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GMAT 6th edition Official Guide Drill Booklet

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Foundations of Math

Level I

FOUNDATIONS OF MATH I

In-Class Drills

Contents

Page

Warm Up: Order of Operations 3

Solutions to Warm Up

4

Equations

Principles

5

Rules and Tips

6

Drills

7-8

Games (Divisibility and Exponents)

Principles

9

Rules and Tips

10

Drills

11

Official Guide Problem Sets

Problem Solving

12

Data Sufficiency

13

The order of operations helps us determine the order in which we should perform

computations that simplify a term. The six operations in the correct order are

Parentheses, Exponents, Multiplication/Division and Addition/Subtraction.

Parentheses

Exponents

Multiplication

or Division

Addition or

Subtraction

Apply exponents. For instance, you might square a number: 32

Multiply or divide.

Remember that multiplication can be written in several ways:

32 = 3(2) = (3)2 = 6.

6

Also, division can be represented by fractions: 6 3 =

= 2.

3

6 + 9

= ( 6 + 9 ) 3 = 15 3

3

Add or subtract numbers.

PEMDAS is a useful acronym you can use to remember the order in which operations

should be performed.

If you have two operations at the same level of importance, you should just do them in

left-to-right order: 3 2 + 3 = 1 + 3 = 4. To override this order, you need to have

parentheses: 3 (2 + 3) = -2.

Simplify the following expressions to a single number:

1.

7(3 + 2) 9 =

P

E

M/D

A/S

3.

P

E

M/D

A/S

2.

25 5(3 1)2 =

P

E

M/D

A/S

3+1 9 3

+

=

2

3

4.

P

E

M/D

A/S

1.

7(3 + 2) 9 =

2.

25 5(3 1)2 =

P

E

M/D

A/S

7(5) 9

P

E

M/D

A/S

25 5(2)2

25 5(4)

25 - 20

5

35 9

26

7(3 + 2) 9 = 26

3.

P

E

M/D

A/S

3+1 9 3

+

=

2

3

4 6

+

2 3

2+2

4

3+1 9 3

+

=4

2

3

25 5(3 1)2 = 5

4.

P

E

M/D

A/S

3(4.0) 4(1)

12 4

8

EQUATIONS

Three basic skills serve as the foundation for successfully solving a variety of GMAT

quantitative problems:

1) Solving for a variable

2) Combining equations together

3) Turning words into numerical relationships

In order to comprehend, compute, and solve challenging problems in two minutes or less,

these three skills should be automatic. Lets start from the ground up

Solving for a variable: In order to solve for a variable, simply isolate the variable on one

side of the equation. Get rid of numbers attached to the variable by reversing the original

operations (for example, in order to isolate x in x + 5 = 7, you should subtract 5).

In many ways, isolating a variable is similar to unraveling a problem. If you become

unsure of the order in which you should work, remember to go in reverse of the order of

operations, PEMDAS. First, get rid of numbers that are being Subtracted from or Added

to the variable. Then get rid of numbers that the variable is being Divided or Multiplied

by. Then get rid of Exponents. Finally, get rid of Parentheses.

Additionally, you should take three other steps whenever the opportunity presents itself:

simplify blocks of work within the equation, always combine like-terms, and always

try to get variables out of denominators.

Combining equations: Students new to the GMAT often make the mistake of trying to

combine all the information in a long problem into one equation. Many problems are not

built to be solved this way. It is often much easier to create simple equations first,

because combining them later is generally not difficult.

There are two common methods for combining equations: substitution, which you will

use far more frequently, and elimination. The goal of both is the same: to end up with one

equation with one variable.

Turning words into numeric relationships: GMAT problems are often worded in a

way that makes it difficult to translate them into numeric relationships. An important

initial step is to correctly identify and label the unknowns. The rest of the problem is

there to tell you something about the relationship between these unknowns. Be on the

lookout for two common relationships: two parts that equal one another (tip: look for all

forms of the word is), and two parts that add to a total.

Checking your work: Successful test takers have a variety of efficient and effective

methods for checking their work. These test takers know how to (1) estimate, (2)

recognize limiting number properties, (3) eliminate unreasonable answer choices, and (4)

plug in numbers. In addition, you should be comfortable walking back through a problem

with your solution to make sure everything makes sense. Performed properly, this step

will help you catch most simple computation errors.

5

EQUATIONS

Combining Equations

operations (PEMDAS).

5(x 1)3 30 = 10

A/S

M/D

E

P

5(x 1) = 40

(x 1)3 = 8

(x 1) = 2

x=3

regardless of what variable you are asked to solve

for.

If 3x + y = 10, and

y = x 2, y = ?

Substitute from one equation into the other:

3x + (x 2) = 10

actions whenever you can:

(1) Simplify already-combined terms

(2) Combine common variables

(3) Cross-multiply to eliminate denominators

4x + 3 3 + 1

+

=5

2x 1

2

(1)

4x + 3

+2=5

2x 1

A/S

4x + 3

=3

2x 1

(3)

4x + 3 = 3(2x 1)

(1)

4x + 3 = 6x 3

(2)

3 = 2x 3

A/S

6 = 2x

M/D

3= x

Solve:

4x 2 = 10

4x = 12

x = 3. If x = 3, y = (3) 2 = 1.

Sometimes it is necessary to first isolate a variable

before you substitute:

If 3x + y = 10, and

y 2x = - 5, x = ?

Isolate: y = 2x- 5

Substitute: 3x + (2x 5) = 10

Solve:

5x 5 = 10

5x = 15

x=3

Sometimes you can eliminate a variable by adding

or subtracting entire equations from one another.

3x + y = 10

+ 2x y = 5

5x = 15

x=3

Common Terms:

is, was, were, will be, same

difference, less

of, times, product

average of x and y

(x + y)/2

y less than x

quotient, proportion

ratio of x to y

+

x-y

x/y

x/y

EQUATIONS DRILL #1

1. h + k = 40, k = h + 18

2.

30t + 50

= 25, q = t + 5

q

3. 7x + 4y = 43, y + 8 = 2x

4. 3k 2z = 16, 2z = 2k 12

EQUATIONS DRILL #2

1. * There are four more women than men on Centervilles board of education. If

there are ten members on the board, how many are women?

Variables:

Equations:

Combine and Solve:

Check your work:

2. If Sam were twice as old as he is, he would be 40 years older than Jim. If Jim is 10

years younger than Sam, how old is Sam?

Variables:

Equations:

Combine and Solve:

Check your work:

3.* The average of 10, 30, and 50 is 5 more than the average of x, 20, and 40.

What number is x?

Variables:

Equations:

Combine and Solve:

Check your work:

*This problem is reprinted or slightly adapted from the Official Guide for GMAT Review (11th Edition or Math Supplement),

published by the Graduate Management Admission Council.

GAMES

Divisibility Questions require you to understand numbers in terms of their basic

multiplicative building blocks. Problems that include the words divisible by, factor,

and multiple are generally divisibility questions.

The most basic multiplicative building blocks of a number are known as prime factors.

The factors of that number are all the terms that divide into the number cleanly. Factors

can be created by multiplying any combination of prime factors together. If the question

asks for a total number of factors, you must always also count 1 as a factor.

GMAT divisibility questions commonly work in reverse; instead of giving you a number,

they give you the factors, and ask what you can determine about the number from these

factors. In more difficult problems, factors often give overlapping information about the

building blocks of your number (the prime factors), because the same building blocks can

be used several times to create various factors.

Exponents are simply shorthand for multiplying or dividing the same number by itself

multiple times. Exponential terms consist of a base (the number being multiplied) and the

exponent (the number of times the number is being multiplied).

Exponential terms can only be combined if they have a common base or a common

exponent. Common base problems are, for the lack of a better word, more common on

the GMAT. It is often necessary to change the base of a term in order to have the

common bases necessary to combine terms.

The rules for combining exponents, like the rules of other types of shorthand, are difficult

to comprehend and memorize unless you understand the logic behind them. When in

doubt, think about exponent rules by writing out the multiplication or division that is

involved.

The fundamental rules of exponents involve basic multiplication and division. When

multiplying exponential terms with common bases, you should add the exponents. When

dividing exponential terms with common bases, you should subtract the exponents. Most

other exponent rules are derived from these two.

GAMES

Divisibility

Example: x = 45

Factors (all the different numbers you can form by combining the prime factors):

1, 3, 5, 9, 15, 45

1

33=9

3 5 = 15

3 3 5 = 45

Note: A number that doesnt have any factors other than 1 and itself is a prime number.

Exponents

a5 a3 = (aaaaa) (aaa) = a8

a 5 aaaaa

=

= a2

3

a

aaa

a0 = 1

a 2 =

1

1

= 2

aa a

6a 3a = 18a

1

2

a = a

6a

= 2a

3a

10

GAMES DRILL

1. List the prime factors and factors for the number 36.

Prime factors:

Factors:

2. If x is divisible by 6 and 9, then x must be a multiple of

I. 3

II. 18

III. 27

(A) I only

(B) I and II only

(C) II and III only

(D) I and III only

(E) I, II and III

3. Combine the following into one exponential term.

A. 5 4 5 2 5 1 =

g12

B. 4 3 =

(g )

C. 3295 =

D. 58 28 =

4. If 103x = 1000y, x =

A. y

B. y/2

C. y/3

D. 3y

E. y - 3

11

Equations

Combining Equations and Solving for a Variable

2015/13th Edition: 14, 42, 54, 55, 72, 102

2015/13th Quantitative Review: 2, 40, 41, 107

2016 Edition: 16, 47, 53, 54, 92, 126

2016 Quantitative Review: 11, 41, 42, 112

Word Problems

2015/13th Edition: 4, 60, 64, 76, 83, 88, 89, 93, 131, 137, 140, 154, 203

2015/13th Quantitative Review: 3, 13, 19, 25, 51, 52, 54, 62, 75, 94, 115, 124, 126, 127,

171

2016 Edition: 4, 71, 74, 95, 103, 109, 110, 115, 156, 162, 165, 176, 208

2016 Quantitative Review: 12, 24, 25, 51, 52, 54, 62, 101, 128, 130, 131, 172

Games

Divisibility

2015/13th Edition: 74, 77, 87, 95, 110, 116, 118, 127, 155, 174, 204, 219

2015/13th Quantitative Review: 68, 78, 98, 112, 125, 149, 164, 169, 172

2016 Edition: 93, 96, 106, 118, 132, 140, 143, 151, 177, 190, 209, 223

2016 Quantitative Review: 71, 77, 105, 115, 129, 148, 168, 170, 173

Exponents

2015/13th Edition: 106, 150, 164, 180, 196, 217, 230

2015/13th Quantitative Review: 47, 86, 96, 108, 147, 170

2016 Edition: 128, 174, 184, 193, 204, 221, 230

2016 Quantitative Review: 46, 85, 103, 113, 147, 171

12

Equations

Combining Equations and Solving for a Variable

2015/13th Edition: 60, 98, 171

Quantitative Review: 15, 35, 61, 80, 106

2016 Edition: 74, 113, 172

2016 Quantitative Review: 36, 57, 75, 78, 92

Word Problems

2015/13th Edition: 9, 28, 44, 54, 57, 65, 71, 78, 124, 126, 141, 142, 147

Quantitative Review: 6, 7, 9, 12, 13, 17, 26, 27, 29, 33, 84, 97, 108

2016 Edition: 4, 32, 57, 68, 71, 82, 89, 97, 139, 141, 153, 154, 158

2016 Quantitative Review: 18, 21, 23, 33, 34, 38, 51, 52, 55

Games

Divisibility

2015/13th Edition: 58, 83, 101, 135

Quantitative Review: 3, 16, 39, 45, 64, 70, 82, 87, 90, 92, 115

2016 Edition: 72, 102, 117, 149

2016 Quantitative Review: 37, 60, 66, 85, 94, 97, 100, 115

Exponents

2015/13th Edition: 41, 53, 169, 172

Quantitative Review: 18, 25, 54, 76, 79, 81, 100, 121

2016 Edition: 53, 65, 170, 173

2016 Quantitative Review: 39, 50, 73, 89, 91, 93, 106, 112

13

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