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FIG.

11-6

E+B
Number of
=
Concentrations (cycles)
B

Mechanical Forced Draft Counterflow Tower

2.0 + (0.2 + 0.3)


=
= 5.0
(0.2 + 0.3)

Water
Sprays

If the resultant concentrations are excessive and a desired concentration of 4.0 is required, what must the blowdown rate be?
B =
=

Air
Out

Air
In

E
Cycles 1
2.0
= 0.67%
4.0 1

The windage component of B is 0.3%, therefore the blowdown


rate required would be 0.67 0.3 = 0.37% or
(10,000 gpm) (0.0037) = 37 gpm

CONCENTRATION CYCLES

Water
Out

Fan

The concentration of compounds occurring in circulating


water systems that can cause scaling or corrosion of equipment must be controlled at a desirable level. This concentration level, developed on each system, is based on the quality of
makeup water and the water treating chemicals used to control corrosion or scaling. The concentration is usually reported
as concentration cycles and refers to the number of times the
compounds in the makeup water are concentrated in the blowdown water. For example, if the concentration in the makeup
water were 125 ppm and the concentration of the blowdown
were 563, the concentration cycles would be 563/125 or 4.5
cycles. The compounds are concentrated by the loss of water
through evaporation and windage. The evaporation loss is
based on the fact that 1,000 Btu are required to evaporate
one (1) pound of water. The heat of evaporation is furnished
by cooling the circulating water. One hundred (100) pounds of
water must be cooled 10 to furnish this amount of heat, therefore, evaporation loss is 1% of tower circulation for each 10
temperature drop through the tower.

FIG. 11-7a
Mechanical Induced Draft Counterflow Tower
Air
Out
Fan

Water
Inlet

Air In

Air In
Watet
Outlet

TYPES OF COOLING TOWERS


Cooling towers have two types of air flow: crossflow and
counterflow. In crossflow towers, the air moves horizontally
across the downward flow of water. In counterflow towers, the
air moves vertically upward against the downward fall of the
water.

FIG. 11-7b
Mechanical Induced Draft Cross Flow Tower
Air
Out

There are many types and sizes of cooling towers:

Mechanical Draft Towers

Fan

Fans are used to move the air through the mechanical draft
tower. The performance of the tower has a greater stability
because it is affected by fewer psychrometric variables. The
fans provide a means of regulating the air flow. Mechanical
draft towers are characterized as either forced draft or induced
draft.
Forced draft towers (Fig. 11-6) The fan is located on
the air stream entering the tower. This tower is characterized
by high air entrance velocities and low exit velocities, therefore, the towers are susceptible to recirculation thus having a
lower performance stability. The fans can also be subject to
icing under conditions of low ambient temperature and high
humidity.

11-13

Water
In

Air
In

Water
Out

Air
In

FIG. 11-8

FIG. 11-10

Mechanical Draft Coil Shed Tower

Hyperbolic Natural Draft Tower


Air
Outlet

Air
Outlet
Gear
Drive

Air
Inlet

Fill

Drift
Eliminators

Water
Inlet

Fan

Air
Inlet

Fill

Coils

Air
Inlet

Hot
Water
Inlet

Water
Outlet

Water Outlet

Natural Draft Towers


FIG. 11-9

Atmospheric spray towers (Fig. 11-9) Cooling towers


of this type are dependent upon atmospheric conditions. No
mechanical devices are used to move the air. They are used
when small sizes are required and when low performance can
be tolerated.

Atmospheric Spray Tower


Air Outlet
Water Inlet

Hyperbolic natural draft towers (Fig. 11-10) These


towers are extremely dependable and predictable in their
thermal performance. A chimney or stack is used to induce air
movement through the tower.

Distribution
System

Air In

Air In

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY


1. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning
Engineers, "ASHRAE HandbookFundamentals," Table 1,
Chapter 6, Atlanta, Georgia.

Water Outlet

2. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning


Engineers, "ASHRAE HandbookFundamentals," Tables 1, 2
and 3, Chapter 24, Atlanta, Georgia.

Cold Water
Collection Basin

Induced draft towers (Fig. 11-7) The fan is located on


the air stream leaving the tower. This causes air exit velocities
which are three to four times higher than their air entrance
velocities. This improves the heat dispersion and reduces the
potential for recirculation. Induced draft towers require about
one (1) horsepower of input for every 8000 cfm of air.3
Coil shed towers (Fig. 11-8) This application exists in
many older cooling towers. The atmospheric coils or sections
are located in the basin of the cooling tower. The sections are
cooled by flooding the surface of the coils with cold water. Reasons for discontinued use were scaling problems, poor temperature control, and construction costs. This type tower can
exist both as mechanical or natural draft.

11-14

3. Evans, Frank L., Jr., "Equipment Design Handbook for Refineries


and Chemical Plants," 2nd ed., Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas.