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www.elsevier.com/locate/apthermeng

Heat transfer and pressure drop correlations for the wavy n and

at tube heat exchangers

Dong Junqi

a

a,*

Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China

b

Zhejing Yinlun Machine Co. Ltd., Zhejiang 317200, China

Received 23 August 2006; accepted 29 November 2006

Available online 12 January 2007

Abstract

A total of 11 cross-ow heat exchangers having wavy n and at tube were studied experimentally. A series of tests were conducted

for air side Reynolds number in the range of 8006500 with dierent n pitches, n lengths and n heights, at a constant tube-side water

ow rate of 2.5 m3/h. The air side thermal performance data were analyzed using the eectiveness-NTU method. The characteristics of

heat transfer and pressure drop for dierent geometry parameters were reported in terms of Colburn j-factor and Fanning friction factor

f, as a function of Re. The eects of n pitch, n height and n length on the performance of heat transfer and pressure drop were examined. The general correlations for j and f factors were derived by multiple linear regression analysis and F test of signicance. The correlations for j and f factors can predict 95% of the experimental data within 10%.

2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Flat tube heat exchangers; Performance testing; Wavy n; Correlation

1. Introduction

Extended or nned surfaces are widely used in compact

heat exchanger to enhance the heat transfer and reduce the

size. Common among these are automobile radiators,

charge air coolers, automobile air-conditioning evaporators and condensers to meet the demand for saving energy

and resources. In these applications, the heat transfer is

normally limited by the thermal resistance on the air side

of the heat exchangers. Therefore, various augmented surfaces have been developed to improve air side heat transfer

performance. Typical n geometries are plain ns, wavy

ns, oset strip ns, perforated ns and multi-louvered

ns, which, besides increasing the surface area density of

the exchanger, also improve the convection heat transfer

coecients. Of these, wavy ns are particularly attractive

for their simplicity of manufacture and potentials for

E-mail address: dongjunqi2008@163.com (D. Junqi).

1359-4311/$ - see front matter 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2006.11.012

thermal hydraulic performance of wavy n and round tube

heat exchangers have been studied by many researchers

[14]. However, the study of wavy n and at tube heat

exchanger is very limited [4]. The air-side thermal hydraulic

performance of wavy n and at tube heat exchangers

depends on the complex geometry of wavy n such as the

corrugation aspect ratio (2A/L), n spacing ratio (Fp/2A),

ow length ratio (Ld/L) and ow cross-section aspect ratio

(Fp/Fh) [5].

The surface corrugations of the wavy ns consist of triangular, sinusoidal, and trapezoidal patterns, and the ow

behavior has been studied both experimentally and computationally. Asako and Faghri [6] numerically investigated

two-dimensional steady laminar ow with Re = 100

1000, and heat transfer in plate channels with triangularproled wall corrugations that are maintained at a uniform

temperature. Subsequently, triangular corrugations with

round corners were considered [7]. Zhang et al. [5] numerical investigated the eects of wall-corrugation aspect

ratios and n space ratios on the vortex structure and

2067

Nomenclature

A

2A

Ac

Ao

Af

C

C*

Cp

De

d

Fh

Fp

f

h

hw

j

k

kc

ke

Ld

L

l

l0

m0

m_

NTU

Nu

N

Pr

Dp

area (m2)

twice of wavy n amplitude (mm)

minimum free-low area for air side (m2)

total air side heat transfer surface area (m2)

n surface area (m2)

heat capacity rate (W/k)

capacity ratio

specic heat at constant pressure (J/kg K)

hydraulic diameter of n entrance (m)

hydraulic diameter of tube hole (mm)

n height (mm)

n pitch (mm)

fanning friction factor

n heat transfer coecient of air side (W/m2 K)

heat transfer coecient of water side (W/m2 K)

Colburn j factor

thermal conductivity (W/(m K))

abrupt contraction pressure-loss coecient

abrupt expansion pressure-loss coecient

wavy n length (mm)

wavy n wavelength (mm)

length of at tube (mm)

Eq. (9), l 0 = Fp

h/2

mass ow rate (kg/s)

number of transfer units

Nusselt number

number of the experimental data

Prandtl number

air side pressure drop in inlet and outlet of heat

exchanger (Pa)

Likewise, Metwally and Manglik [8] have investigated

two-dimensional periodically developed laminar ow and

heat transfer in sinusoidal wavy channel with dierent corrugation aspect ratios. More complex three-dimensional,

cross-corrugated have also been computationally modeled

in a few recent studies [911]. Goldstein and Sparrow [12]

rst studied the corrugated channels with triangular waves

used the naphthalene sublimation method. Rush et al. [13]

conducted ow visualization test for sinusoidal wavy passages to investigate the local heat transfer and ow behavior of the uid in the laminar and transitional ow region.

Using the visualization methods, they reported that the

ow eld is characterized as steady and unsteady and

the location of the onset of mixing is found to depend on

the Reynolds number and channel geometry. In all, it has

generally been observed that wall corrugations induce a

steady vortex or swirl ow in the trough region of the wavy

wall in the low Reynolds number. This results in ow mixing and boundary layer disruption and thinning, thereby

signicantly enhancing the heat transfer.

Q

Qa

Qw

Re

Rew

T1

T2

u

u1

v

d

dwall

gf

ga

e

s

U

air side heat transfer rate (W)

water side heat transfer rate (W)

air side Reynolds number based on n entrance

diameter (u1De/v)

water side Reynolds number based on at tube

hole hydraulic diameter

inlet temperature (C)

outlet temperature (C)

air frontal air velocity (m/s)

maximum air velocity in the n (m/s)

viscosity (m2/s)

n thickness

tube wall thickness

n eciency

air side heat transfer surface eectiveness

eectiveness

contraction ratio of the n array

j or f factor

Subscripts

a

air side

cor

correlation

exp

experimental

f

n

Min

minimum value

Max

maximum value

w

water side

wall

tube wall

scale experiments studying the thermal hydraulic performance of wavy n and at tube heat exchangers. The earliest experimental data are given in the classical Kays and

London [14] sourcebook, though it includes only three

types wavy n. The tests covered a range of Reynolds number from 400 to 8000. And after that, little experimental

data of wind tunnel can be found in the public literatures

[11]. As for the general correlations for heat transfer and

pressure drop of the wavy ns, Jacobi et al. in 2001 [4]

reported that it is can not be obtained in the open literatures. General correlations for heat transfer and pressure

drop of the wavy n are not available in the literatures as

quoted by Jacobi et al. [4]. Hence, the generation of the

correlations for heat transfer and pressure drop for wavy

ns is the main objective of the present work.

The present study investigates experimentally the thermal hydraulic performance for wavy n and at tube heat

exchangers with 11 samples. The wavy ns are triangular

prole with round corners for dierent n pitches, n

heights and n lengths. The heat transfer coecients and

2068

and the nozzles were, respectively, measured by precision

dierential pressure transducers, whose accuracies were

0.4% and 0.25%. The model of the two dierential pressure

transducers are WIDERPLUS-DP and C268, and both of

them are mad in China. The air ow measuring station was

a multiple nozzle code tester based on the ISO 5167

standard.

The hot water ow loop consisted of a storage tank, a

100 kW electric heater, a centrifugal pump, a control unit

and a ow meter. The purpose of this loop was to transfer

heat to the air owing through the heat exchangers. The

temperature of the hot water in the water tank was measured by pre-calibrated RTDs (Pt-100 X) and was controlled by the temperature controller. Its accuracy was

within 0.1 C. After heating the water to the required temperature, the hot water was pumped out of the storage

tank, delivered to the heat exchanger and then returned

to the storage tank. The water temperatures at the inlet

and outlet of the heat exchanger were measured by two

per-calibrated RTDs (Pt-100 X) which have an accuracy

of 0.1 C.

pressure drop for the heat exchangers with dierent geometrical congurations are reported in terms of Colburn j

factor and Fanning friction factor f, as a function of Reynolds numbers based on the n entrance hydraulic diameter. The general correlations for j and f factors are

developed.

2. Experimental

2.1. Experimental set-up

Fig. 1 shows the schematic diagram of the wind tunnel

used in the study. Air and hot water were used as working

uids. The main components of the systems were the heat

exchangers, water ow loop, air supply, instrumentations

and data acquisition systems. The wind tunnel system

was designed to suck room air over the nned side of the

heat exchangers by a 15 kW centrifugal fan. The speed of

the fan could be adjusted by a frequency inverter. The tunnel was a rectangular duct 270 220 mm in cross-section.

To minimize heat loss to the surroundings, the tunnel surface was insulated with a 10 mm thick glass wool layer.

Being supported by stands of perforated steel plate, the

tunnel system was kept 75 cm above the oor level of the

laboratory.

The inlet and exit temperature across the air side of the

heat exchangers were measured by two T-type thermocouple meshes. The inlet measuring mesh consists of eight

thermocouples while the exit mesh contains sixteen thermocouples. These thermocouples were pre-calibrated which

have an accuracy of 0.1 C. The measuring points were

located at positions as described in the ASHRAE standard.

These data signals were individually recorded and then

18

Figs. 2 and 3 indicate geometrical conguration and terminology of wavy n and at tube heat exchangers. The

number of the tested wavy n and at tube heat exchanger

samples is 11. Table 1 shows the specications of the wavy

ns tested in this study. All tested samples core sizes are

about 250 200 mm due to the dierent n height. All

tested ns were checked before brazing and overall heat

exchangers quality after brazing was excellent.

17

12

14

1

10

8

11

15

13

Data acquisition system

1, air inlet

2, honey cone straightener

3, T/C inlet temperature

measuring station

4, pressure tap (inlet)

5, test unit

6, pressure tap (outlet)

7, T/C outlet temperature

measuring station

8, setting means

9, static pressure tap

10,

11,

12,

13,

14,

15,

16,

17,

18,

variable exhaust fan system

air outlet

difference pressure tap nozzle

inlet temperature tap water

outlet temperature tap water

data acquisition system

hot water tank

water pump

2069

on the principle that the water side thermal resistance is less

than 20% and the temperature drop in the tube side is

higher than 2.0 C [15]. The water ow rate were maintained at 2.5 m3/h. All the experimental data was obtained

on basis of the heat balance which is less than 3%.

2.4. Data reduction

Heat transfer rate required for the calculation of air-side

heat transfer coecient can be expressed as

Q Qw Qa =2;

Qw m_ w C pw T w1 T w2 ;

The tested wavy n and at tube heat exchanger was

installed in the test system. In this work, the exchanger

height was less than the tunnel dimensions, and the bypass

ows were eliminated by a thin layer of foam plastic sandwiched between the heat exchanger core and tunnel edge.

Upon completion of the hot water side links, the water tube

was completely insulated with a 15 mm thick layer of glass

wool. The test was performed in a range of Reynolds number, which is based on hydraulic diameter of n entrance

and maximum air velocity [14], of 8006500. The inlet

water temperature was maintained at 90 C with a constant

Qa m_ a C pa T a2 T a1 :

1

2

Eectiveness-NTU method can be used for obtaining airside heat transfer coecient. The equation for both uids

unmixed is [15],

NTU0:22 expC NTU0:78 1

;

C

C min

m_ a C pa

e Q=Qmax ; C

;

C max m_ w C pw

e 1 exp

3

4

heat exchangers as

UA m_ a C pa NTU:

Fp

Flat Tube

Fh

Fin

A

Fin

Ld

Flat Tube

A-A

Table 1

Specication of wavy n parameters (mm)

No.

Wavelength (L)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

2.0

2.25

2.5

2.0

2.25

2.5

2.0

2.25

2.5

2.0

2.0

8.0

8.0

8.0

8.0

8.0

8.0

7.0

7.0

7.0

8.0

10.0

65.0

65.0

65.0

53.0

53.0

53.0

43.0

43.0

43.0

43.0

43.0

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

10.8

10.8

10.8

10.8

10.8

10.8

10.8

10.8

10.8

10.8

10.8

the following equation, assuming zero water side fouling

resistance. Due to the contact resistance of the at tube

and n is a resource of uncertainty, the eect of contact

resistance is included in the derived air side resistance

6

Eq. (6) indicates the water side thermal resistance and the

third term means the tube wall thermal resistance. For

water-side heat transfer coecients, the Gnielinskis correlation [16,17] for fully developed turbulent ow for the pipe

ow is used. That is

"

2=3 #

d

0:87

0:4

Nuw 0:012Rew 280Pr 1

:

7

l

The surface eectiveness and n eciency for the dry surface of wavy ns are [17]:

gf

Af

1 gf ;

Ao

tanhm0 l0

;

m 0 l0

s

2h

0

m

;

kf d

8

l F h =2:

obtained using the iterative calculation, since the n eciency is the function of heat transfer coecient h.

The Colburn j factor is dened as

h

Pr2=3

10

j

qu1 C p

0.12

Fp=2.00mm Ld=65mm

Fp=2.25mm Ld=65mm

Fp=2.50mm Ld=65mm

0.012

0.08

0.01

The core friction of the heat exchangers was reduced to obtain the Fanning friction factor f. In present study, the pressure drop equation proposed by Kays and London [14],

including the entrance and exit pressure losses, was used to

evaluate the friction factor. The air is treaded as incompressible uid, and the density of air is treated as constant according to average air temperature. The simple equation is

Ac

2Dp

f

kc ke ;

11

qu21

Ao

ui D e

12

Re

v

0.008

0.04

0.006

0.004

600

800 1000

2000

4000

6000

8000

Re

0.014

0.12

Fh=7.0mm Ld=43mm

Fh=8.0mm Ld=43mm

Fh=10.0mmLd=43mm

0.012

0.08

0.01

j factor

According to the geometry parameters of heat exchanger and the graph given by Kays and London [14], the kc

and ke are 0.4 and 0.2. Accounting for all instrument

errors, property uncertainties, and geometry tolerances,

the uncertainties for the j and f factors are 9.2% and

8.1%, respectively [18].

0.014

0.008

0.04

0.006

3.1. j and f factors versus Reynolds number

600

the tested wavy n and at tube heat exchangers are pre-

f factor

ga 1

f factor

1

1

1

dwall

:

hga Ao UA hw Aw k wall Awall

factor f, which are plotted versus the Reynolds number

based on the n entrance hydraulic diameter. Figs. 46

illustrates the eects of n pitch, n height and n length

on the performance of heat exchangers having dierent

geometry parameters. From these gures, it is observed

that the geometry parameters of wavy ns have signicant

eect on the j factor as a function of Re.

Fig. 4 shows that the j and f factors increase with

increasing n pitch at the same Re, in which the wavy have

the same n length of 65.0 mm and n height of 8.0 mm.

The cause of this result from the phenomena is that, when

the n pitch increases, the air ow inside the corrugated

ow channel can be mixed better at the same Reynolds

number. And this better mixing leads to an increase of

the heat transfer coecient. The explanation can be conrmed by the results of Manglik and Zhang [11] with 3D

numerical simulation method for wavy ns. At the same

time, the phenomena also result in the pressure drop

increase. The behaviors of hydraulic thermal performance

with n pitch are dierent, compared with the conventional

nned tube heat exchangers. Wongwises [3] reported that

j factor

2070

800

2000

4000

6000

Re

2071

0.010

0.012

0.12

Ld=65mm Fh=8.0mm

Ld=53mm Fh=8.0mm

0.009

+10%

0.08

0.008

f factor

-10%

j cor

j factor

0.009

0.04

0.006

0.007

0.006

0.005

600

800

2000

4000

6000

Re

0.004

0.004

0.005

0.006

0.007

0.008

0.009

0.010

j exp

0.08

Based on the previous discussion, it is obvious from the

test data that no single curve can be expected to describe

the complex behaviors about the heat transfer and friction

characteristics of the wavy n. For easier engineer calculation, the empirical correlations for j and f factors were performed by multiple linear regression and F signicance test

[20] on basis of 154 experimental data with dierential

wavy n geometries. The corresponding correlations are

given as follows:

+10%

0.07

0.06

-10%

f cor

and pressure drop characteristics of ned tube heat

exchangers.

Fig. 5 presents the eect of n height on j and f factors

of wavy n with n pitch of 2.0 mm and n length of

43.0 mm as a function of Re. From Fig. 7, it is interesting

to observe that the j factor increase with increasing n

height, while the eects of n height on the f factor is little.

The result is dierent to the theory that the n height has

little eect on the characteristics of heat transfer which

was adopted by many numerical researchers whose numerical model is 2D [58]. And the result is similar to that of

Manglik and Zhang [11] 3D numerical simulation, who

reported that, with increasing ow cross-section aspect

ratio, the spatial coverage and strength of the counterrotating vortices are seen to increase, resulting in convective mixing and enhanced heat transfer.

From the Fig. 6 can be observed the eects of n length

on the j and f factors against the Re. In the comparison, the

wavy ns have the same n height of 8.0 mm and n pitch

of 2.0 mm. The j and f factors decrease with increasing n

length under the same Re. The reason may be that the eect

of uid entrance is relatively obvious for wavy n. This

result is in accord with the conclusions of Yasar [19],

who utilized the numerical simulation and reported that

the uid ow and heat transfer become periodically fully

development after 35 cycles.

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

fexp

factor.

wavy ns:

0:1284 0:153 0:326

Fp

Ld

0:2309 F p

j 0:0836Re

:

13

Fh

2A

L

Correlation of the frictional performance of the wavy ns

0:3703 0:25 0:1152

Fp

Ld

0:309 F p

f 1:16Re

:

14

Fh

2A

L

Fig. 7 shows the comparison of j and f factors of the

experimental results with those of the proposed correlations. For the heat transfer and friction f factor correlations, Eqs. (13) and (14) can predict 95% of the

experimental data within 10%. The mean deviations of

the correlations Eqs. (13) and (14) are 4.4% and 5.1%,

and the average deviations are 0.4% and 0.3%, according to the Eqs. (15) and (16) [21].

!

1 X /cor /exp

Average deviation

100%;

15

N

/exp

!

1 X j/cor /exp j

100%:

16

Mean deviation

N

/exp

2072

0.018

Present Correlation 11.44-3/8W

Kays and London 11.5-3/8W

Present Correlation 11.5-3/8W

j factor

0.015

0.012

0.009

0.006

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

Re

0.12

Present Correlation 11.44-3/8W

Kays and London 11.5-3/8W

Present Correlation 11.5-3/8W

n length on the thermal hydraulic performance are examined. On the basis of previous discussions, the following

conclusions are made:

1. The j and f factors decrease with increasing Re, in the

tested range of Re, Re = 8006500. And the j and f factors increases with n space increasing at the same Re;

the j factor increases with n height, while the n height

has little eect on the f factor as a function of Re.

2. Correlations of heat transfer and pressure drop for the

wavy ns are developed. The proposed correlations give

fairly good predictive ability against the present test

data. The mean deviations of the correlations for j and

f factors are 4.4% and 5.1%, and the average deviations

are 0.4% and 0.3%, respectively.

Acknowledgements

0.09

f factor

The authors acknowledge the nancial support of Zhejiang Yinlun Machine Co. Ltd. We are grateful to Dr.

Niu and Xianhui Zhang for providing the valuable comments. It would not have been possible to carry out this

study without their help.

0.06

References

0.03

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

Re

other experiment data for wavy n. The Kays and London

experiment data is only database for the wavy n from the

public literatures, although it only includes three dierent

wavy n geometries. The present correlations of j and f factor compared with the experiment data of Kays and London based on two wavy ns, which are named 11.43/

8 W and 11.53/8 W [14]. As for the j factors and f factors,

compared with experiment data, the average deviation are

22.6% and 11.5%. This indicates that the present correlations predict the values of j and f factors are smaller than

those of Kays and London under the same Re. We think

the main reasons for the dierence are that the proles of

wavy ns are not identical to those of Kays and London.

The wavy ns proles in this study are the triangular proles with round corners, however the Kays and Londons

wavy n proles are sinusoidal. Another, the fact should

not be neglected that the experimental heat exchangers

cores manufacture irregularities are not identical due to

dierent manufacture, which also result in the dierence.

4. Conclusions

The present experimental study reports the air side thermal hydraulic performance of the wavy n and at tube

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