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TABLE OF CONTENTS

E
F
G

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Symbols and notation used in this book

11

Algebraic expansion
Exponential equations
Graphs of exponential functions
Investigation: Exponential graphs
Growth
Decay
Review set 3A
Review set 3B
Review set 3C

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68
69
70
72
74
77
77
78

LOGARITHMS

79

A
B

Introduction
Logarithms in base 10
Investigation: Discovering the laws of
logarithms
Laws of logarithms
Exponential equations (using logarithms)
Growth and decay revisited
Compound interest revisited
The change of base rule
Graphs of logarithmic functions
Review set 4A
Review set 4B

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82

NATURAL LOGARITHMS

95

Introduction
Investigation 1: e occurs naturally
Investigation 2: Continuous compound
interest
Natural logarithms
Investigation 3: The laws of natural
logarithms
Laws of natural logarithms
Exponential equations involving e
Growth and decay revisited
Inverse functions revisited
Review set 5A
Review set 5B

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96

BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE
I
to access, click active icon on CD 13
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H

I
J
K
L

Operations with surds (radicals)


Standard form (scientific notation)
Number systems and set notation
Algebraic simplification
Linear equations and inequalities
Absolute value (modulus)
Product expansion
Factorisation
Investigation 1: Another factorisation
technique
Formula rearrangement
Adding and subtracting algebraic fractions
Congruence and similarity
Coordinate geometry
Investigation 2: Finding where lines
meet using technology

CD
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ANSWERS

CD 5

CD
CD
CD
CD
CD
CD

FUNCTIONS

17

A
B
C

Relations and functions


Interval notation, domain and range
Function notation
Investigation: Fluid filling functions
Composite functions, f g
The reciprocal function x `! x1
Inverse functions
Review set 1A
Review set 1B

18
21
23
25
26
28
28
33
34

SEQUENCES & SERIES

35

A
B
C
D
E
F
G

Number patterns
Sequences of numbers
Arithmetic sequences
Geometric sequences
Series
Sigma notation
Miscellaneous problems
Investigation: Von Kochs snowflake curve
Review set 2A
Review set 2B
Review set 2C

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36
38
41
47
52
53
54
55
55
56

EXPONENTS

57

A
B
C
D

Index notation
Negative bases
Index laws
Rational indices

58
59
61
65

D
E
F

C
D
E
F

84
84
87
88
90
90
92
94
94

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99
100
101
102
103
105
106
CD

GRAPHING AND TRANSFORMING


FUNCTIONS
107

Families of functions
Investigation: Function families
Key features of functions
Transformations of graphs
Functional transformations
Simple rational functions
Further graphical transformations
Review set 6A
Review set 6B

B
C
D
E
F

QUADRATIC EQUATIONS AND


FUNCTIONS

Function notation
f : x `! ax2 + bx + c, a 6= 0

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Graphs of quadratic functions


Investigation 1: Graphing
y = a(x )(x )
Investigation 2: Graphing
y = a(x h)2 + k
Completing the square
Quadratic equations
The quadratic formula
Solving quadratic equations with technology
Problem solving with quadratics
Quadratic graphs (review)
The discriminant, D
Determining the quadratic from a graph
Where functions meet
Quadratic modelling
Review set 7A
Review set 7B
Review set 7C
Review set 7D
Review set 7E

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D
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G
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COMPLEX NUMBERS AND


POLYNOMIALS

A
B

Solutions of real quadratics with D<0


Complex numbers
Investigation 1: Properties of conjugates
Real polynomials
Roots, zeros and factors
Graphing polynomials
Investigation 2: Cubic graphing
Investigation 3: Quartic graphing
Theorems for real polynomials
Inequalities
Review set 8A
Review set 8B
Review set 8C

C
D
E

F
G

10 MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION
A
B

The process of induction


The principle of mathematical induction

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151
152
155
156
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165
167
174
182
182
185
190
192
198
CD
CD

199

The product principle


Counting paths
Factorial notation
Counting permutations
Investigation 1: Permutations in a circle
Combinations
Binomial expansions
Investigation 2: The binomial expansion
n
of (a + b) , n > 4
The general binomial theorem
Review set 9A
Review set 9B

E
F

125

226
226
227
228
228

11 THE UNIT CIRCLE AND RADIAN


MEASURE

229

BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE
TRIGONOMETRY WITH RIGHT
ANGLED TRIANGLES

230

A
B
C
D
E
F

157

COUNTING AND BINOMIAL


THEOREM

A
B
C
D

Investigation: Sequences, series and


induction
Indirect proof (extension)
Review set 10A
Review set 10B
Review set 10C

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203
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208
208
211
211
214
216
CD

A
B
C
D
E
F
G

CD
CD
CD
CD
CD
CD
CD
CD
CD
CD

ANSWERS

CD

The unit quarter circle


Obtuse angles
The unit circle
Investigation: Parametric equations
Radian measure and periodic properties
of circles
The basic trigonometric ratios
Areas of triangles
Sectors and segments
Review set 11A
Review set 11B
Review set 11C

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232
234
235
236
239
244
246
249
249
250

12 NON RIGHT ANGLED TRIANGLE


TRIGONOMETRY
251
A
B
C

The cosine rule


The sine rule
Investigation: The ambiguous case
Using the sine and cosine rules
Review set 12

13 PERIODIC PHENOMENA
A
B

217
218
220

Pythagoras rule (review)


Pythagoras rule in 3-D problems
Investigation: Shortest distance
Right angled triangle trigonometry
Finding sides and angles
Problem solving using trigonometry
The slope of a straight line
Review set A
Review set B
Review set C

252
254
255
258
261

263

Observing periodic behaviour


265
The sine function
269
270
Investigation 1: The family y = A sin x
Investigation 2: The family
y = sin Bx, B > 0
270
Investigation 3: The families y = sin(x C)
y = sin x + D
272
Modelling using sine functions
274

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E
F
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Equations involving sine


The cosine function y = sin x + D
Solving cosine equations
Trigonometric relationships
Investigation 4: Negative and
complementary angle formulae
Compound angle formulae
Investigation 5: Compound angle formulae
Double angle formulae
Investigation 6: Double angle formulae
The tangent function
Tangent equations
Other equations involving tanx
Quadratic trigonometric equations
Reciprocal trigonometric functions
Trigonometric series and products
Review set 13A
Review set 13B
Review set 13C
Review set 13D

H
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J
K
L
M
N
O

14 MATRICES
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L

M
N

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300
300
301
302
303
304
CD
CD

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B
C
D
E

17 LINES AND PLANES IN SPACE

423

Lines in a plane and in space


Applications of a line in a plane
Investigation: The two yachts problem
Relationship between lines
Planes and distances
Angles in space
The intersection of two or more planes
Review set 17A (2-D)
Review set 17B (3-D)
Review set 17C

18 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

A
B
C

335
336
348
348
349
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400
403
415
418
420
421
421
CD

D
E
F

306
308
311
313
314
318
321
324
326
329
331
332

381
387
395
397
398
CD

Complex numbers as 2-D vectors


Modulus, argument, polar form
De Moivres theorem
Roots of complex numbers
The n th roots of unity
Review set 16A
Review set 16B
Review set 16C

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B

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C
D
E
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G

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451
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455
CD

457

BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE IN
STATISTICS

458

Statistical enquiries
Investigation: Statistics from the internet
Populations and samples
Presenting and interpreting data

CD
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ANSWERS

CD

Continuous numerical data and histograms


Measuring the centre of data
Investigation: Merits of the mean
and median
Cumulative data
Measuring the spread of data
Statistics using technology
Variance and standard deviation
The significance of standard deviation
Review set 18A
Review set 18B

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19 PROBABILITY
A

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The scalar product of two vectors


The vector product of two vectors
Review set 15A (mainly 2-D)
Review set 15B (mainly 3-D)
Review set 15C (mainly 2-D)
Review set 15D (mainly 3-D)

16 COMPLEX NUMBERS

351

Vectors
Operations with vectors
2-D vectors in component form
3-D coordinate geometry
3-D vectors in component form
Algebraic operations with vectors
Vectors in coordinate geometry
Parallelism
Unit vectors

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305 C

Introduction
Addition and subtraction of matrices
Multiples of matrices
Matrix algebra for addition
Matrix multiplication
Using technology
Some properties of matrix multiplication
The inverse of a 22 matrix
Solving a pair of linear equations
The 33 determinant
The inverse of a 33 matrix
33 systems with unique solutions
Investigation: Using matrices in
cryptography
Solving using row operations
Induction with matrices
Review set 14A
Review set 14B
Review set 14C
Review set 14D
Review set 14E

15 VECTORS IN 2 AND
3 DIMENSIONS
A
B
C
D
E
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285

Experimental probability
Investigation 1: Tossing drawing pins
Investigation 2: Coin tossing experiments
Investigation 3: Dice rolling experiments

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D
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Sample space
Theoretical probability
Using grids to find probabilities
Compound events
Investigation 4: Probabilities of
compound events
Investigation 5: Revisiting drawing pins
Using tree diagrams
Sampling with and without replacement
Investigation 6: Sampling simulation
Binomial probabilities
Sets and Venn diagrams
Laws of probability
Independent events revisited
Probabilities using permutations and
combinations
Bayes theorem
Review set 19A
Review set 19B

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504
505

20 INTRODUCTION TO CALCULUS

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Investigation 1: The speed of falling objects


Rate of change
Instantaneous rates of change
Investigation 2: Instantaneous speed
Review set 20

A
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21 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
A

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B
C

Time rate of change


General rates of change
Motion in a straight line
Investigation: Displacement, velocity and
acceleration graphs
Some curve properties
Rational functions

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Derivatives of exponential functions


Investigation 1: The derivative of y = ax
Investigation 2: Finding a when
dy
y = ax and
= ax
dx
Using natural logarithms
Derivatives of logarithmic functions
Investigation 3: The derivative of lnx
Applications
Review set 23A
Review set 23B

Derivatives of circular functions


sin
near = 0
Investigation: Examining

The derivatives of reciprocal circular


functions
The derivatives of inverse circular functions
Maxima/minima with trigonometry
Related rates
Review set 24A
Review set 24B

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547
552

C
D
E

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25 INTEGRATION

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24 DERIVATIVES OF CIRCULAR
FUNCTIONS AND RELATED RATES 633

A
B
C
D
E

Antidifferentiation
Integration
Integrating eax+b and (ax + b)n
Integrating f (u)u0 (x) by substitution
Definite integrals
Review set 25A
Review set 25B
Review set 25C

26 INTEGRATION (AREAS AND


OTHER APPLICATIONS)

22 APPLICATIONS OF DIFFERENTIAL
A
CALCULUS
573
A
B
C

Inflections and shape type


Optimisation
Economic models
Implicit differentiation
Review set 22A
Review set 22B

23 DERIVATIVES OF EXPONENTIAL
AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS 617

543

The idea of a limit


Investigation 1: The slope of a tangent
Derivatives at a given x-value
The derivative function
Investigation 2: Finding slopes of
functions with technology
Simple rules of differentiation
Investigation 3: Simple rules
of differentiation
The chain rule
Investigation 4: Differentiating composites
Product and quotient rules
Tangents and normals
The second derivative
Review set 21A
Review set 21B
Review set 21C

B
C

F
G
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C
D
E

Areas where boundaries are curved


Investigation 1: Finding areas using
rectangles
The Fundamental
R btheorem of calculus
Investigation 2: a f (x) dx and areas
Finding areas between curves
Distances from velocity functions
Problem solving by integration
Review set 26A

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Review set 26B


Review set 26C

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27 CIRCULAR FUNCTION
INTEGRATION
A
B
C
D

693

Basic circular function integrals


Integrals of f (ax + b) circular functions
Definite integrals
Area determination
Review set 27A
Review set 27B

28 VOLUMES OF REVOLUTION
A
B

B
C

Solids of revolution
Volumes for two defining functions
Review set 28

F
G

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INDEX

828

712
713
715
716
717
725
726

727

Discrete random variables


Discrete probability distributions
Expectation
The mean and standard deviation of
a discrete random variable
Expected values (discrete random variable)
Investigation 1: E(aX + b)
and Var(aX + b)
The binomial distribution
Mean and standard deviation of a binomial
random variable
Investigation 2: The mean and standard
deviation of a binomial random variable
The Poisson distribution
Investigation 3: Poisson mean and variance
Continuous probability density functions
Normal distributions
Investigation 4: Standard deviation
significance
Investigation 5: Mean and standard
x
deviation of Z =

The standard normal distribution


(Z-distribution)
Applications of the normal distribution

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1
1
The integrals of p 2
and 2
2
x
+
a2
a x
Further integration by substitution
Integration by parts
Investigation: Functions which
cannot be integrated
Separable differential equations
Review set 29A
Review set 29B

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ANSWERS

704
707
710

30 STATISTICAL DISTRIBUTIONS
A
B
C
D

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700
702
CD

762
CD

703

29 FURTHER INTEGRATION AND


DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
A

Review set 30A


Review set 30B

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