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Natural Resources & Environmental Law D.Z.

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I.

GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND POLICIES


Introduction: State of the Philippine Environment
Methodology Recitation/Tests/Seatwork, Grading
Philippines Environmental Policy

1.

Philippine Environmental Policy& Environmental Code P.D. 1151(sec. 4), P.D. 1152(titles)

2.

Sustainable Development
a.
b.
c.

3.

Climate Change
a.
b.
c.
d.

II.

Brundtland Report/Our Common Future, chapter 2, par. 1


Philippine Strategy for Sustainable Development, conceptual framework, objectives, principles
Philippine Agenda 21, principles of sustainable development

United Nations Framework on Climate Change, actions (UN FCCC/CP/2009/11/Add.1 dated 30 March 2010)
Climate Change Act of 2009(R.A. 9729, sec. 2)
Hyogo Framework for Action
Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act (RA 10121) - policies

RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT


A.

1.

Philippine Constitution
a.
b.

2.

General Considerations

Balanced and healthful ecology (sec. 16, Art. II)

Oposa vs. Factoran (G.R. No. 101083 /30 July 1993, 224 SCRA 792)
National economy and State ownership (sections 1 and 2, Art. XII)

Cario vs. Insular Government (7 Phil 132 and 212 US 449))

Director-LMB vs. CA (324 SCRA 757)

Republic vs. Lee (197 SCRA 13)

Central Mindanao University vs. Executive Secretary (G.R. No. 184869 / 21 Sept. 2010, 631 SCRA 30)

Civil Code of the Philippines- Property


a.

b.

c.

Easement and other rights

Easement for small scale mining (DENR A.O. 34 s. 92, secs. 16 to 20)

Legal easement for waterways

Ayala de Roxas vs. City of Manila

Manila Ordinance No. 8276


Nuisance and the Common Good

Timoner vs. People and CA (125 SCRA 830)

Calma vs. Pleasantville Development Corp. (176 SCRA 555)

Manila International Airport Authority vs. Avila, et al. (G.R. No. 185535 dated 31 Jan. 2011)
Reclamation of Property

Reclamation of Foreshore Lands (R.A. 1899 / 22 June 1957)

Chavez vs. PEA-AMARI (G.R. No. 133250 / 11 Nov. 2003, 415 SCRA 403)

Chavez vs. NHA (G. R. No. 164527 / 15 Aug. 2007)

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B. AIR
1.

2.
3.

Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999 (R.A. 8749, sec. 2-18, DENR AO 200-81)
Integrated Air Quality Improvement Framework
Polluter Pays Principle; Environmental Rehabilitation
Ecological Solid Waste and Management Act of 2000 (RA 9003, sec. 1 47)
LGU Solid Waste Management Plan
Toxic Substances and Hazardous and Nuclear Wastes Control Act of 1990 (R.A. 6969, sec. 2-4)
Policy and objectives
C. FOREST

1.

Forestry Code (P.D. 705, sec. 2)


a.

Community-Based Forest Management (DENR AO 96-29)


Production Sharing Agreement with Peoples Organization in Government Forest Plantations
(DENR AO 98-42)
b. Integrated Forest Management Agreement (DENR AO 99-53)
RP vs. Pagadian City Timber (565 SCRA 260)
c. Mangroves (DENR AO 15-90; Community-based Rehabilitation of Mangroves)
d. Conversion of Forest Lands into Agricultural Lands (RA 8435 AFMA)
AFMA Principles and Objectives (sections 2 and 3)
Strategic Agriculture and Fisheries Development Zones (DA Order No. 6, s. 1998)
e. Small Islands Management and Development (DENR AO 2000-83)
DENR vs. Yap (G.R. No. 167707/7Oct2008, 568 SCRA 164)
D. FISHERIES
1.

Fisheries Code of 1998 (R.A. 8550, sec. 2)


a.
b.

c.
d.
e.

Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management (RA 8550, sections 74-77)


Municipal Fisheries (RA 8550, sections4-18)
Tano, et al. vs. Socrates, et al. (278 SCRA 154)
Strategic Environmental Plan for Palawan (RA 7611)
Fishpond Lease Agreement (RA 8550, sec. 45 51)
Pearl Farm Lease Agreement (RA 8550, sec. 52)
Exclusive Economic Zone (RA 8550, sec. 35)
Scarborough Shoal and UNCLOS, Justice Carpio, Historical Facts, Historical Lies, and
Historical Rights in the West Philippine Sea, www.imoa.ph

E. MINERALS
1.

Philippine Mining Act (RA 7942, sections 2-4); Peoples Small Scale Mining Act (RA 7076, sec. 2)
a.

Large Scale Mining/FTAA

La Bugal-Blaan Tribal Association Inc. vs. Ramos (421 SCRA 148) Decision (Jan.) and
Resolution (Dec.)
Didipio Earth Savers Multi-Purpose Association vs. Gozun (485 SCRA 586)

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F.

ANCESTRAL DOMAINS & PROTECTED AREAS

1.

Indigenous Peoples Rights Act (RA 8371, sections 2, 7b, 56, 57)
Cruz & Europa vs. DENR (G.R. No. 135385/6Dec2000)
Alcantara vs. DENR , et al. (560 SCRA753)
a. Free and Prior Informed Consent: Mandatory and Non-Mandatory Activities (RA 8371 sections 2, 2627)
b. IP Solicited/Initiated Projects (RA 8371 sections 31-32)
c. Ancestral Domain Sustainable Development & Protection Plan

2.

National Integrated Protected Areas System Act (NIPAS, R.A. 7586, sec. 2-9)
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Protected Area Management Plan


Suspension of titling in proposed protected areas (DENR Memorandum Order No. 2011-04)
Protected Area Community-Based Resource Management Agreement (DENR AO 2004-32)
Ancestral Lands Overlap (Joint DENR-NCIP Memo Circular 2007-01)
Wildlife Resources Conservation and Protection Act (R.A. 9147)

G. WATER
1.

Water Code (PD 1067, articles 2-6)

2.

Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004 (R.A. 9275, sec. 2)


a.
b.
c.
d.

Water Quality Management Areas and Non-Attainment Areas (DENR AO 2004, Rules 5& 6, dated 24
Dec. 2004)
Integrated Water Resources Management Framework (National Water Resources Board)
Watershed Management (PD 1067, art. 67; DENR AO 99-01)
Community Watersheds (DENR-DILG Joint Memorandum Circular 2003-01)

MIDTERMS
III.

MONITORING AND ENFORCEMENT


A. Prohibited Acts and Penalties
1.

Pollution Control (PD 984 dated 1976, revising RA 3931 of 1964)


a.

b.
c.

Air Pollution R.A. 8749 sections 45-48, 21; DENR AO 2000-81 sections 1-12
In the matter of the air pollution case vs. Holcim Phils., Inc. (DENR-PAB Case No. 0100269-91)
Solid Waste R.A. 9003 sections 48-50
Water Pollution R.A. 9275 sections 27 to 29
In the matter of the Water Pollution Control and Abatement Case vs. Don Juan Integrated
Farm, Inc. (DENR-PAB Case No. 04-00362-91)
Universal Robina Corp. vs. LLDA (649 SCRA 506); Laguna Lake (Laguna Lake
Development Authority Act of 1966 - R.A. 4850, as amended by PD 813)
Shell Philippines Exploration B.V. vs. Jalos, et al. (630 SCRA 399)

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2.

Illegal Logging
a.

b.

c.

Forestry P.D. 705 as amended, sections68 to 80; P.D. 54; R.A. 9175
Mustang Lumber Inc. vs. CA, Factoran (G.R. No. 104988 /18 June 1996, 257 SCRA 430)
Merida vs. People (12 June 2008, 554 SCRA 366)
Astorga vs. People (01 Oct 2003, 412 SCRA 512)
Confiscation of Forest Products DENR Memorandum Order No. 162, s. 1993; DENR AO 97-32
Paat vs. CA, Baculi (266 SCRA 167)
Factoran vs. CA, Dayaw (G.R. No. 93540 dated 13 Dec. 1999, 320 SCRA 530)
Chainsaw Act (RA 9175, sec. 7)

3.

Illegal Mining
a. Large Scale Mining - R.A. 7942, sections 95-111
Provincial Government of Marinduque vs. Placer Dome (-plaintiff-appellants Opening Brief
dated 15 Oct. 2008)
People vs. Eric Loney; Loney vs. People (10 Feb 2006, 482 SCRA 194)
Celestial Nickel Mining Exploration Corp. vs. Macroasia Corp. and Blue Ridge Mineral
Corp. vs. Reyes (541 SCRA 166)
Villavieja vs. Marinduque Mining and Industrial Corp. (23 Oct. 1984, 132 SCRA 622) workrelated health compensation
b. Small Scale Mining R.A. 7076, sections 21-23, 27
RP-DENR vs. Rosemoor Mining and Development Corp. (30 March 2004, 426 SCRA 517)

4.
5.
6.
7.

Protected Areas and Wildlife RA 9147, sections 27-28


National Integrated Protected Areas Systems RA 7586, sections 20-21
Indigenous Peoples Rights Act RA 8371, sections 72-73
Illegal Fishing R.A. 8550, sections86-106
a. Use of explosives, noxious substances, electricity
b. Poaching in Philippine Waters
Sea Lion Fishing Corp. vs. People (23 March 2011, 646 SCRA 272)
c. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Seas (UNCLOS)

8.

Environmental Impact System PD 1586


Violations and Penalties DENR Memorandum Circular 2002-15
Mandatory Insurance Coverage DENR AO 2005-06

9.

Writ of Kalikasan and the Precautionary Principle A.M. No. 09-6-8-SC, Rule 7
West Tower Condominium Corp. vs. First Phil. Ind. Corp. (G.R. 194239, 16 June 2015)
10. Disaster Risk Reduction and Management RA 10121, sections 19-20
B. Funds and Revenues
1.

2.

Funds
a. Air Quality Management Fund RA 7942, sec. 14
b. Water Quality Management Fund
c. Solid Waste Management Fund RA 9003, sections 46-47
Fees, charges and taxes
a. Forest charges PD 705, sections 63-75
b. Mining royalty and taxes, quarry fees RA 7942, sections 23, 105; National Internal Revenue
Code - RA 8424 sec. 151
Benguet Corporation vs. Central Board of Assessment Appeals, et al. (G.R. No. 106041 dated
29 Jan. 1993, )

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c.
d.

Protected Area/Park fees (DENR AO 2000-51)


Fees of Water and Sewerage Services
Laguna Lake fees (E.O. 927 dated 16 Dec. 1983)
C. Enforcement

1.

2.

Administrative Action
a. National Anti-Environment Crime Task Force to investigate and prosecute violations against
environmental laws (E.O. 515 dated 15 March 2006)
LLDA and Cataquiz vs. SM Prime Holdings (631 SCRA 73)
b. Environmental Law Enforcement Task Force (DENR Memorandum Circular No. 2010-15)
c. Rules on Pleading, Practice and Procedure before the Panel of Arbitrators and the Mines
Adjudication Board (1997)
d. Quasi-judicial Action - Environmental Impact Assessment (PD 1151)
Judicial Action
Pyro Copper Mining Corp. vs. Mines Adjudication Board, MGB (G.R. No. 179674 dated 28
July 2009)
MMDA et al., vs. Concerned Residents of Manila Bay (574 SCRA 661)