahami.

Match the parts of the Egyptian levers to the diagram of the lever Joan drew. One has
been done for you.
Padankan bahagian tuas orang purba Mesir dengan rajah tuas yang dilukis oleh Joan.
Satu contoh padanan telah diberikan seperti jadual di bawah.

Joans Diagram
Rajah yang dilukis oleh Joan
Effort

Egyptian Levers
Tuas orang purba mesir
Downward pull of the worker
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Daya
Load
Beban
Fulcrum
Fukrum
Lever arm
Lengan Tuas

SAINS TINGKATAN 2

Tarikan ke bawah oleh pekerja

A. Peter and Joan read that six men could together lift a stone weighing 30,000
Newton. Each man would then need to be able to lift one sixth of this weight (5,000
Newton). They decided to work out how much effort each man had to exert on his
wooden pole.
Peter dan Joan mendapati sekumpulan enam lelaki mampu mengangkat batu
seberat 30,000 Newton. Ini bermakna seorang lelaki mampu mengangkat 1/6 dari
berat ini (5,000 Newton). Mereka cuba mengira berapa banyak daya yang perlu
dikenakan keatas setiap tiang kayu masing-masing.

Peter added the length of each lever arm to Joans diagram as shown below
Peter meletakkan ukuran pada setiap lengan tuas dalam rajah Joan seperti di
bawah.

He looked up the following formula in a textbook:


Mereka merujuk kepada formula yang terdapat dalam buku teks.

Daya oleh beban


= Jarak antara usaha dengan fulkrum
Usaha yang diperlukan
Jarak antara beban dengan fulkrum
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How much force does each man have to exert to lift the blocks?
_________________ Newton.
Berapakah daya yang perlu digunakan oleh setiap lelaki untuk mengangkat blok batu
itu?
_________________Newton.

SKEMA
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JAWAPAN

No
1.
2.

D.

BAB 1: DUNIA MELALUI DERIA KITA


Answer/ Jawapan
Nerves / Saraf
Code Response

1.
CORRECT RESPONSE/ JAWAPAN BETUL
Mentions that glasses/contact lenses bend (refract)
or focus light rays onto the retina (or back of the
eye). [May use a diagram to show this].
Menyatakan bahawa cermin mata / kanta sentuh
membengkok (membias) atau fokus sinaran cahaya
ke atas retina (atau di belakang mata). [Boleh
menggunakan rajah untuk menerangkan].
Examples /Contoh:
The glasses focus the light onto the retina.
2.
Mentions the curvature (shape) of lenses
(concave/convex) and/or bending of light by lenses.
[Based primarily on the properties of lenses with no
explicit mention of the focusing of light on the retina
44

Note / Catatan

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or back of eye.]
Menyatakan kelengkungan kanta dan / atau
pembengkokan cahaya oleh kanta.
Examples /Contoh:
You can focus better because glasses bend the light
into your eye.
Anda boleh fokus lebih baik kerana gelas
membengkokkan cahaya ke dalam mata anda.
3.
Mentions that glasses/contact lenses help the eyes
focus and/or allow (near-sighted/far-sighted) people
to see images at a distance or close up.
Menyatakan bahawa cermin mata / kanta sentuh
membantu mata memfokus dan / atau
membenarkan sesorang melihat imej pada suatu
jarak atau secara dekat.
Examples /Contoh:
Some people can see close up but need glasses in
order to see things far away.Far-sighted people can
only read with glasses that correct their close-up
vision.
Eyeglasses can help your eyes to focus more clearly
on things.
Sesetengah orang boleh melihat secara dekat tetapi
memerlukan cermin mata untuk melihat jauh. Orang
rabun jauh hanya boleh membaca dengan
penggunaan cermin mata yang dapat membetulkan
penglihatan jarak dekat mereka. Cermin mata boleh
membantu mata anda memfokus dengan lebih jelas
sesuatu objek.
4.

Mentions that glasses/contact lenses magnify or


enlarge (images).
Menerangkan yang cermin mata / kanta sentuh
membesarkan atau memperluas imej.
Examples /Contoh:
They magnify. The magnification in the glasses
make things more clear and bigger.
The lenses make things look bigger.
Contoh: Ia membesarkan objek. Pembesaran
dengan menggunakan cermin mata menjadikan
objek lebih jelas dan lebih besar.
Kanta menjadikan objek nampak lebih besar.

5.

Other correct answer


45

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Jawapan lain yang betul

1.

Incorrect Response / Jawapan salah


Gives only a vague reference to glasses/contact
lenses helping people see more clearly or
containingprescriptions (chemicals, special
type/shape/thickness of glass, etc.) without further
explanation of vision orhow lenses work.
Memberi penerangan yang tidak jelas berkaitan
cermin mata / kanta sentuh yang membantu orang
melihat dengan jelas atau mengandungi preskripsi
(bahan kimia, jenis khas / bentuk / ketebalan cermin
mata , dan lain-lain.) tanpa penjelasan lanjut
mengenai penglihatan atau bagaimana kanta
berfungsi. Contoh: Ia membantu kita melihat dengan
lebih jelas. Jika anda rabun jauh, anda perlu cermin
mata untuk membantu anda melihat. Mendapatkan
bantuan penglihatan disebabkan preskripsi disuntik
ke dalam kanta. Kanta digunakan untuk
membetulkan masalah mata. Kanta di dalam cermin
mata telah dibuat tebal supaya anda boleh melihat
dengan lebih baik.
Examples /Contoh:
They make you see more clearly.
If you are near sighted, you need glasses to help
you see.
Contacts help vision because of the prescription
injected into them.
Lenses are prescribed to fix eye problems.
The lenses in glasses are made thick so you can
see well.

3.

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Correct Response / Jawapan betul


FGH; pencil point to the right.
FGH; mata pensil di sebelah kanan
FGH; point not shown.
FGH: mata pensil tidak dinyatakan
FG or GH, (point to the right either shown or not
shown) OR any other in the row E, F,G,H as long as
the point is not clearly turned to the left.
FG atau GH, (mata pensil menghala ke sebelah
kanan ditunjukkan atau tidak) ATAU sebarang
kedudukan pada baris E, F, G, H selagi mata pensil
tidak menghala ke sebelah kiri
Incorrect response / Jawapan Salah
FGH, FG or GH, pencil point clearly turned to the left
OR other in therow E, F, G, H.
FGH, FG atau GH, mata pensil di sebelah kiri ATAU
sebarang kedudukan baris E, F, G, H.
Lists all or some part of the row: ABCD.
Semua atau sebahagian baris ABCD disenaraikan
Lists all or some part of JKL; pencil point to the right
may or may not be shown.
Semua atau sebahagian baris JKL; mata pensil
menghala ke sebelah kanan ditunjukkan atau tidak
Lists all of some of the row MNOP, point to the right
may or may not be shown.
Semua atau sebahagian baris MNOP; mata pensil
menghala ke sebelah kanan ditunjukkan atau tidak
ditunjukkan
Crossed out/erased, illegible, or impossible to
interpret.
Jawapan yang dipalangkan/dipadam, tidak
boleh dibacaboleh dibaca atau tidak boleh ditafsir
47

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BLANK /KOSONG

4.
5.

B.
A.

6.

B.

7.

D.

8.

Point B / Kedudukan B

There is no air in space for the sound to travel


through.
Tiada udara di angkasa lepas untuk bunyi bergerak
melaluinya
Correct Response / Jawapan betul
Mentions that two eyes allow depth perception or
better perception ofdistance.
Menyatakan dua mata membolehkan penglihatan
yang lebih jelas atau jarak penglihatan yang lebih
baik.
Mentions that two eyes allow seeing more or a wider
field of vision. Menyatakan dua mata membolehkan
penglihatan yang lebih atau medan penglihatan
yang lebih luas.
Examples /Contoh:
Seeing at a wider angle.
Melihat pada sudut yang lebih luas.
Mentions that with two eyes one is still working if
one eye is damaged.
Menyatakan bahawa dengan dua mata jika satu
mata rosak maka satu mata lagi masih boleh
berfungsi.
Other correct answer /Jawapan lain yang betul.
Incorrect response / Jawapan Salah
48

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Mention seeing twice as much.


Menyatakan melihat dua kali adalah lebih baik.
Example: We see twice as much with two eyes.
Contoh: Kita melihat dua kali lebih baik dengan dua
mata.

You only see half as much with one eye.


Anda hanya melihat separuh dengan satu mata.
Refers to energy or effort.
Merujuk kepada tenaga atau daya.
Examples /Contoh:
There are more energy in two eyes.
Tenaga lebih banyak sekiranya dengan dua mata.
A single eye will more easily get tired.
Penggunaan satu mata akan menjadi lebih cepat
penat..
Crossed out/erased, illegible, or impossible to
interpret.
Jawapan yang dipalangkan/dipadam, tidak dapat
dibaca atau tidak boleh ditafsir
BLANK/ KOSONG
9.

Correct Response / Jawapan diterima


A.Mentions being able to locate the position,
direction and/or distance of thesource of sound.
A.Boleh menyatakan kedudukan arah dan/atau
jarak sumber bunyi.
Examples / Contoh:
By having two ears, you can actually tell where a
sound came from.
Dengan mempunyai dua telinga, anda boleh
menyatakan punca bunyi
With two ears you could hear which direction a noise
is coming from.
Dengan mempunyai dua telinga, anda boleh
mendengar arah punca bunyi.
With two ears you can judge the distance the sound
is away from you.
Dengan mempunyai dua telinga anda boleh
mengenalpasti jarak bunyi tersebut dari anda.
With two ears you can tell if the sound is near or far.
49

Note:
Credit is given for both
higher-level responses
referencing locating the
source of sound as well
as less sophisticated
responses referencing
hearing sounds from
both sides and retaining
hearing if one ear does
not function. Priority is
given for the correct
response.
Nota :
Kredit akan diberikan
untuk kedua-dua
jawapan beraras tinggi
merujuk kepada
kedudukan sumber
bunyi manakala jawapan

MODUL TOPIKAL KBAT

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Dengan mempunyai dua telinga anda boleh


mengenalpasti jarak bunyi tersebut jauh atau dekat.

B. Mentions hearing sounds from both sides


(direction) with no mention of locating the source.
B. Menyatakan arah bunyi tanpa menyatakan
kedudukan sumber bunyi
Examples /Contoh:
You can hear on both sides of you.
Anda boleh mendengar dari arah kedua-dua sisi
badan.

You can hear sounds from all around, not just one
side.
Anda boleh mendengar dari semua arah, dan bukan
hanya dari satu sisi.
With two ears you can hear from more than one
way.
Anda boleh mendengar dari semua arah, dan bukan
hanya dari satu sisi.
Dengan dua telinga, anda boleh mendengar bukan
hanya dari satu arah.
C. Mentions that if hearing is lost in one ear, the
other may still function.
C. Menyatakan jika satu pendengaran hilang,
pendengaran yang satu lagi masih berfungsi
Examples /Contoh:
In the result of being deaf in one ear, you have
another one that is used.
Jika satu telinga tidak berfungsi (pekak), masih
terdapat satu telinga lagi untuk mendengar
If you lost the hearing in one ear, the other one
might still work.
Jika kehilangan pendengaran pada satu telinga,
maka telinga yang satu lagi boleh
berfungsi
Incorrect Response / Jawapan yang salah
A. Gives only a general or vague response relating
to how well one can hear.
A. Hanya memberikan jawapan umum atau tidak
50

yang kurang canggih


hanya merujuk kepada
pendengaran
menggunakan dua
telinga.

MODUL TOPIKAL KBAT

SAINS TINGKATAN 2

jelas berkaitan dengan keupayaan pendengaran


seseorang.
Examples / Contoh:
You hear better.
Pendengaran anda lebih baik.
You can hear half as much with one ear.
Pendengaran terhad menggunakan satu telinga.
Two ears lets you hear a lot more.
The volume is greater.
Dua telinga membolehkan anda mendengar lebih
banyak.
B. Mentions only that hearing is uneven/unbalanced
with one ear.
B. Menyatakan pendengaran tidak seimbang
dengan satu telinga.

Examples / Contoh :
If you had one ear, the sound would be uneven
Jika anda ada satu telinga, bunyi tidak seimbang.
Your hearing would be out of balance.
Pendengaran anda tidak seimbang
You hearing gets balanced better with two ears.
Pendengaran anda lebih seimbang dengan
menggunakan dua telinga
10.

Correct Response / Jawapan yang betul


1.

Refers to light traveling faster than sound (or


similar).
Merujuk kepada cahaya bergerak lebih laju daripada
bunyi ( atau seumpamanya )
Examples /Contoh:
Speed of light is faster than speed of sound.
Cahaya bergerak lebih laju berbanding bunyi.
Light travels quicker than sound.
Cahaya bergerak lebih cepat dari bunyi
It takes more time for sound to reach her than light.
Masa yang diambil oleh bunyi untuk bergerak
adalah lebih lama berbanding cahaya.
51

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SAINS TINGKATAN 2

Incorrect Response / Jawapan yang salah


Refers only to lightning being closer or thunder
being further away.(explicitly or implicitly).
Hanya merujuk kepada kilat lebih dekat atau guruh
lebih jauh (secara tersirat atau tersurat )
Examples /Contoh:
Thunder has a longer way to go.
Guruh mempunyai jarak yang lebih jauh untuk dilalui
Thunder is striking from kilometers away.
Guruh berdentum dari jarak yang jauh
Refers to lightning occurring first, causing thunder,
or similar. [No explicit mention of the relative
speedof light/sound to travel.]
Merujuk kepada kilat terjadi dahulu dan
menyebabkan berlakunya guruh (atau
seumpamanya). [Tidak menyatakan secara jelas
kaitan laju cahaya/laju bunyi untuk bergerak]
Examples /Contoh:
Lightning is so quick, thunder only happens
afterward.
Kilat sangat laju, guruh hanya terjadi selepas itu
The noise occurs later.
Bunyi bising terdengar selepas itu.
Thunder occurs from lightning.
Guruh terjadi daripada kilat
Thunder is the echo of lightning.
Guruh adalah gema yang terhasil daripada kilat.
Crossed out/erased, illegible, or impossible to
interpret.
Jawapan yang dipalangkan/dipadam, tidak dapat
dibaca atau tidak boleh ditafsir
BLANK/ KOSONG
D.

Sunlight
Sinaran matahari

Soil and water / Tanah dan air


52

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12.

SAINS TINGKATAN 2

Correct Response / Jawapan betul


Explanation refers to BOTH light and nutrients.
Penjelasan merujuk kepada kedua-dua cahaya dan
nutrien.
Examples/ Contoh:
The height of the pea plants will be higher in the
second container. The bright light will give the plants
energy and the nutrients in the soil will help the peas
grow.
Ketinggian tumbuhan kacang lebih tinggi dalam
bekas kedua. Cahaya yang terang akan
memberikan tumbuhan tenaga dan nutrien di dalam
tanah akan membantu kacang bercambah.
I predict that the peas in diagram 2 will grow higher.
It has more nutrients and more light.
Saya meramalkan bahawa kacang dalam rajah 2
akan bercambah lebih tinggi. Ia mempunyai lebih
banyak nutrien dan cahaya.
Partially Correct Response / Jawapan separa
betul
Explanation refers to light OR nutrients OR mentions
that diagram 2 has more basic necessities.
Penjelasan hanya merujuk kepada cahaya ATAU
nutrien ATAU menyebut bahawa rajah 2 mempunyai
lebih keperluan asas.
Examples / contoh:
Diagram 2 will grow taller. This is because it has
more light and plants make food using light. The pea
plants with the bright light shining on them will grow
faster than the pea seeds with the dim light.
Rajah 2 akan menjadi lebih tinggi. Ini adalah kerana
ia mempunyai lebih banyak cahaya dan tumbuhan
membuat makanan menggunakan cahaya. Benih
kacang akan berkembang lebih cepat dengan
cahaya yang terang bersinar ke atas mereka
berbanding benih kacang dengan cahaya malap.
The peas will grow taller in diagram 2 because there
are more nutrients to help with growth.
Pokok Kacang akan menjadi lebih tinggi dalam rajah
2 kerana terdapat lebih banyak nutrien untuk
membantu dengan pertumbuhan.
Diagram 2 has more basic necessities than diagram
53

Predicts that plants in


diagram 2 may grow
taller than plants in
diagram 1.
Meramalkan bahawa
tumbuhan dalam rajah 2
boleh menjadi lebih
tinggi daripada
tumbuhan dalam rajah 1.

Predicts that plants in


diagram 2 may grow
taller than plants in
diagram 1.
Meramalkan bahawa
tumbuhan dalam rajah 2
boleh menjadi lebih
tinggi daripada
tumbuhan dalam rajah 1.

MODUL TOPIKAL KBAT

SAINS TINGKATAN 2

1.
Rajah 2 mempunyai lebih keperluan asas
berbanding daripada gambar rajah 1.
Incorrect Response / Jawapan yang salah
Predicts that plants in diagram 1 may grow taller
than plants in diagram 2.
Meramalkan bahawa tumbuhan di rajah 1 boleh
menjadi lebih tinggi daripada tumbuhan dalam rajah
2.
Explanation refers to a low intensity of light causing
spindly (leggy) growth.
Penjelasan merujuk kepada intensiti cahaya yang
rendah menyebabkantumbuhan tumbuh seperti
biasa tetapi kurus.
Examples / contoh :
The pea plants under dim light grow a long stem
because of the dim light.
Tumbuhan kacang di bawah cahaya malap
mencambahkan batang yang panjang kerana
cahaya malap.
Other incorrect (including crossed out, erased, stray
marks, illegible, or off task)
Lain-lain jawapan salah (termasuk garisan
melintang, dipadam, tanda seru, tidak boleh dibaca,
atau di jawapan lain)
BLANK/ KOSONG

BAB 2: NUTRISI
No
1.

C.

2.
3.

D.
D.

Answer/ Jawapan
Raw materials for cell growth and repair
Bahan untuk pertumbuhan dan memperbaiki sel
Chicken / Ayam
Substances that people need in small amounts in
54

Note / Catatan

MODUL TOPIKAL KBAT

4.

B.

5.
6.
7.
8.

C.
C.
C.
1.

SAINS TINGKATAN 2

order for their bodies to function normally


Bahan yang diperlukan dalam jumlah yang kecil
untuk membolehkan badan berfungsi dengan normal
Bread, vegetables and fish
Roti, sayur-sayuran dan ikan
Bladder / pundi kencing
Small intestine / Usus kecil
Digestion / Penghadaman
Correct Response / Jawapan betul
Names saliva and explains that is makes the food
moist or soft[ mechanical process].
Menamakan bahan tersebut sebagai air liur dan
menerangkan ia menjadikan makanan tersebut
lembab dan lembut (proses mekanikal)
Examples / contoh :
Saliva. It helps us swallow.
Air liur. Ia membantu kita untuk menelan

2.

Names saliva and explains that it breaks down the


starch or food. [Chemical process].
Menamakan bahan tersebut sebagai air liur dan
menerangkan ia memecahkan kanji atau makanan.
(proses kimia).
Names enzymes and explains that they break down
the starch or food.[Chemical process].
Menamakan bahan tersebut sebagai enzim dan
menerangkan ia memecahkan kanji atau makanan.
(proses kimia)
Other correct / Jawapan lain yang diterima:
Names a substance and provides a reasonable
explanation.
Menamakan bahan dan memberikanpenjelasan yang
munasabah.
Partially Correct Response / Jawapan separa
betul
Names saliva but with no description or with an
incorrect description ofwhat it does.
Menamakan bahan tersebut sebagai air liur tetapi
tiada penerangan atau penerangannyasalah.

Examples / contoh :
55

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SAINS TINGKATAN 2

Saliva. Contains acid which helps digesting the food.


Air liur. Mengandungi asid yang membantu
mencernakan makanan.
Names enzymes but with no description or with an
incorrectdescription of what they do, such as It digest
starch.
Menamakan bahan tersebut sebagai enzim tetapi
tiada penerangan atau penerangannya salah, seperti
ia mencernakan kanji.
Other partially correct.
Jawapan lain yang tidak lengkap tetapi boleh
diterima.
Incorrect Response / Jawapan yang salah
Acid. With or without description.
Asid. Dengan atau tanpa penerangan.
Teeth, tongue, etc. With or without description.
Gigi, lidah dan lain-lain. Dengan atau tanpa
penerangan.
Other incorrect (including crossed out, erased, stray
marks, illegible, or off task)
Lain-lain jawapan salah (termasuk garisan melintang,
dipadam, tanda seru, tidak boleh dibaca, atau di
jawapan lain)
BLANK/ KOSONG
9.
10.

C.

Cheese /Keju

1.

Correct Response / Jawapan betul


Mentions agriculturally-related factors (soil depletion,
overgrazing, erosion,poor farming techniques).
Menyatakan factor-faktor berkaitan pertanian
(kekurangan tanah, makan berlebihan, hakisan,
teknik pertanian yang kurang berkesan)
Examples / contoh :
When the soil cannot grow any food.The farmers may
have tried to raise too many animals on the land.
Apabila tanah tidak dapat menghasilkan makanan
Petani menternak terlampau banyak haiwan di
kawasan

2.

Mentions natural disasters or weather-related factors


(floods, earthquakes, rain distribution, drought,
temperature, sun, etc.).
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MODUL TOPIKAL KBAT

SAINS TINGKATAN 2

Menyatakan bencana alam atau faktor-faktor


berkaitan cuaca (banjir, gempa bumi, taburan hujan,
kemarau, suhu, matahari, dll)

Examples / contoh :
Not enough rain. / Tidak cukup hujan
Too much heat (sun). / Panas yang melampau
3.

Mentions crop disease, insect infestation or other


pests.
Menyatakan penyakit tanaman, serangan serangga
atau perosak.
Examples / contoh :
Famine occurs because of disease of the crop.
Kebuluran berlaku disebabkan penyakit tanaman
Plagues / Wabak penyakit

4.

Mentions overpopulation or consumption


Menyatakan kepadatan penduduk atau penggunaan
berlebihan
Examples / contoh :
There are too many people and too little food.
Terlampau banyak manusia dan sedikit makanan.

5.

There may be too many people living in that


area.Mentions specific social/economic/political
factors..
Terlampau ramai orang menghuni sesuatu kawasan
Menyatakan factor social/ ekonomi/politik
Examples / contoh :
War / Peperangan

6.

Lack of money to keep crops growing. Mentions


pollution or other contamination.
Kekurangan wang untuk membolehkan tanaman
tumbuh. Menyatakan pencemaran atau lain-lain
pencemaran.
Examples / contoh :
Unsanitized food could not be eaten.
Makanan yang tidak bersih tidak sesuai dimakan.
The soil was polluted.
Tanah yang tercemar
57

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SAINS TINGKATAN 2

Incorrect Response / Jawapan salah


Mentions ONLY a lack or need of food (or other
responses related to a general definition of famine).
Menyatakan HANYA kekurangan atau keperluan
makanan (atau mana-mana jawapan berkaitan
dengan definisi kebuluran)
Examples / contoh :
Famine occurs when you are hungry.
Kebuluran berlaku apabila lapar
Response too vague.
Jawapan kurang jelas.
Examples / contoh :
The government. / Kerajaan.
Other incorrect (including crossed out/erased, stray
marks, illegible, or offtask).
Jawapan lain yang salah ( Tidak sepadan, di padam,
tersilap langkah, sukar dibaca, terkeluar tajuk)

BAB 3: BIODIVERSITI
Answer/ Jawapan

No
1.

B.

2.
3.
4.

D.
B.
D.

Note / Catatan

Glands that make milk.


Kelenjar yang menghasilkan susu.
An amphibian / Amfibia
Whales / Ikan paus
Since mammals, but not lizards, are warm-blooded,
they will maintain their body temperature using heat
from metabolic processes
Disebabkan mamalia adalah berdarah panas tidak
seperti cicak, mereka akan mengekalkan suhu badan
menggunakan haba dari proses metabolic badan

5.
1.

Correct Response / Jawapan betul


The same in both climates with a specific explanation
as indicated in the note above.
Kedua-dua iklim yang sama tanpa penerangan yang
khusus seperti nota di atas

58

i) Explanations that
specifically mention of
the following should
receive 1 point:
i)Penerangan yang
khusus seperti di bawah
layak menerima 1

MODUL TOPIKAL KBAT

SAINS TINGKATAN 2

markah:
Examples / contoh :
Humans are warm blooded so they dont rely on the
climate to change body temperature.
Manusia berdarah panas , suhu badan tidak berubah
Manusia berdarah panas , suhu badan tidak berubah

a) Humans being warm


blooded OR
a)manusia berdarah
panas ATAU

The body temperature is the same in all humans.Its


98.6OF
Suhu badan adalah sama pada semua
manusia.Suhu 98.6 OF

b) Temperature
remaining constant at 37
degrees C or 98.4
degrees F ORb)suhu
kekal pada 37 darjah C
atau 98.4 darjah F ATAU

The same in both climates because all body


temperatures are around the same degrees.
Sama pada kedua-dua iklim kerana suhu badan
berada pada darjah yang hampir sama
People in hot climates sweat to maintain their body
temperature.
Orang yang berada di iklim panas mengekalkan suhu
badan dengan berpeluh.

c) The body only being


able to function within a
small range of
temperature
OR
c)Badan hanya boleh
berfungsi dalam julat
suhu yang kecil
ATAU

People in hot climates sweat to keep their


temperature constant and people
Incold climates need to wear much heavier clothing.
Orang yang berada di iklim panas berpeluh untuk
mengekalkan suhu yang tetap dan orang yang
berada di iklim sejuk

d) References to
sweating, shivering, etc.,
as mechanism for
maintaining constant
body temperature.
(Responses that only
state sweating,
shivering,etc. without
further explanation will
be no point
d) Merujuk kepada
proses berpeluh,
menggeletar,dan lainlain sebagai mekanisme
untuk mengekalkan suhu
badan. (Tiada markah
untuk respon yang
hanya menyatakan
berpeluh, menggeletar
tanpa penerangan.)

ii) If the numerical value


59

MODUL TOPIKAL KBAT

SAINS TINGKATAN 2

is incorrect, but the


concept is correct, score
as 1pointi
i)Skor 1 , jika nilai angka
tidak tepat tetapi konsep
betul yang khusus
seperti nota di atas
Incorrect Response / Jawapan salah
The same in both climates with a vague, incorrect or
no explanation.
Sama pada kedua-dua iklim tanpa penerangan yang
jelas , kurang tepat atau tiada penerangan.
Examples / contoh :
I think it would be the same because your body
doesnt change just because of the temperature.
Body temperature is not affected by the surrounding
environment.
Suhu badan tidak dipengaruhi oleh keadaan
persekitaran.
Sweating / Berpeluh.
The people in hot climates will try to keep themselves
cool while the people living
in cold climates will try to keep themselves warm.
Orang yang berada di iklim panas akan cuba
menyejukkan badan mereka dan orang yang berada
di iklim sejuk akan cuba memanaskan badan
mereka.

BAB 5: AIR DAN LARUTAN


NO
1.

ANSWER/JAWAPAN
Correct response
Response includes the three following steps:
i.
Evaporation of water source
ii.
Transportation of water as vapour
iii.
Precipitation in other places
Partial response
Does not mention evaporation
Does not mention transportation
Does not mention precipitation
Other partially correct
60

NOTES/CATATAN

MODUL TOPIKAL KBAT

2.

SAINS TINGKATAN 2

Incorrect response
Indicates precipatation only
Other incorrect
Non response
Blank
Correct response
Describe a correct procedure that includes the
following basic steps (may use diagrams)
i.
Boiling/evaporation to separate water from
salt
ii.
Collecting the distilled water (condensation)
Examples:
Heat the salt water, catch the steam on a tray, drip it
into a cup and the salt will be left in the bucket and
drinking water in the cup.
Boil the sea water taking the steam up to a tube and
letting steam turn back into water.
Partial response
Describe boiling/evaporation step to separate water
from salt; condensation is omitted
Examples:
Maybe if you boiled the salt water the salt would
separate from the water.
Take the salt water and boil it and the stean will creat
a great drinking water.
OR
States the distillation or simillar but no description of
the process is given.
Incorrect response
Mention boiling but with no or incorrect indication of
separation included.
Examples:
You can boil it.
OR
Mention filtering to separate salt
Examples:
Make it go through a filter
Non responsive
Blank

3.
4.

B
Correct response
Explanation refers explicitly to the formation of water
61

Responses may use

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SAINS TINGKATAN 2

(and salt) from the neutralization reaction.


Examples:
Hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide will mix
together to form water and salt, which is neutral.
The hydrogen ions combine with the hydroxide ions
to form water, so the litmus paper does not change
colour.

words or a chemical
equation. The equation
does not need to be
completely correct for
credit as long as
neutralization is clear.

Partial response
Explanation refers explicitly to neutralization (or
equivalent), but the specific reaction is not
mentioned.
Examples:
When you mix acid and alkali, the mixture becomes
neutral and has a pH of 7.
The HCl neutralizes the NaOH, and the NaOH
neutralizes the HCl.
The mixed solution is neutral, so litmus paper does
not react.
Acid + base = neutral solution
There is a neutralization reaction.
Incorrect response
Explanation refers to a chemical reaction taking
place (implicitly or explicitly) to form products that do
not react with litmus paper (or similar).
[Neutralization is not explicitly mentioned.]

5.
6.

Examples:
The acid and base react, and the new chemicals do
not react with litmus paper.
The chemicals that change the litmus paper must
have a chemical reaction to each other.
Therefore they will not change the color of the paper
anymore.
They form a new solution that has different
D
Correct response
Chemical change and explains that the milk had
become acidic.
Examples:
The acidity changed. This shows that chemicals are
reacting which results in the change.
The milk has turned acid, thus the litmus paper
turned red.
The milk changed from a base to an acid.
62

Rsponses that check


physical change and
describe chemical
change should be
considered as incorrect
response.

MODUL TOPIKAL KBAT

SAINS TINGKATAN 2

The bacteria in milk turned sugar into acid.


OR
Chemical change and explains that new
substances are forming (chemical reaction taking
place) OR mentions decomposition/fermentation.
Examples:
The milk has started to decompose which is a
chemical change.
The milk became sour and cannot be drunk. A
chemical change has occurred because a new
substance is formed.
OR
Chemical change and explains that bacteria have
grown (and spoilt the milk).
Examples:
The milk turned sour from bacteria.
Because there were bacteria in it.
OR
Chemical change with an explanation referring to
differences between physical and chemical changes.
Examples:
Chemical changes are irreversible, while physical
changes are reversible.
The milk cannot be transformed back into its original
state, thus it is chemical.
Other correct.
Examples:
The milk would have started to go bad.
The milk has spoilt so it is a chemical change.

Incorrect response
Chemical change with an incorrect or no
explanation.

63

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SAINS TINGKATAN 2

Examples:
The milk was older so it caused the chemicals in the
milk to change.
OR
Physical change with or without an explanation.
Examples:
After two days, bacteria have entered the milk,
making the milk spoil. Thus there is a change in
color and taste of the milk.
A physical change took place as the change cannot
be reversible.
Other incorrect (including crossed out/erased, stray
marks, illegible or off task).
7.

Correct response
100oC (equal).
Examples:
Equal. The boiling point of water is 100 degrees.
100oC. Because that is the highest boiling point.
Equal. Water boils at 100oC no matter what.
Equal. It only takes 100oC to boil water. The excess
energy evaporates the water.
Equal. Because it still at its boiling point 100oC.
Incorrect responses
100oC (equal). With no explanation or an incorrect
explanation.
Examples:
Equal. Not enough time to heat up.
100oC. Because that is how high the thermometer
goes.
OR
Greater than 100oC. With no explanation or an
incorrect explanation.
Examples:
Greater. Because if he heated it again it would still
be hot from last time.
Greater. Because it was on there longer.
Greater. Because the heat went up.
Greater. Because he turned the temperature up on
64

A correct response must


indicate 100oC (equal,
same) and include a
correct explanation
based on water boiling
(phase change)
occurring at a constant
temperature.

MODUL TOPIKAL KBAT

SAINS TINGKATAN 2

the elements.
Greater. It goes up every second.
Greater. The boiling point is 100oC, but it can still
hotter before it evaporates.
Greater. Boiling water can reach temperatures of
100oC.
OR
Less than 100oC. With no explanation or an incorrect
explanation.
Examples:
Less. Because if it is not boiling, it is below the
boiling point of 100oC.
8.

Correct response
Response includes a statement of the problem:
determining the effect of (dissolved) salt on freezing
(point, rate, temperature) of water.
Examples:
Find out if salt affects freezing water.
She can find out which container freezes first.
She can find out if water freezes easier with
dissolved salt or without dissolved salt.
OR
Response includes a conclusion of the relative rates
of freezing (or freezing points, temperatures) based
on prior scientific knowledge.
Examples:
Regular water will freeze before salt water will.
The salt water will not be frozen.
Other correct.
Incorrect responses
States that the salt water would freeze first.
Examples:
Salt water will freeze because it has a solid in it.
The plain water will not be frozen yet.
OR
65

To receive credit,
responses must be
related to the relative
rates of freezing for fresh
and salt water.
Responses may include
either a statement of the
problem being
investigated in the
experiment (determining
the effect of salt on
the freezing point (rate)
of water), or a conclusion
based on prior scientific
knowledge (e.g. the fresh
water will freeze first).
Explanations based on
knowledge of practical
applications of salt
lowering the freezing
point of water should be
considered as other
correct.

MODUL TOPIKAL KBAT

SAINS TINGKATAN 2

State that the salt water would not freeze first.


Examples:
Salt water will freeze first because it has a solid in it.
The plain water will not be frozen yet.
OR

State that salt water will never freeze (or similar).


[Extrapolation beyond the conditions of experiment].
Examples:
The container with salt in it will never freeze.
Salt water cannot freeze because of the salt
crystals.
Other incorrect (including crossed out/erased, stray
marks, illegible or off task).
9.

Correct response
Describes one way that groundwater can become
polluted.
Examples:
Pesticides used by the farmers can leak into ground
with rainwater.
Disposing of factory waste in water.
We bury our litter and waste underground by landfill.
Acid rain can make water acidic.
Things get absorbed by the soil and seep into the
water.
Because at dump sites toxic can be dumped on the
land and the toxic liquid absorbed into the ground.
Incorrect responses
Incorrect (including crossed out, erased, stray
marks, illegible, or off task).
Examples:
The dirt can become mixed with the water.
When stuff is put down sewers and pollutes it.
Because of the drains.
It can get dirty.
Gases in the air turn to vapor.

10.

B
66

Accepted ways that


groundwater can
become polluted include
reference
to:
Pesticides Landfills
(rubbish, garbage),
Fertilizers, Acid rain,
Factory waste, Sewage,
Chemicals (salt), Oil,
Leaking pipes,

MODUL TOPIKAL KBAT

11.

A.

SAINS TINGKATAN 2

Correct response
Mentions a device/process that can be used to
locate, contain, disperse, break down, or collect the
oil spills, etc.
Examples:
Mechanical barriers can be put up to contain the oil.
Organisms have been created that can break down
oil.
Vacuum the oil up.
Treat with special detergents.
OR
Mentions a device/process for improving the
technology of oil tankers (construction, navigation,
communications, etc.
Examples:
Make oil tankers with double hulls.
Tankers should have separate tanks for oil and
ballast water.
Develop new, stronger materials for ships that
cannot be broken by rocks or icebergs.
Other correct.

Incorrect response
Give only a common sense response that is too
vague or does not specify the application of science
and technology.
Examples:
Be more careful. Dont run into rock.
Put the oil on airplanes instead of ships.
Fix the ships.
Reduce the amount of oil that the tankers carry.
Technology can be used to retrieve the oil as it floats
in water.
Remove the oil.
Other incorrect (including crossed out/erased, stray
marks, illegible, or off task)
Non response
Blank.

67

A correct response must


clearly describe a device
or process and be
connected to the
application of science or
technology. Responses
that merely state what
needs to be done (e.g.
locate the oil) are not
adequate as a correct
response and should be
considered incorrect
response. Common
sense, practical
responses or those
based on individual
activities will not be given
credit without a clear link
to the application of
science and technology.
Although the stem does
not specify whether the
technology must be
currently available,
answers should be
reasonable and realistic
based on current
technology.

MODUL TOPIKAL KBAT

B.

SAINS TINGKATAN 2

Correct response
Describes an alternative energy source or mode of
transportation (to reduce carbon dioxide emissions
from the burning of fossil fuels).
Examples:
Electric cars.
Solar panels that provide heat.
Nuclear power plants that make electricity.
OR
Describes an improvement in automotive technology,
factories, fuels, etc. (to reduce carbon dioxide
emissions).
Examples:
Make more fuel efficient engines.

SOALAN PISA 1
1.
2.
3.

Kondensasi

Ia merupakan bahan kalis air

]
2 markah:

Penjelasan mesti menunjukkan pemahaman bahawa


suhu padang pasir yang sangat rendah menukarkan
wap air dalam udara bertukar menjadi kabus DAN
Titisan kabus terperangkap di jaring bertukar
menjadi air.
Explanation must include an understanding that the
deserts temperature becomes very low and
condenses the water vapour into fog AND The fog
droplets were trapped in the net condensed to water.
1 markah:
Hanya menjelaskan suhu padang pasir yang sangta
rendah menukarkan wap air kepada kabus TETAPI
TIDAK menerangkan wap air terperangkap di jaring
bertukar menjadi air.
Only explain the deserts temperature becomes very
low and condenses the water vapour into fog OR
68

A correct response must


clearly describe a device
or process and be
connected to the
application of science or
technology. Responses
that merely state what
needs to be done (e.g.
remove carbon dioxide)
are not adequate as a
correct response and
should be considered
incorrect response.
Although the stem does
not specify whether the
technology must be
currently available,
answers should be
reasonable and realistic
based on current
technology.

MODUL TOPIKAL KBAT

SAINS TINGKATAN 2

The fog droplets were trapped in the net condensed


to water.
0 markah:
Respon yang lain
Other responses
4.
5.

7 Jaring
2 markah:
Menjelaskan pembolehubah tetap ialah saiz jaring
yang sama, lokasi dan jangkamasa mengumpul air
yang sama, DAN
Pembolehubah yang dimanipulasi ialah jenis bahan
jaring dan pembolehubah yang bergerak balas ialah
jumlah air yang terkumpul.
Explain the fixed variables are the size of the net,
location and the same period of time for collecting
water. AND
Manipulated variable is the type of net and
responding variables is the amount of water
collected.
1 markah:
Menjelaskan hanya SATU sahaja daripada jawapan
di atas.
Explain only ONE of the answer above.
0 markah:
Respon yang lain
Other responses
SOALAN PISA 2

1.

2 markah:
Menjelaskan kain sari yang disusun berlapis DAN
mampu menghalang kebanyakan pathogen yang
menyebabkan penyakit.
Folded saree cloth AND prevent most pathogen that
caused diseases.
1 markah:
Menjelaskan kain sari yang disusun berlapis ATAU
mampu menghalang kebanyakan pathogen yang
menyebabkan penyakit.
Folded saree cloth OR prevent most pathogen that
69

MODUL TOPIKAL KBAT

SAINS TINGKATAN 2

caused diseases
0 markah:
Respon yang lain
2.

1 markah:
Menjelaskan basuhan yang banyak kali akan
mengecilkan ruang di antara serat dalam kain
Repeated washing reduces the space between the
fibres.
0 markah:
Respon yang lain

3.

1 markah:
Menyatakan meminum air bertapis adalah baik untuk
kesihatan ATAU menggunakan penapis kapas
adalah lebih berkesan.
Drinking filtered water is good for health OR using
cotton filter is more effective.
0 markah:
Respon yang lain

4.

Tidak
Ya
Tidak
2 markah:
Ketiga-tiga BETUL
1 markah:
Hanya 2 sahaja BETUL
0 markah:
HAnya 1 BETUL atau tiada yang BETUL

BAB 7: DINAMIK
NO
1.
2.
3.
4.

ANSWER SCHEME
D
D
E
Correct response
Response includes both regions (i) and (ii).
Examples:
70

NOTES

MODUL TOPIKAL KBAT

SAINS TINGKATAN 2

At low mass, it grew 2 for every 10 grams.


Then it changed by 1 at 40g. Then at 50g, it did not
grow any more.
It increases by 2s until 30, increases by 1s until 50,
and increases by 0 at 60.
The length increased steadily up to 40g, and then it
increased just a little bit more until it was 13cm at 50
and 60 grams.
At first it got longer every time you added a mass,
but then after a while, it did not get any longer.
Incorrect response
Includes only region (i).
Response references only an increase in length as
more mass is added but discussion of leveling off is
inadequate or missing.
Examples:
The length increased as more mass was added.
The spring length got 2cm longer with each mass.
It increased by 2cm each time until 40 grams.
OR
Refers only to leveling off of spring length or
decreasing increments at higher masses.
[Description of change in region (i) is inadequate or
missing.]
Examples:
It stretches but only up to 13 cm.
After 50 grams it did not change.
It stretches less at higher masses.
Other incorrect (including crossed out/erased, stray
marks, illegible, or off task)
5.

BAB 10: MESIN RINGKAS


NO
1.
2.

ANSWER SCHEME
D
E
71

NOTES

MODUL TOPIKAL KBAT

3.
4.
5.
6.

A.

SAINS TINGKATAN 2

D
D
D
Correct response
Joans Diagram

Egyptian Lever

Effort

Downward pull of the worker

Load
Fulcrum
Lever arm

Stone block
Tree trunk
Wooden pole

Incorrect response
Matches two parts of the lever correctly.
Matches one part of the lever correctly.
Other incorrect (including crossed out/erased, stray
marks, illegible or off task).
B.

Correct response
1,000 Newton
Incorrect response
Other incorrect (including crossed out/erased, stray
marks, illegible or off task)

---SKEMA JAWAPAN TAMAT---

PANEL PENYUMBANG

72

MODUL TOPIKAL KBAT

SAINS TINGKATAN 2

PENASIHAT:
Pn. Sallina binti Hussain

Ketua Sektor, Sektor Pengurusan Akademik, JPN

En. Sujak bin Maskan


En. Junit bin Yasir
Pn. Aerma Nurazalina binti Musa
Hjh. Zunairah binti Ahmad

Johor
Ketua Penolong Pengarah Sains, SPA
Sektor Pengurusan Akademik
Sektor Pengurusan Akademik
Sektor Pengurusan Akademik

PANEL:
Mohd Hizamri bin Kamarudin
Mohd Ahir bin Samsuri
Yusup bin Abd. Latip
Zainab binti Ari

SMK Senggarang, Batu Pahat, Johor


SM Sains Kota Tinggi, Kota Tinggi, Johor
SMK (P) Temenggong Ibrahim, Batu Pahat, Johor
SMK Tunku Mahmood Iskandar, Batu Pahat,

Nor Huda binti Mohamad Ali


Juaidah binti Radin
Roslindawati binti Baharom

Johor
SMK Banang Jaya, Batu Pahat, Johor
SMK Datin Onn Jaafar, Batu Pahat, Johor
SMK Suria Perdana, Batu Pahat, Johor

73