Anda di halaman 1dari 5

InternationalJournalofPhilosophyStudy(IJPS)Volume1Issue2,July2013 www.seipub.

org/ijps

ArchitecturalImagesinBuddhistScriptures,
BuddhismTruthandOrientalSpiritWorld
YifengWen
SchoolofArchitectureandUrbanPlanning,GuangzhouUniversity
Guangzhou,510006,China
wenyifeng1968@sina.com

Abstract

andspectacular,anditisnotonlyasimplegardenlike
the Eden, but full of building images, which was
associatedwiththetruthofOrientalreligions.

Architectural humanist Rykwert regarded that building is


representationofheavenplanning,butnobuildingswerein
the Garden of Eden in the Bible, whereas architectural
images were numerous and spectacular in Buddhism and
Taoismspiritualworld,whichwasassociatedwiththetruth
of Oriental religions. The rich architectural and landscape
images of spiritual kingdom were reflected in the art of
Buddhism and Taoism, which representing the
corresponding religious belief and transcendental realm of
beyondthisworld.

TheTruthofBuddhismandSpiritualPhenomenology
Ontology is discussion about what is true existence.
Buddhasaidthatallsecularpeoplehaveupsidedown
delusion,andonlyenlightenedBuddhacanliveinreal
kingdom and see innermind being. Buddha believed
that secular people cling to the reality of external
world,butnotrealizethathumanashumankindisjust
a kind of experience way. The authenticity of the
externalmaterialworldisjusttheresultoftheminds
project caused by Karma which makes secular people
fallingintoSamsarainlifeanddeathandnothavinga
rest. Diamond Sutra said: all secular reality and aim
are illusory. In Buddhism, only metaphysical empty
of nirvana can detach from the outside world and
showincredibletranscendentalforce.TheAvatamsaka
Sutrasaid:allthebuddhasinonethoughtcanclearly
show boundless world. The transcendental force of
nirvanacanfreecastallkindsofspiritualworld.

KeyWords
Buddhist Truth; Spirit World; Architectural Image; Spiritual
Phenomenology

Introduction
Architectural humanist Rykwert regarded that Adam
construct building, as named all living beings,
primarily is action imitating Gods creation. Building
constructed by Adam was not for the sake of
withstanding weather, but wrote a book by the
metaphorofhisownbody,isrepresentationofheaven
planning, among which himself is the core. Rykwert
put forward a disputable topic about the Garden of
Edenwherewestillneededbuilding.But,infact,there
is no clear description of the paradise architectures
imagesintheBibleforAdamimitatingastheChristian
heaven,becausetheChristianheavenismainlyakind
of moral metaphor, which ultimately leads westerner
todoabstracttheoryresearchabouttheuniverse.The
Koranalso hadless description about the kingdomof
heaven, and it only mentioned that the heaven is the
paradise near rivers; it partly because that the Islam
originated and mainly prevalent in desert areas, and
also because the Islam is against idolatry, forming a
kind of calmness, melancholy and introspective spirit
which is difficult to form rich imagery kingdom of
heaven. Whereas in the Buddhism and Oriental
spiritual world, the heaven images were numerous

When Einstein said: there must be an external nature


world that is the premise of physics. This saying not
only tells us the true meaning of basic concepts of
physics in fact being a great mystery, also makes us
backtoWillardVanOrmanQuinesquestionaboutthe
ontology of science concepts. Whether physics
concepts are convenient conceptual tools in the sense
of pragmatism philosophy, or some kinds of
ontologicalstatements.Quinnsaid:physicalobjectsare
not directly given things in experience, but as
convenient intermediary objects was introduced,
is a kind of contracted setting things in order to
simplify theory. In epistemology physical objects are
similarwiththegodsofHomerepic,allofthembeing
myth and fiction, but it just as a structure with
easy treatment of flow experience proved more
effective than other myths. Then, the ontology of

17

www.seipub.org/ijps InternationalJournalofPhilosophyStudy(IJPS)Volume1Issue2,July2013

sciencecanrefertowhatmeaning?

began to wake up in great wisdom. In this spiritual


and

state, the heart is not checked by material, but can

physics, Quinn confirmed his phenomenological

transformmaterialphenomena.Accordingtothistruth,

tendency.Hesaid:inavarietyofconceptstructureit

we began to read the ultimate meaning of spiritual

has that one namely called phenomenology requiring

kingdom images of Buddhism and the sacred land

epistemologicalpriority.Asphenomenonistheobject

projectedbyheartinreligiouspaintingsorarts.

of direct experience and directly existence, and not

The description of Sukhavati (Pure Land) in

being set up or introduced and more fundamental.

AmitayurdhyanaSutraisthat:towatchthisBuddha,

While

to

you must image on soil with seven jewels whereon

phenomenology approach no more but into another

lotus blossom with beautiful color and eightyfour

deadend.In1953inOnPsychologicalThingheflatly

thousand veins, as same as heaven picture; the veins

declared that the concept of pure feeling materialsis

had eightyfour thousand lights, all be seen clearly.

anextremelyemptyabstractandconfirmedthatthe

EveryleafdecoratedbybillionsofManibeadcovering

paradigm of nominalism is extremely difficult. This

everywhere, and every Mani beads put forward

difficult show in his disagree with Carnap who in

thousands of bright light as canopy decorated with

Logic Structure of World try to reduced all

seven jewels.... in the platform, naturally had Dhvaja

statementsaboutworldtothatofdirectexperience,i.e.

withfourpillarasbillionsofSumeruMountain,allthis

from the basic conceptual relations of original

likeSuyamaPalacewithpreciouscurtain.Theimages

experience to define all other concepts, so putting

showed in Dunhuang murals reflected the various

whole world into rational reconstruction. In On

Buddhismsacredlandofheavenlikethis,asshownin

What Things Exist Quinn said: to translate all

Fig.1. The Avatamsaka Sutra said: while light go

statements about physical objects through no matter

through millions of world, over eastern billions of

how complex and circuitous way into language of

world, as same as southern, western and northern, as

phenomenologyisstillactuallyimpossible.

well as four dimensions up and down, every worlds

Between

paradigm

Quinn

of

went

phenomenology

further

according

If this difficult should be resolved in scientific


philosophy itself, it involves a critique of the concept
of objectivity. Even only from the view of tool
rational,howthephysicalconceptsandtheirobjective
canbeunderstood,yetmustberesortedtoapriorism,
i.e.priorideasgivenbyGod, thatisthebasicspiritof
Western religion. Whereas in Oriental religions,

had billions Jambu Dvipa as well as billions of


Akanis!t!ha,allcontentsofthemareclearlyshowing.
That takes a more abstract, metaphysical way for
description.

Compared

to

the

Husserls

phenomenologywhichhadtoomanyproblemstodeal
with, the above Buddhist scriptures is a kind of
absolutespiritualphenomenology.

especiallyinBuddhism,theobjectivitybethoughtas
being constructed. For example, in Buddhisms view,
everybody see it is raining, but there is not a rain
ontological being, and rain is just produced by
similar karma of the most people. The word
similarisimportantandmustbepaidattention.Itis
just similar, and there is no objective thing with
absoluteidentityforeveryone.Buddhismbelievesthat

whenweseethematerialworldastheultimatereality,

FIG.1BUDHISMIMAGESSHOWEDINDUNHUANFRESCOES

we make a mistake, as same mistake as in dreaming


someone who think that he saw his head being

TheIdealofTaoismandRelatedArtImages

chopped off; if someone understands what he is

ComparedwithBuddhism,Taoismheavenworldpay

actually in the dream when he is awake, the man

more attention to beautiful scenes in this world for

18

InternationalJournalofPhilosophyStudy(IJPS)Volume1Issue2,July2013 www.seipub.org/ijps

imitation, such as the fairyland with three mountains

ideal is also, of course, the theme of Chinese scholar

intheEastChinaSeathatlikeadreamlandofmirage

paintings want to show, as seen in Fig. 2, while the

and a phantasm of remote islandswhich become an

Yongle Palaces mural directly gives the depiction of

archetype for classical Chinese garden. Taoisms ideal

variousfairylands.

is becoming an immortal being able to harness the


genuineenergyandflyfreelyinvariouswonderlands.
Xiao Yao as keyword in Zhuangzi, which means
transcendental easy and free, is particular
philosophicallanguageofZhuangzi,torefertoakind
of spiritual transcendental freedom beyond here and
now. Forget time and detach everything is
regardedasrealapproachfromvulgaritytofairyland.
IndevelopmentofTaoism,inadditiontoimagineout
abstract spiritual worlds including the highest Three

Pures realm, the more colorful fairy worlds reflected


inpoetries,paintingsandlegendarystories.Especially

FIG.2CHINESESCHOLARSLANDSCAPEPAINTINGS

scholarslandscapepaintingsclearlyreflectthisfeeling

Yongle Palaces mural which located at Shanxi

ofpassionforbeautifulscenery.InMingdynastymyth

ProvinceinChinaisaflowerofChineseancientmural

novelJourneytotheWestgaveverycleardepiction

paintings; its artistic value is comparable to that of

about fairyland worlds: mist and clouds in the

Dunhuang frescoes. It is not only an important

twilight, the moon and sun showing move, there is


thousands of old cypress and bamboo grove......,

masterpieceinChinesepaintings,alsoisrareprojectin

outside flowers like brocades, precious grasses are

the world painting history. The whole mural has a

fragrant beside bridges, green embellish around

total of 1000 square meters, respectively drawing on

abrupt cliffs, suspended rock with moss growing,

thewallofseveralbuildingsofthetemple,asshownin

frequently hearing the cry of cranes, often seeing the

Fig. 35. Among them, the Three Pures hall is a main

fly of phoenixes....., black apes and white deer are

building which had a mural called pilgrimage to the

hidden and appearing sometimes, golden lions and

OriginGod,asshowninFig.3.Thepicturebeing4.26

jadelikeelephantsbeingfreelyactionandrest,looking

meters high, 94.68 meters length, a total of 403.34

thoroughly at Elysian Fields, it is just a wonderful

squaremeters,depictsTaoistOrdinationRankswhich

heaven. This was the scenery firstly looked by

wascompletedindueforminearlyTangdynasty.

Monkey King just arriving at Lingtai Mountain and


Sanxing Cavity, then he went to the Heaven Palace
and saw that: before the building for pilgrimage,
crimson gauze clothing like the stars shining, lotus
crown is splendid and magnificent, all immortal with
jade hairpin, beaded shoe, purple ribbon and gold
award......, the Heaven Palace had jadegate withgold
nail and surrounded by winding corridors, wherein
colorful phoenixes and dragons flying, everywhere
were exquisitely carved. Lingtai Mountain and
Sanxing Cavity is a metaphor for heart in Chinese

character;thefairylandisjusttheproduceofTaoisms
FIG.3PILGRIMAGETOTHEORIGINGOD

heart with transcendental spiritual freedom. This

19

www.seipub.org/ijps InternationalJournalofPhilosophyStudy(IJPS)Volume1Issue2,July2013

Jiangxi, Zhongtiao Mountains in Shanxi andso onfor


secret cultivating Taoismand no one knowing his
eventualsituation.
The conclusions
Therearetwokindsofexistenceforman,namely,the
being of reality and transcendent; in other words,

FIG.4IMMORTAL

humanexistinthetworealms:thisworldandbeyond

world, and light is the interface of the two worlds.


The material world is that one under light, while
beyondlightis that of transcendent. Aristotle divided
two worlds as introlunar and ultralunar by moon,
but the light is a true thing that can separate two
worlds. Einstein said it is impossible to travel faster
than light, only because the light makes everything
hard for practical experience. In this sense, it is not

impossible to travel faster than light, but once we go

FIG.5ENLIGHTENINGLUDONGBIN

In the sector wall of Chunyang hall there is a mural


called Zhonglihan enlighten Ludongbin which
depicts Ludongbin and Zhonglihan sitting on a
mountain rock; the background is a vigorous pine,
flowing springs around. Zhonglihan who sit front the
pine, a twinkle in his eyes, with a kind and friendly
smileonhisfacewearinghempenshoeswithbarefoot,
topless and easy posture, just watch Ludongbin.
Ludongbin sit and listen with humbly demeanor; the
details of his hands catching sleeve, the left hand
gentlytwistingtherightsleeve,haveexposedtheinner
contradictionofuncertaintyaboutwhatheisgoingto
do, as shown in Fig.5. The story depicted by the

beyondthespeedoflight,whichmeansthatweentera
realm with infinite dimension for spirit. The truth of
Buddhism and ideal of Taoism is to enlighten human
to give up and from clinging to the external world of
ordinary experience, turning to pursuit the inner
transcendentalexistence.Thetranscendentalemptyof
nirvana is inconceivable infinite, even the Buddha
refusedtomakeanyconcreteanswerforwhataboutit.
Why the Buddha said human have an upsidedown
illusion, also because the transcendental nirvana as
well as its corresponding truth which is vastly
differentwithsocalledeverydaycommonknowledge.
REFERENCES

painting speciously reflects the world view and ideal


Taoism. The hero Ludongbin was born at YongLe

Rykwert. On Adams House in Paradise: The Idea of the

town in Ruicheng city in Tang dynasty (799 AD).

Primitive Hut in Architectural History. New York:

Ludongbins family background was official, at youth

MuseumArt,1972.

he was keen on imperial examinations and official

Wang Chengwen. On the formation of Deity System of

rank, but until 64 years old he just acquired a

ThreePuresinthemedievalTaoism:AnInvesitigationof

successful

imperial

the Dunhuang Manusicript Lingbao Perfect Text of

examinations. In legend, Ludongbin was pleased to

OriginalEndeavorofUniversalSalvation.JournalofSun

travel, and encounter the Taoism master Zhonglihan;

YatSenUniversity(socialscienceedition)2(2008):3459.

candidate

in

the

highest

by Zhonglihans enlightenment he hence gave up


human wealth, learning and practicing immortality,
and he successively traveled to Lushan Mountains in

20

WillardVanOrmanQuine.FromaLogicalPointofView.
HarvardUniversityPress,1980.
Yifeng Wen. The Fundamental Conception and Theory of

InternationalJournalofPhilosophyStudy(IJPS)Volume1Issue2,July2013 www.seipub.org/ijps

Natural Philosophy: A Megatheory of Green Building

Zhao Dehong. What is the Real Meaning of Xiao Yao in

and Ecohomeland. Applied Mechanics and Materials

Zhuangzi. Journal of Ancient Books Collation and

7178(2011):47014709.

Studies5(2012):8790.

21