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# Assignment- 3

## Flow in Constant Area Duct with Friction (Fanno Flow)

BE-4th, SEM-7th, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
SUBJECT: GAS DYNAMICS(030050706)
Q: 1 (Application based questions)
1. What is FannoFlow? Give practical examples.
2. When Fanno flow occurs inside the air-conditioning ducts, which parameters/
properties changes?
3. For the Fanno flow, How maximum length of pipe for a given mass flow rate is to be
calculated?
4. When flow is frictionally chocked, which action should be taken practically?
5. If heat transfer takes place during the flow process which parameters need to be
considering for the analysis of flow?
Q: 2 (Standard / Important basic questions)
1. What are the assumptions made in deriving the equations of fanno flow?
2. Write basic governing equations for Fanno flow in a constant area duct.
3. Write the momentum equation for fanno flow between two section dx apart, in a
constant area duct and explain the different terms.
4. What is the effect of friction on flow parameters in a compressible flow through
constant area duct?
5. Explain the meaning of Lmax in fanno flow.
6. Differentiate darcys friction factor and fanning friction coefficient.
7. Define mean frictional coefficient.
8. Explain explicit and implicit functions of FannoFlow.
9. Explain when flow is said to be frictionally chocked?
Q: 3 (Critical / Important Derivation)
1. Explain and derive the significance of maximum entropy condition for the flow of a
perfect gas in a constant area duct influenced by wall friction.
2. Derive expressions for pressure ratio, density ratio, temperature ratio, velocity ratio,
stagnation pressure ratio for the fanno flow of a perfect gas.
3. Derive an expression for non-dimensional impulse function in fanno flow.

## 4. Derive the expression for the slope of Fanno Flow curve.

Q: 4 (Methodology / Procedural steps)
1. Explain how friction in a constant area duct affects the flow if the flow is (i) Initially
subsonic (ii) Initially supersonic.
2. Discuss the effect of friction on compressible flow through a constant area duct and
explain the phenomenon of chocking.
3. Draw a neat sketch of Fanno Flow curves on Mollier Diagram.
Q: 5 (Numericals)
1. The Mach number of air flowing in a constant area duct has increased from 0.2 to 0.6
because off friction. Calculate pressure and velocity at the exit of the pipe if pressure
and temperature at the inlet of the pipe are 0.14 MPa and 21 0C.
2. In an experiment with air flowing adiabatically through a constant area duct, the
experimenter is said to have measured the values of pressure at section 1 and 2 as 150
kPa and 130 kPa respectively and temperature as 30 0C and 17 0C respectively. Verify
whether the measurement can be considered accurate.
3. The entropy increases for air flowing through a constant area duct is 124 J/kg K. Find
the velocity, pressure and temperature at the exit section if inlet pressure and
temperature are 7 bar and 333 K and inlet Mach no. is 0.25. Also find properties at the
sonic section in flow.
4. A 150 mm dia. Straight insulated pipe having a mean friction factor 0.005 is used for
carrying the compressed air to an industrial unit at a distance of 390 m from the
source. The compressed air at entry to the pipe has Mach number 0.1. The pressure
and temperature of air at inlet are 0.8 MPa and 27 0C. Calculate the mass flow rate
through the pipe. Also find the pressure, temperature, velocity and Mach no. of air at
the delivery end of the pipe.
5. At suction in fanno flow, the Mach no. is 0.7. The temperature and pressure of air at
the section are 300 K and 1.5 bar. Find the Mach no. and properties at a section 25 m
up stream of the section of the pipe if pipe is 50 mm dia and average friction factor is
0.004.
6. A circular duct of 30 mm diameter is fed by air by supersonic nozzle of throat
diameter 15 mm. a large reservoir supplies air to nozzle at a pressure of 750 kPa, 177
0

C. Find the conditions of air at the exit of duct. If the length of duct is 250 mm.

assume the nozzle flow is isentropic and flow through the duct is fanno flow with
average friction coefficient as 0.004.
7. Air flow is induced in a smooth insulated tube of 7.16 mm diameter by a vacuum
pump. Air is drawn from a room, wherep0=760 mm Hg (abs) andT0=230C, through a
smoothly contoured converging nozzle. At section 1, where the nozzle joins the
constant-area tube, the static pressure is 18.9 mm Hg (gauge). At section 2, located
some distance downstream in the constant-area tube, the static pressure is 412 mm Hg
(guage). The duct walls are smooth; assume the average friction factor, f, is the value
at section 1. Determine the length of duct required for choking from section 1, the
Mach number at section 2, and the duct length, L12, between sections 1 and 2. Sketch
the process on a T-S diagram.