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ProMax

Level 1 Training:
Air Emissions

Bryan Research & Engineering, Inc


Chemical Engineering Consultants
P.O. Box 4747 Bryan, Texas, USA 77805
Phone: +1-979-776-5220
E-mail: support@bre.com or sales@bre.com

2013 BRE Group, Ltd.


v1509

BRE Group, Ltd


Copyright 2013

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Overview of Air Emissions ..................................................................................................................5
Separator Basics ........................................................................................................................................................6
Lab Analyses ..............................................................................................................................................................7
Phase Envelopes ........................................................................................................................................................7
Tank Internals for Feeds Below Liquid Level .............................................................................................................8
Tank Internals for Feeds Above Liquid Level .............................................................................................................8

Overview of ProMax ..........................................................................................................................9


Interface ............................................................................................................................................9
ProMax Menu ..........................................................................................................................................................10
ProMax Shapes ........................................................................................................................................................11
Project Viewer .........................................................................................................................................................11
Content ...............................................................................................................................................................11
Color Convention ................................................................................................................................................12
Building Your Simulation .........................................................................................................................................12
Defining Environments .......................................................................................................................................12
Drawing the Flowsheet .......................................................................................................................................13
Defining an Oil ....................................................................................................................................................14
Defining Streams/Blocks .....................................................................................................................................16
Multiple Flowsheets ................................................................................................................................................23
Exporting/Appending Flowsheets .......................................................................................................................24
Excel Interactions ....................................................................................................................................................24

ProMax Reports ............................................................................................................................... 25


Updating the User Defined Report Tool ..................................................................................................................26

Using the Scenario Tool in ProMax ................................................................................................. 27


Available Analyses in ProMax ........................................................................................................... 28
Using a Simple Specifier in ProMax ................................................................................................... 29
Using a Simple Solver in ProMax ...................................................................................................... 30
Writing the Simple Solver Expression: ................................................................................................................30

Creating a Short Moniker in ProMax ................................................................................................. 31


User Defined Variables ..................................................................................................................... 32
Property Stencil ............................................................................................................................... 33
Updating the Property Stencil .................................................................................................................................36

Tank Losses Shape ........................................................................................................................... 37


True Vapor Pressure ................................................................................................................................................38

Reverse Separator............................................................................................................................ 39
ProMax Air Emissions Exercises ........................................................................................................ 41
Exercise 1 Flowsheet Basics ..................................................................................................................................41
Exercise 2 Sample Validation ................................................................................................................................43
Exercise 3 Flash Emissions ....................................................................................................................................44
Exercise 4 - Tank Losses ...........................................................................................................................................45
Exercise 5 - Process Emissions .................................................................................................................................48
Exercise 6 - Flares ....................................................................................................................................................50
Exercise 7 Back Blending ......................................................................................................................................52
Exercise 8 Linking Flowsheets and Projects ..........................................................................................................54

Exercise 9 - User Value Sets.....................................................................................................................................55


Exercise 10 Excel Import/Export...........................................................................................................................56
Exercise 11 - Reports ...............................................................................................................................................57
Exercise 12 Reverse Separator ..............................................................................................................................58

Additional Exercises ......................................................................................................................... 60


Exercise 13 Additional User Value Sets ................................................................................................................60
Exercise 14 Additional Import/Export from Excel ................................................................................................62
Exercise 15 Environmental BTEX Calculations ......................................................................................................63
Exercise 16 Pipeline Simulation ............................................................................................................................64
Exercise 17 Simple MDEA Sweetening Unit .........................................................................................................65
Exercise 18 Glycol Dehydration Unit ....................................................................................................................66

Solutions ......................................................................................................................................... 67

OVERVIEW OF AIR EMISSIONS


Oil, gas and process industries affect the atmosphere due to the quantity of emissions and types of chemicals
emitted. Environmental performance of these industries is regulated by government agencies in the interest of
public health. Air emissions in the United States are regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), often
in conjunction with state or local agencies.

A hazardous air pollutant (HAP) is a chemical specifically designated by the EPA as having adverse human
health or ecological impacts. At the time of the 1990 Clean Air Act, 187 chemicals were designated as
hazardous, although additions and removals have been made. 1

Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are defined as any carbon compound which participates in atmospheric
photochemical reactions, with some exceptions. Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbonic
acid, metallic carbides and ammonium carbonate are all excluded from the list of VOCs. Additionally,
methane and ethane, together with a list of others in 40 CFR 51.100(s), are exempt.2

Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) are aromatic hydrocarbons classified both as VOCs and
HAPs. These compounds make up a considerable fraction of the hydrocarbon produced from oil & gas
wells, and thus are of concern to operating companies and environmental regulators alike.

Greenhouse gases (GHG) are believed to contribute to climate change. Carbon dioxide is the most
prevalent greenhouse gas, released from both process and combustion sources. Other common
greenhouse gases include methane and nitrous oxide, which are reported to have 25 and 298 times the
global warming potential of carbon dioxide, respectively. 3

An emission factor (EF) is the relationship between the amount of pollution produced and the amount of
raw material processed or number of product units produced. These factors are usually expressed as the
weight of pollutant divided by a unit weight, volume, distance, or duration of the activity emitting the
pollutant.4

Global Warming Potential (GWP) is how much radiation, on a mass basis, components reflect as
compared to carbon dioxide.

Nitrous oxides (NOx) refer to a group of highly reactive gases including NO, NO2 and N2O, which are
formed in high temperature combustion. Of this group, NO2 is considered of the highest interest and
tracked as an indicator for the larger group of nitrous oxides.5

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a toxic gas which also contributes to acid rain through a reaction with atmospheric
water. Sulfur dioxide is a product when sulfur-rich fuels or process streams are burned6.

Particulate matter (PM) is a measure of the tiny solids suspended in the atmosphere with a size between
0.1 and 10 m. The majority of particulates are naturally occurring, including mineral dust and sea salt.
Industrial activity such as fuel combustion can contribute to particulate pollution.7

Criteria pollutants are ozone, lead, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and particulate
matter. They may be directly emitted or the product of atmospheric reactions. Criteria pollutants are the
subject of national ambient air quality standards.8

1 US EPA. Air Toxics Web Site: Rules and Implementation. 19 April 2011. http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/eparules.html
2 US EPA. Definition of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC). 31 March 2009. http://www.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/ozone/ozonetech/def_voc.htm
3 US EPA. Greenhouse Gas Emissions. 20 April 2011. http://epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/index.html.

US EPA, Air Quality Emission Factor, 06 June 2015. http://www.epa.gov/airquality/aqmportal/management/emissions_inventory/emission_factor.htm

5 US EPA. Nitrogen Dioxide. 28 October 2010. http://www.epa.gov/oaqps001/nitrogenoxides/


6 US EPA. Sulfur Dioxide. 30 March 2011. http://www.epa.gov/oaqps001/sulfurdioxide/
7 US EPA. Particulate Matter. 16 March 2011. http://www.epa.gov/pm/.
8 US EPA. Six Common Air Pollutants. 01 July 2010. http://www.epa.gov/oaqps001/urbanair/

Air emissions from a facility are categorized as point source or fugitive. Point source emissions come from a single,
identifiable location such as a tank vent or exhaust stack. Point sources may be equipped with continuous
emissions monitoring systems to measure pollutant type and rate at regular intervals. For the vast majority of
point sources, pollutant type and rate are estimated with engineering calculations or process simulation. Fugitive
emissions escape through valve packing, pump seals, flanges and the like; they are usually estimated on a plantwide basis using emissions factors.

SEPARATOR BASICS
A two-phase separator is a vessel that provides a sufficient amount of time in the unit for a vapor/liquid mixture to
completely separate into a vapor phase and a liquid phase, with a stream from the top of the separator removing
vapor phase material, and a stream on the bottom removing liquid-phase material. The two phases are considered
to be in equilibrium inside the separator, which implies that the vapor stream leaving the separator is at its dew
point, and that the liquid stream is at its bubble point. A vapor at its dew point is saturated with liquid, i.e. the
slightest temperature decrease or pressure increase will cause a drop of liquid to form in the vapor. Likewise a
liquid at its bubble point is saturated with vapor, and the slightest temperature increase or pressure decrease will
cause a bubble to form in the liquid. Additionally, if the are in equilibrium in the separator, the vapor and liquid
streams leaving the tank will be at the same temperature and pressure.

Similarly, a three-phase separator is a vessel that provides the residence time necessary for a vapor/liquid/liquid
mixture to separate into three phases (typically a vapor phase, organic phase, and aqueous phase). The separator
will have connections to remove material from each phase. The three phases are considered to be in equilibrium,
which implies that the two liquid phases are both saturated with vapor, and are therefore at their bubble point.
Likewise the vapor phase is at its dew point.

LAB ANALYSES
Many people assume that a compositional analysis from a commercial laboratory is an accurate representation of
the fluid at the sample point. This can be a bad assumption. Pressurized-liquid samples are often used in emissions
estimations, and there are multiple opportunities for introducing errors in the analysis of these samples. Errors
can, and do, occur from the initial sampling to the final GC analysis. When capturing a sample in the field, lighter
hydrocarbons can preferentially escape if vapor is released. Similar errors can occur in the laboratory when
transferring a sample from the original sample container. The end result of this possible accumulation of errors is
an inaccurate compositional analysis. ProMax relies on the compositional analysis when estimating emissions.
Therefore, errors in sample collection and sample analysis will result in inaccurate emission estimates.
Samples used for estimating emissions from a tank are often collected from the liquid leaving an upstream
separator. From the discussion above, we know that this liquid is at its bubble point in the separator. A good way
to determine the accuracy of a compositional analysis of this sample is to use the ProMax Vapor Pressure Analysis
to calculate the bubble point based on the reported composition and the upstream separator operating
temperature and pressure. If the calculated bubble point conditions are not close to the separator conditions then
the accuracy of the analysis should be questioned. Techniques for performing this sample validation are covered in
the exercise portion of this course.

PHASE ENVELOPES
A phase envelope, or phase diagram, is a graphical representation of the temperature and pressure conditions
where vapor and/or liquid will form for a given composition, and can be added to any stream in ProMax using the
Phase Envelope Analysis. The red curve is the bubble point line, where the Vapor Fraction (VF) is 0%, and the blue
curve is the dew point line, which corresponds with a 100% Vapor Fraction. Temperature and pressure conditions
to the left of the red curve correspond to all liquid, to the right of the blue curve correspond to all vapor, and in
between the curves correspond to a mixture of vapor and liquid. The shape of the curves will be determined by
the composition of the stream.

TANK INTERNALS FOR FEEDS BELOW LIQUID LEVEL


When an inlet stream enters an
atmospheric tank below the liquid
level, any vapor bubbles formed will
begin to float to the liquid surface. If
the incoming stream is warmer than
the liquid in the tank, the vapor
bubbles will be cooled to some
extent. Also, the warm inlet stream
can raise the temperature in the tank
if excess heat cannot be rejected to
the surroundings quickly enough. The
temperature of the bubbles and the
tank temperature do have an effect
on the estimated emissions.
The Tank Losses shape in ProMax is based on EPAs AP 42 document, which prescribes methods for calculating
emissions from storage tanks. The AP 42 methods do not consider the effect of an elevated temperature feed.
Some regulating agencies have indicated that the effect of an elevated temperature feed must be considered
differently. ProMax provides an option in the Tank Losses shape to accommodate this requirement. The default
calculation disregards the temperature of the incoming feed and simply uses the AP 42 methods as written to
calculate liquid temperatures based on average local ambient conditions. A second option follows the requirement
in TCEQ document RG-360/149 to replace the bulk temperature with the incoming liquid feed temperature in the
AP 42 calculations. It is believed that this second option should provide a reasonable upper bound of estimated
emissions. The use of the Tank Losses shape is discussed further in the exercise portion of this manual.

TANK INTERNALS FOR FEEDS ABOVE LIQUID LEVEL


When an inlet stream enters an atmospheric tank above the liquid level, it is likely that any vapor produced from
the inlet will not have a significant change in temperature before exiting the top of the tank. The temperature
change before the gas reaches the top
of the unit likely wont be as large as
with a liquid inlet where the vapor
must first pass through the liquid to
reach the vapor outlet of the tank. In
this case, the flash temperature of the
tank is probably close to the
temperature of the inlet stream,
although equilibrium may still be
reached at the vapor-liquid boundary.
Vapor-fed separators will not typically
be used as liquid storage tanks for this
reason.

Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, 2014 Emissions Inventory Guidelines, http://www.tceq.texas.gov/assets/public/comm_exec/pubs/rg/rg360/rg36014/rg-360.pdf

OVERVIEW OF PROMAX
ProMax is a flexible, stream-based process simulation package used for the design and optimization of gas
processing, refining, and chemical facilities. ProMax provides flexibility through its thermodynamic packages and
components, which cover most of the systems encountered in the oil and gas industry. ProMax users have access to
over 50 thermodynamic package combinations, over 2300 components, and crude oil characterization. For unit
operations, the user has access to pipelines, fluid drivers (compressors and pumps), heat exchangers, vessels,
distillation columns, reactors, membranes, and valves.
In addition, ProMax provides OLE automation tie-ins, specifiers, solvers, and Microsoft Excel spreadsheet
embedding, which give the user full access and control of all the information within any stream or block.
Being a stream-based simulation program allows ProMax to execute in both the upstream and downstream
directions without complicated specifications, as is the case with block-based simulators. ProMax has the freedom
for specifications to be made in any process or energy stream giving the user complete control.

INTERFACE
The ProMax interface is built around the Microsoft Visio package. Therefore, it inherits many of the benefits of this
package (e.g., shape sizing, transformation, placement, text annotations, etc.). Starting ProMax will automatically
start Visio. The interface is basically the same as that of Visio with a few additions, as indicated in the following
screenshots from Visio 2007 and Visio 2013. As you can see from the second screenshot, Miscrosoft added the
ribbon bar with Visio 2010, giving the version some new capabilities and a different feel for the user.

VISIO 2007

ProMax Ribbon Bar provides quick


access to all ProMax functionalities and
options.
ProMax Shapes contains all
blocks, streams, and other shapes
used in building the simulation

Multiple flowsheets
can be created within
the same project

ProMax Message Log displays the status,


warnings, errors, and other information
when the simulation is run.

VISIO 2013

PROMAX MENU
The ProMax menu gives access to all the available functions and options in ProMax. The menu contains 10 items as
follows:
1.

Project Viewer: Opens the ProMax Project Viewer, which


contains all project information. More details on the Project
Viewer can be foundin a subsequent section of this overview.
2. Flowsheets: Displays and manages all available flowsheets
within the current project.
3. Enviroments: Displays and manages all available thermodynamic
enviroments defined in the project.
4. Oils: Displays and manages all defined oils in the project,
including both single and curve oils. More details on creating oils
can be found in a subsequent section of this overview.
5. Excel Workbook: Embeds an Excel workbook to the current
project. Once a workbook is added, data can be exchanged
between ProMax and Excel.
6. Execute: Provides options to run the model in the current project, abort any running calculations, and clear
all the stored calculated data. Three options are provided for executing the simulation: Project executes all
flowsheets, Flowsheet executes the current flowsheet, and Block executes selected blocks.
7. Message Log: Displays a log window showing the output of ProMax during execution.
8. Report: Opens the report window to publish the results for the project into a document or worksheet.
9. Warnings: Displays all warnings produced by ProMax.
10. Project Options: Displays options to customize units, property displays, tolerances, and other items.

10

PROMAX SHAPES
ProMax Shapes are a collection of blocks, streams, and other items used in building the
flowsheet. Those shapes are categorized into 10 main groups. Shape functions in
ProMax can be divided into the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Unit operations: heat exchanger, pump, column, etc


Streams: process or energy
Simulation specific blocks: recycle, makeup, etc
Data presentation blocks: callouts and tables

These blocks or shapes interact with ProMax through the Project Viewer. Only ProMax
Shapes are loaded when ProMax starts. Standard and other Visio shapes can be loaded
if needed, but will not interact with ProMax.
Shape groups can be opened and closed as needed. To close a group, just right click on
the group title and choose Close. To open a group, go to File>Shapes> then choose the
desired group to open.

PROJECT VIEWER
The Project Viewer is the primary graphical interface to input and retrieve information within ProMax. The Viewer
provides access to the majority of Project information, and provides additional shortcuts to running ProMax.

CONTENT
The Project Viewer contains five different elements:
1.

2.

3.

4.

2
Menu: contains options for the ProMax
Project and others specific to the Project
3
Viewer.
Toolbar: providing easy access to common
ProMax operations (e.g., Execute,
4
Environments, Report) and navigational
buttons.
Navigation tree: includes a detailed list of
all Flowsheets, Process and Energy
Streams, Blocks, Calculators, and other
objects contained in the Project and
provides the user easy access to manage
5
these.
Data display: The information displayed
here depends on the selection. If a process stream is selected, the Viewer will have a Properties tab
showing the stream properties, a Composition tab showing the composition of that stream, an Analysis
tab, showing any analyses requested for that stream, and a Notes tab for user-added notes. An energy
stream will have only a Specifications tab for the energy rate and a Notes tab. Similarly, a different set
of information is displayed for the different blocks.

5. Message log: similar to the ProMax Message Log but displays messages related to the selected item only.

11

COLOR CONVENTION
The data displayed in the Project Viewer cells are color-coded for easy identification as follows:
Project Viewer Cell "Convention"

Explanation

White Cell Background with No Text

Available parameter, can be user-specified

White Cell Background with Blue Text

100

User-specified parameter

White Cell Background with Black Text

100

Calculated parameter, can be user-specified

Gray Cell Background

100

Calculated parameter, unavailable for specification

Blue Cell Background

100

Value from a solver, specifier, or import from Excel

Red Cell Background

100

Parameter not applicable, calculation failed

Yellow Cell Background

100

Parameter value extrapolated or approximated

BUILDING YOUR SIMULATION


ProMax gives you freedom when building a simulation. You can start by defining the environment and adding
components or by drawing the flowsheet. During this process, you can make changes on any item as required.
When a new project is created, ProMax will automatically create a blank flowsheet (Flowsheet 1) and assign an
empty environment (Environment 1) to that flowsheet. As discussed below, you can add and delete flowsheets or
change the assigned environment and its properties at any point.

DEFINING ENVIRONMENTS
In ProMax, the term Environment is used to refer to the
thermodynamic package, components, reaction sets, oils, and
other parameters specific to the simulation. The Environment
dialog provides access to all these properties and more.
Flowsheets can share the same environment or each may have a
unique environment.
To define an Environment, choose the Environments item from
the ProMax menu. This will open a dialog window containing all
available Environments. The dialog window allows you to create
a new Environment from scratch, duplicate an existing Environment, or edit a pre-defined Environment.

Tip
Use the ProMax toolbar to get quick access to the Environment used in the current Flowsheet.
The Environment dialog has several tabs. The most commonly used tabs are the Property Package and
Components tabs. The Property Package tab provides a list of predefined thermodynamic models that can be
12

selected directly. Alternatively, you can create your own combination by selecting the Use Custom Package option.
In this case, you have the freedom to assign the desired thermodynamic model for each physical property.
Choosing the correct Property Package is critical in obtaining reliable results. Use the following table as a guideline;
refer to ProMax help for more information (Applicable Property Packages for Common Processes).
SRK/Peng-Robinson
HC Dew Pt Control w/ DEPG
Physical Solvent Acid Gas
Removal (E.g. DEPG, PC)
Gas Processing
Refrigerant Systems
Acid Gas Injection Systems
Fractionation
Lean Oil Absorption
Glycol Dehydration
Crude Oil Distillation
Air Separation

Amine Sweetening/Electrolytic ELR


Amine Sweetening
Sour Water Stripping

NBS Steam Tables


Steam Systems: Turbines,
Condensers, Superheaters

SRK Polar/Peng-Robinson Polar


Physical Solvent Acid Gas Removal
(e.g. NMP, MeOH)
Gas Processing with Methanol

Heat Transfer Fluid


Hot Oil System

Non-Electrolytic Gibbs
Excess/Activity Coefficient Model
(e.g. TK Wilson, UNIQUAC, etc.)
Chemicals

Caustic Treating
Caustic Treating
Tillner-Roth and Friend NH3+H2O
Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration

Sulfur
Sulfur Recovery

Once a Property Package is set, components can be added to the Environment under the Components tab. You can
either manually search for it in the components list, or use any of the filtering options provided. For example, to add
methane to the components list, type in methane in the Name filtering box and hit the Enter key on your keyboard.
You can also type ch4, c1, carbane, or r-50 each being a different alias for methane.

DRAWING THE FLOWSHEET


To draw the flowsheet, click and drag any shape from the Shapes Stencil and place it on the page. Repeat this process
to add all the desired shapes. Shapes can then be
connected with process or energy streams, at the
Connection Points. Connection Points in the shape are
indicated by a small x as shown in the figure. These can
either be process connections or energy connections,
which are not interchangeable. The number and type of
connections for each shape can be viewed in the Project
Viewer.
Process and energy streams can be added by either clicking and dragging them from the ProMax Streams Stencil, or
using the Connector tool in the Standard Visio toolbar (
on the flowsheet, it can be manipulated using standard Visio connection
techniques. After a block or stream is created, its parameters can be defined using
the Project Viewer by double clicking on the item to be defined.

). Once a stream is present

13

Tips
The Visio Connector Tool provides a more convenient way if you want to draw several connections.
In Visio 2007 and prior, a connection is made only when a red square
appears at the end of the connection. Any end of the connection with a
green square indicates a free (not connected) end.
Visio 2010 changed this convention.
Solid red indicates a connected stream outlet and a red outline indicates
a connected stream inlet. Solid blue indicates an unconnected stream
outlet, and a blue outline indicates an unconnected stream inlet.
Visio 2013 changed this convention again.
A green circle indicates a connected stream outlet, and a circle with a
green dot indicates a connected inlet. A light gray square indicates an
unconnected outlet, and a white square indicates an unconnected inlet.
The Project Viewer provides a convenient way to navigate through the successive
streams and blocks using its Upstream/Downstream navigational buttons located
at the upper-right corner.

DEFINING AN OIL
ProMax has two oil classifications: single oil and curve oil. These can be created from the
ProMax menu, under the Oils option. The description for creating the oils can be found
below. A single oil is treated as a single component and can be used to model a single
hypothetical component, such as a C6+ fraction. A curve oil is treated as a collection of
several cuts and is used to model a crude oil with a large boiling range, typically defined by
a TBP curve or D86 curve. Unlike a single oil, a curve oil may be fractionated in a distillation
column.
After creating an oil, it must still be added to any environment you would like to use it in
from the environment dialog, under the components tab.

SINGLE OIL
To define a single oil, you must provide one of the following
combinations at a minimum:

Volume Average Boiling Point


Molecular Weight AND Specific Gravity
Molecular Weight AND API Gravity

Every additional piece of information provided will improve


the prediction accuracy as the correlations are updated.
The single oil, once added to the environment, is found in
the component list as a single component, with the
properties specified by you in the single oil definition.

14

CURVE OIL
To define a curve oil, you must provide a boiling point curve to ProMax. This curve can be on several bases, but the
most common are D86 and TBP curves. If it is available, the TBP curve is preferable because ProMax will first convert
other curves into an estimated TBP curve within the program.
You may also provide independent curve data for
Specific Gravity, Molecular Weight, and High and
Low Temperature Viscosity to better define your
oil, if available.
Once the curve data is entered, you may select
Apply from the bottom of the screen, and
ProMax will calculate additional properties of the
oil. If any of these bulk properties, such as the API
gravity or molecular weight need to be corrected,
you may overwrite ProMaxs predictions.
The second tab, Cut Points, allows you to preview
and modify how ProMax plans to cut this oil into
individual components. You may designate the number of cuts ProMax should take between given temperature
ranges.

The current predicted properties of each cut point is given in the table below the cut point data.
The Light Ends tab allows you to designate whether there are any light ends involved with this curve oil.

15

These components, typically hexanes, heptanes, and other known hydrocarbons in the oil, will have better
properties and interactions available if ProMax can use the pure components instead of estimates from a curve oil.
The options are:

Light Ends Free This indicates there are no light ends in the oil.
Light Ends Generated ProMax will generate an estimate of the amount of each light end that is in the oil.
You must designate which components are present.
Light Ends Supplied You must provide information on which components are present and how much of
each component is in the oil.

The Correlations tab provides information on all of the correlations ProMax is using for each property of the oil.
Many of these correlations have alternatives that you can select from for more accurate predictions if the default
predictions are not close enough.
The Plots tab provides several charts of the physical properties of the oil as a visual aid. These can be a useful tool
for verifying the behavior of your oil.

DEFINING STREAMS/BLOCKS
To run any part of the simulation, you must provide all information needed by ProMax to perform the required
calculations. The information is entered as parameters for process streams, energy streams, or blocks. Keep in mind
that the properties of the streams and blocks are interrelated, which gives the option to either specify the property
of a stream directly, or to specify how the block affects the process stream. For example, the temperature at the
outlet of a heat exchanger may be placed in the outlet stream, or calculated from a change in temperature from the
inlet stream.

16

Color

Block Status

Stream Status

Comments

RED

Unconnected

Not ready

BLUE

Unsolved

N/A

Block has all required connections

MAROON

N/A

Unsolved

Stream is defined and ready for


execution

ORANGE

Approximate
Solution

Approximate
Solution

With few exceptions, approximate


solution indicates a calculation outside
the correlation range

GREEN

Solved

Solved

Stream: specification(s) missing


Block: stream connection(s) missing

ProMax helps you keep track of this process using color coding for streams and blocks. The following table
summarizes the color conventions used within the flowsheet:
ProMax also allows for specifications to be made both upstream and downstream of most blocks, as all stream
properties are propagated as far as possible in both directions. Hence, the user has the flexibility to specify properties
in the most convenient fashion while maintaining the users approach. Refer to the guide below for specification
recommendations.

AUXILIARY OBJECTS

Divider This block can be used to split any percentage of any specific components from the main process
stream. This is often useful in cases where you do not wish to set up a full simulation, such as a dehydration unit
that does not need a rigorous simulation. There must be one inlet and at least one outlet, although typically two
are used. An energy stream must also be connected to keep the simulation in both heat and material balance.
The desired split must be set in the block as a percent of each component being split to a specified outlet stream.

Pipeline The pipeline block can rigorously solve for many properties of single- or multi-phase flow in a pipe of
any alignment. Ambient losses can be calculated based on pipe and ground material if an energy stream is
connected to the pipeline block. Multiple pipe and fitting segments can be modeled in a single pipeline block.

Saturator This block can saturate to any level and with any component. The block will add the material at a
necessary temperature and pressure such that the outlet temperature and pressure are equal to the dry basis
stream. The heat of mixing is incorporated into the saturant temperature. Multi-phase streams should be
separated before feeding to the saturator block. Please see the Help for additional information.

Make-up/Blow-down If there are losses in the process, material must be made up to keep a steady circulation
rate. Over time, an analysis and tank level indicator will give the necessary information for the plant operators
to know what and how much to add to restore the desired concentration. ProMax is a steady-state simulator
and must do the same calculation on an ongoing basis. The make-up/blow-down block allows you to set a
desired outlet concentration (what weight percent the amine should be leaving the make-up/blow down block),
and the flow rate (set in the outlet stream).

17

DISTILLATION COLUMNS
There are predefined distillation columns available from the stencil; however, these are not the only options
available. You can configure a column with draws and pump-around loops, or more complex reflux/reboil circuits.
Most applications will use an Equilibrium Column Type. The exceptions to this are for amine sweetening: amine
absorbers will use the TSWEET Kinetics model, and amine regenerators will use the TSWEET Alternate Stripper
model. The kinetics model requires that the user provide tray and column information so that the residence time on
a tray can be calculated to fully model the reaction kinetics. Typical initial design input values are 70% flooding, a
Real/Ideal Stage Ratio of 3, a system factor of 0.8, tray spacing of 2 ft and weir height of 3 in. These values are input
in the Hardware grouping on the Stage Data tab of the absorber column. Please see our Help for additional
information on tower hardware specifications.
All columns must have a pressure profile set (i.e., pressure drop, or top and bottom pressure, etc). In addition,
each condenser, reboiler, draw or pump-around adds a degree of freedom. Each degree of freedom requires a
specification, chosen from the following options.

Tips
Setting a tolerance for specifications is discouraged since the program will choose a tolerance to
optimize convergence speed; changing this tolerance can decrease column stability.

Boiling Curve Gap the difference between boiling curve temperatures at specified fractions for selected
stage(s) and phase(s). For example, you can specify that the bottoms liquid from a crude distillation tower should
have a 200F gap between the 10% and 90% boiling curve temperatures for an ASTM D86 test.
Boil-up Ratio the flow of vapor returned to the column from the reboiler divided by the flow of liquid and
vapor product in the bottoms leaving the reboiler.
Component Flow/Composition the flow rate or fraction of one or more of the available components in one
of the streams exiting the distillation column.
Component Ratio the ratio determined by specifying a numerator, the flow of one or more components; and
a denominator, the flow of one or more other components.
Component Recovery the ratio of the flow rate or fraction of one or more of the available components in one
of the streams exiting the column to the flow rate of the same selection in the total feed to the column.
If a flow unit is chosen, this is designating the fraction of the selected components from all feeds that will be
sent to the specified stream.

18

If a fractional unit is chosen, the value is a dimensionless ratio of the fraction of the components in the specified
stream to the fraction of the components from all feeds. For example, if the feed to a deethanizer contains 7.28
mol% ethane and the bottoms contains 14.45% ethane, then the ethane fraction recovery in the bottoms is
14.45/7.28 = 1.985.

Cut Point the boiling temperature of the oil at a certain percentage distilled for the specified stage and phase.
All distillation curves are calculated on a dry basis.
Draw Rate the amount of flow in one of the draw streams from the column.
Draw Recovery the ratio of the flow rate of one of the streams exiting the distillation column to the flow rate
of the total feed to the column.
Duty the duty associated with an unspecified energy stream attached to the distillation column. The value
should be positive for heat injected into the column (and the energy stream arrow points towards the column)
and negative for heat removed from the column (and the energy stream arrow points away from the column).
Flow Ratio the ratio given with the numerator as the flow in a draw stream or on a stage and the denominator
as the flow in another draw stream or on another stage.
Fraction Vapor the percentage of vapor in the total distillate or bottoms product. This specification is intended
to be used for a column with a partial condenser including a liquid draw from the reflux, or a reboiler with a
vapor draw from the vapor return stream. The column automatically calculates the liquid draw rate for the
condenser or vapor draw rate for the reboiler to meet the specified value. Note that this specification does NOT
decrease the degrees of freedom for the column; instead it sets the percent split in the splitter involved.
Fuel Property fuel properties are calculated on a dry basis, and are available for any phase on any stage in the
column. Available fuel properties are:
Cetane Index
Research Octane Number
ASTM D93 Flash Point

ASTM D97 Pour Point

ASTM D611 Aniline Point

Refractive Index

Absolute Viscosity at 100F

Kinematic Viscosity at 40C

Absolute Viscosity at 210F

C:H Weight Ratio

Specific Gravity 60F/60F

ASTM D86 10% Cut Point

API Gravity 60F/60F

ASTM D86 50% Cut Point

Paraffinic Mole Percent

ASTM D86 90% Cut Point

Naphthenic Mole Percent

ASTM D1322 Smoke Point

Aromatic Mole Percent

ASTM D2500 Cloud Point

Phase Property a number of phase properties are available for any stage in the distillation column. Select the
desired property from the drop-down list which includes all properties available for a stream (e.g. Temperature
or Flow Rate) and Reid Vapor Pressure and True Vapor Pressure.
Reflux Ratio the reflux ratio, or flow of liquid from the condenser returned to the column divided by the flow
of vapor and liquid product overhead from the column.

The following items are available through the specifications tab of the column, but will not fulfill a degree of freedom.
These items are used as either an initial estimate for iteration purposes, or to report back information about the
column.

Lean Approach the equilibrium composition of the selected component for the specified stage and phase
divided by the calculated composition of the selected component for the same stage and phase. This

19

specification is useful for determining "Lean End Pinch" for amine sweetening absorbers, and also for
determining the approach to equilibrium water content in glycol dehydration contactors.
Pump-around Estimate an estimate may be requested for some pump-arounds. Options are:
Fraction Feed Entering Column If the pump-around path contains a mixer followed by a splitter, the
fraction of added material that reaches the column should be given as the estimate. For example, 10 mol/h
of material is added to a 90 mol/h pump-around via a mixer, and 5 total mol/h of material is subsequently
removed from the pump-around via a splitter. The "Fraction Feed Entering Column" would be 95% since
9.5 mol/h of the 10 mol/h feed reach the column. (0.5 mol/h or 10% of the 5 mol/h removed via the splitter
is attributable to the feed). If the splitter has a % split specified instead of an outlet flow rate, this estimate
is not required.
Fraction Draw Returned If any stream between the draw and the return contains a splitter, the fraction
not drawn off should be given as an estimate. For example, if the pump-around draw is 100 mol/h and 15
mol/h is removed from the pump-around via a splitter, then the "Fraction Draw Returned" is 85%.
Pump-around Duty If duty is added to a pump-around by a heat exchanger or pump, an estimate should
be given for the total pump-around duty amount (positive if energy is added to the system). This estimate
is not required if duty or power is set in all heat exchangers and pumps found in the pump-around.

Rich Approach the calculated concentration of a selected component in the liquid exiting a specified stage
divided by the equilibrium concentration based on the specified lean feed. Select either: "Maximum Loading",
which reports the rich approach as a percentage of the highest loading attainable (equilibrium), or "Excess
Solvent", which reports the rich approach as the percentage solvent flow in excess of the flow required for max
load. This specification is most useful for determining "Rich End Pinch" for amine sweetening contactors.

Side Column Estimate for side columns, estimates may be required in some cases. Estimate options are:
Fraction Feed Entering Column - If either path between the main and side columns contains a mixer followed
by a splitter, the fraction of added material that reaches the column should be given as the estimate. For
example, if 10 moles of material are added to the path from the main column to the side column via a mixer,
and 4 moles of material are subsequently removed from the same path to the side column via a splitter, the
"Fraction Feed Entering Column" would be 60%.
Fraction Draw Entering Column - If any stream between the main and side column contains a splitter, the
fraction that is not drawn off should be given as the estimate. For example, if the draw from the main column
to the side column is 100 moles and 15 moles are removed from the path to the side column via a splitter,
then the "Fraction Draw Entering Column" is 85%.
Side Column Duty If duty is added to the path from the main column to the side column, or from the side
column to the main column via a heat exchanger, the amount should be given as an estimate (positive if
energy is added to the system).

FLUID DRIVERS
All fluid drivers (blowers, compressors, expanders, and pumps) should have either an efficiency or performance
curve designated. An outlet pressure or change in pressure should also be defined. We recommend setting the
pressure in the outlet stream, as doing so will maintain the set pressure even if the upstream pressure is changed.
While ProMax will allow different specifications for the outlet stream, we generally discourage this practice as
impossible efficiencies in the pump may likely be calculated causing the execution to stop.

20

HEAT EXCHANGERS
We recommend specifying a pressure drop for every side of the exchanger. While an outlet pressure can be set, this
has a consequence of dictating process stream pressures downstream of the exchanger, even if upstream conditions
change.
Any other degrees of freedom should be specified based on outlet stream temperatures, exchanger duty, UA, or
approach temperatures. All but one side may be specified, as the last side will be calculated by ProMax based on
heat balance.
In exchangers with a non-linear heat transfer curve, as often demonstrated in exchangers with phase changes, the
heat release curve increments should be increased from the default value of five.

MIXERS/SPLITTERS
Mixers and splitters have a default pressure drop of zero, but this may be changed if necessary. In splitters, you may
designate the percent splits in the block or the flow rates in the outlet streams. Mixers may have an unlimited
number of streams mix together into one outlet stream, and splitters may have as many outlet streams as needed
from a single inlet. Mixer/Splitter blocks may have as many inlets and outlets as desired. The outlet pressure of a
mixer is equal to its lowest inlet stream pressure minus any pressure drop designated in the mixer.

REACTORS
There are several options for reactors in ProMax, including Conversion, Equilibrium, Gibbs Minimization, Plug Flow,
and Stirred Tank. The reactors we will discuss in this training are generally designed for sulfur recovery units, so we
will focus on the Gibbs Minimization option. The others require reaction sets to be defined and used; for more
information on these reactors and reaction sets, please see our Help topics, call our Support team, or attend one of
our Advanced Simulations courses.
Within the Gibbs Minimization choice there are Gibbs Sets options, explained below. Each step of the sulfur
recovery process has a corresponding option, with many constraints and reactive species predefined.

General This option can be used for any general reactor type for which you wish to use the Gibbs Minimization
option. This does not include any constraints and all species are reactive.
Acid Gas Burner This set includes constraints on COS and CS2 production during the burning of acid gases, and
should be used when modeling a burner that has either H2S or CO2 in the feed.
Claus Bed For all typical Claus beds, this choice is best. All species involved in the Claus reaction are reactive.
Note: COS and CS2 are not reactive at typical conditions for the Claus reactors.
Equilibrium Hydrolyzing Claus Bed As opposed to the Claus Bed option, the Hydrolyzing Claus Bed allows
the COS and CS2 to react, as this bed is designed to be operated at higher temperatures and with a specialized
catalyst to destroy these species.
GPSA Hydrolyzing Claus Bed This option adds constraints to the destruction of COS and CS2 to follow with the
correlations from Section 22 of the GPSA Data Book.
Sub-Dewpoint Claus Bed This choice best models those Claus beds that are operated where sulfur condenses
directly on the catalyst and the bed undergoes a regeneration cycle.
Sulfur Condenser The Sulfur Condenser allows further reactions for sulfur redistribution at the cooling
temperatures, but no other reactions.
Sulfur Direct Oxidation This selection is for sulfur recovery units that utilize direct oxidation methods typically
used where the H2S concentration is too low for combustion, even with a split flow configuration.

21

Sulfur Hydrogenation The hydrogenation option models the reactions of the tail gas with an oxidizing stream
to recreate H2S as the stream is passed on to an amine tail-gas treating unit.
Sulfur Partial Oxidation The "Sulfur Partial Oxidation" or SUPERCLAUS type Reactor uses a special catalyst
for "selective oxidation" that converts almost all of the H2S directly to sulfur and is usually the final bed in a
Claus unit. In ProMax, Sulfur Direct Oxidation mainly converts H2S to SO2, whereas Sulfur Partial Oxidation
converts the H2S to elemental sulfur.
Sulfur Redistribution This option is used to represent the second pass of the waste-heat boiler in a typical
Claus burner-WHB setup. The only reactions allowed in this Gibbs set are for the redistribution of the sulfur
species; no other species are allowed to react. This can also be used to model reheaters more accurately.
Sulfur Thermal Reaction Zone This is used to model the first pass of the waste-heat boiler. Constraints are
added to a few components that cease reacting once the temperature has cooled below a set temperature.

RECYCLES

Process Recycle This block is used when any material is recycled from somewhere downstream back into the
process upstream. Analyzing the flowsheet to reduce the number of recycles necessary by combining as many
as possible is typically encouraged, as this will reduce the execution time.
The stream exiting the recycle block must be fully user-defined, including temperature, pressure, composition,
and flow rate. This is a guess and provides ProMax a place to begin its execution. Your guess is overwritten each
time the recycle begins a new iteration. This block is considered solved when the stream entering into the
recycle block is the same, within tolerances, as the stream exiting.
In some cases, the recycle guess stream can be disconnected from its downstream connection point and have a
good guess provided by solving through the simulation once.
Priorities must be set for recycle blocks. All default to a priority of 1, but should be adjusted to match your
analysis of the necessary solve order. Higher priority numbers solve first and can be any integer number.
Q-Recycle This block is used when energy is taken from somewhere downstream and applied to an upstream
location. Often this occurs with a glycol reflux coil, as the amount of cooling that occurs in the coil is generally
dependent upon the specification of the distillation column, and the outlet temperature of the rich glycol is not
directly controlled, even though it is upstream of the column.
The initial guess for a Q-Recycle is provided in the block itself, unlike with the Process Recycle. This guess is
provided as the Calculated Value on the Process Data tab. Priority, zero by default, should be adjusted to
match your analysis of the necessary solve order. Higher priority numbers solve first. Bounds and step size are
optional, and typically not recommended.
Propagation Terminal The propagation terminal is a specialized recycle block designed to be used in closedloop systems where no material enters or leaves the loop, such as is found in refrigeration loops, hot oil loops
and similar systems.
The terminal allows chosen properties to propagate through the block, unlike a recycle block that will break all
propagation. Two properties should be selected, typically pressure and temperature, but this depends on how
the loop is specified. Please contact our support team, read our Help topics and review our example files for
more information on how to use a propagation terminal.

SEPARATORS

Two Phase Separator This block allows the separation of liquid and vapor phases of a process stream. There
may be multiple streams as inlets attached to the separator, but only two outlets: one vapor and one liquid. A
pressure drop must be specified, and may be zero if a valve has already given the operating pressure of the
vessel. Energy streams may also be attached. If this is done, an additional degree of freedom is given, and should
be specified as a temperature or fraction vapor in the separator.
22

Three Phase Separator This block works essentially the same as the two-phase separator. The primary
difference in specifications is that the three-phase separator allows an additional outlet stream, so there are
vapor, light-liquid, and heavy-liquid outlets. On the Process Data tab, there is an option for the Main Liquid
Phase. This allows you to specify whether the liquid phase should use the light- or heavy-liquid outlet if there
is only one liquid phase predicted by ProMax.

VALVES

JT Valve The valve has several icons available, but all are identical in their operation. Typically, a pressure drop
across the valve or an outlet pressure is specified. In some rare cases, an outlet temperature or fraction vapor
may be specified.

STREAMS

Process Stream ProMax is a stream-based simulator; process streams typically contain most of the
specifications. For a stream to be fully specified, two flash variables (these include temperature, pressure,
mole fraction vapor, and enthalpy), a flow rate, and a composition should be known or propagated from
upstream or downstream.
Q-Stream These are energy streams that are connected to compressors, pumps, some heat exchangers and
separators, and various other blocks.
Cross Flow Sheet Connector These allow stream information to cross from one flow sheet to another. If a
process stream is connected, then pressure, enthalpy, and molar fractions are transferred.
You have the ability to set warnings for any variation in these values from one flow sheet to another, and also
the ability to choose not to transfer components that are below a specified mole fraction in the stream. This
gives the ability to limit the number of components in the new environment to speed the execution time.

MULTIPLE FLOWSHEETS
ProMax allows you to have as many flowsheets in a project as you like. Each flowsheet may have a separate
environment to allow multiple processes to be modeled in the same project. Additional flowsheets can be added
using the ProMax Flowsheets menu option, or by right-clicking on the flowsheet tabs area at the bottom of the
screen.
When creating a new flowsheet, the environment can be an existing environment, a duplicate of an existing
environment that you can then modify, or a new environment to be fully defined.
Once the flowsheet is created, a cross-flowsheet connector may be used to have a process or energy stream flow
from one flowsheet to another. This block will appear on both of the two connected flowsheets and is arrow-shaped,
to indicate the process or energy flow direction. The process or energy flow directions must agree on both sides of
the connector (e.g. an input on one sheet must be an output on the other). These allow some flexibility to disregard
certain irrelevant material in a stream, such as the tiny amount of amine in a gas stream after sweetening. Excluding
unnecessary components can speed the execution time for the project.

23

EXPORTING/APPENDING FLOWSHEETS
ProMax has the ability to export entire projects to be appended to other ProMax projects. This is a simple two-step
process that will import all streams, blocks, specifications, calculators, environments, user value sets, and other
information from one project into another project.
1.
2.

With the project you wish to export open, select the File menu
-> Export ProMax Project. Save the file as a .pmxexp file type.
With the destination project open, select the File menu ->
Append ProMax Project and browse for the desired .pmxexp
file.

This process will import the entire project to the new project.

Tip
If you wish to use this option often for specific processes, we recommend having single flowsheets for
each process, so they can easily be combined into your new project.

EXCEL INTERACTIONS
ProMax has several methods to interact with outside programs, most notably Microsoft Excel. The next few pages
will outline how to use two of the most popular methods.

Import/Export: The simplest method is an import/export functionality that is available between ProMax and an
embedded Excel workbook.
To embed a workbook, select the Add Excel Workbook option. This workbook is embedded within ProMax
and will open, close, and save with the project. It is not available outside of the ProMax project unless a copy is
created, removing all ties with ProMax.
Once an Excel workbook is embedded, right-clicking on most properties in ProMax will give an option for Export
to/Import from Excel. Selecting this allows you to choose what unit set you would like to transfer with the
value, and to which cell in Excel you would like to connect the property. If a value is in the ProMax field, only
exporting is allowed; if there is no value in ProMax, either exporting or importing is allowed.

Scenario Tool: A second option for Excel interactivity is our Scenario Tool. This tool can be accessed by either
embedded or external workbooks, and is useful for running different cases of the project to find trends. Refer
to the notes on page 27 for more information on how to run the Scenario Tool.
24

PROMAX REPORTS
ProMax provides several options for generating a report after your project has been completed.
1. Optionally supply a Client Name,
Location and Job. This will be
2
1
added to the first page of the
3
report.
2. Choose the output file type. The
most common are Word and
4
Excel format. The Template
5
option allows you to choose a
custom report, formatted in
Excel, which looks exactly as you
want. More information on this
can be found in the Help topic, or
by contacting BR&E Support.
3. Unit Set configuration should be set
here. By default ProMax will
6
override any unit changes that
have been made throughout the
7
report. If this is unselected,
changes made for individual
streams or blocks will stay as the selected values for the report. Custom Unit sets can be created through
the Options.xml file if none of the selections available apply. Please see the Help or contact BR&E Support
for additional information. This section also allows for the report to be displayed based on Fraction or
Percentage and Absolute or Gauge pressures, regardless of how the project was created.
4. The tree control diagram allows you to select which pieces of information are included in the report. For
the entire project, check the top-most box. You may select individual flowsheets, selected flowsheets,
selected process streams, environments, user value sets, or almost any combination that you wish to be
included in the reports.
5. The stream options selected may be rearranged if the order is not what you would like. Selected options
are checked and found at the top of the list. The composition bases available are listed to the right.
6. Block options are available below the stream options. The selections here will vary depending on your
project, but can include various plots or analyses that you may want included in your report based on the
blocks in the project. Heat exchanger specification sheets can be created from the options, and are available
if the Word report format is selected and a rated exchanger is included in the simulation.
7. If you would like either the drawing of the flowsheets or the warnings summary included with the report,
select the corresponding option here.
Select OK when the selections are complete. ProMax will then open a dialog asking for your choice of file save
location, and create the report afterwards.
If ProMax is installed on the computer the report is opened at, a Report Navigator appears, and can assist in finding
information from a generated report. This navigator does not use a license, but is only available on computers with
ProMax installed.

25

UPDATING THE USER DEFINED REPORT TOOL


The User Defined Report Tool undergoes periodic updates to allow it to fully utilize the features that new Property
Stencils have to offer. In order to update this tool, obtain a copy of the new version from the files downloaded for
this course:
L1 Air Emissions Air Emissions Tools ProMax User Defined Report.
If you do not have these files, please contact BR&E Support.
Save the ProMax User Defined Report file to the following location and overwrite the previous version:
C:\Program Files (x86)\Bryan Research & Engineering Inc\ProMax3\AddOns\Excel

(Note that in 32-bit operating systems the (x86) is omitted.)


In order to run some of the exercises in this manual, both the User Defined Report Tool and the ProMax Property
Stencil need to be up-to-date.

26

USING THE SCENARIO TOOL IN PROMAX


ProMax includes an Excel Add-in that allows you to create a case study for any unit you have created. The Scenario
Tool may be used in either an embedded or external Excel workbook, depending on your needs. Since this is an
Excel add-in, you have access to all of the functionality of Excel. For example, you may use any plotting tools or inhouse worksheet formulas for manipulating and interpreting your data.
1.
2.
3.

Open a blank Excel sheet


Go to the list of add-ins for Excel (FileOptionsAdd-Ins).
Add the Scenario Tool as an add-in to Excel by clicking GoBrowse and selecting the following file:
C:\Program Files (x86)\Bryan Research & Engineering Inc\ProMax3\AddOns\Excel\ProMax Scenario Tool.xla.

(Note that in 32-bit operating systems the (x86) is omitted.)


4.
5.
6.
5.
6.

Start the tool in Excel. In Excel 2003 and earlier: double-click on the

that appears in a new toolbar. In Excel

2007 and later: click on the


that appears in the Add-Ins or ProMax tab.
Select from the drop-down list the appropriate ProMax file to be used.
Create in Excel the input parameters to be supplied to ProMax and the output locations to display the calculated
results.
Add the Input and Output variables to the Tool, selecting both the desired Excel range, and ProMax variable in
the dialog that opens.
Run the tool.

4 ProMax Inputs ProMax Outputs


5

Tip
For embedded Excel sheets there are two additional tools:
input variables and one output variable;

allows for easily setting a grid with two

is a wizard available to help set up a scenario step-by-step.

27

AVAILABLE ANALYSES IN PROMAX


Analyses can be added to any stream in ProMax. This is accomplished by clicking on the Analyses tab from the
Project Viewer and selecting Add Analysis towards the bottom of the screen. The options are:
Amine Analysis This analysis gives information on amine loading for carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and total
acid gas loading. It also shows the pH and Molarity of the stream.
Combustion Analysis This will calculate the required combustion oxygen for a stream, as well as various heating
values and the Wobbe Index.
Distillation Curves This will calculate a table and generate a plot of a distillation curve based on TMP, ASTM D86,
ASTM D1160, ASTM D2887/SD, or EFV on either a wet or dry basis of the selected stream.
Freeze Out, Hydrate, H2O Dew Point For any stream phase, including total, this analysis will calculate the solids
formation temperature, water content, and water dew point. It can calculate multiple hydrate points, structures and
regions. This is particularly useful if you are operating in a condition that is below the highest hydrate point but you
are not operating in the hydrate region.
Fuel Properties Fuel properties of the stream can be calculated, including the Flash Point, high- and lowtemperature viscosity, API gravity, various ASTM cut points, and the smoke or cloud point.
Ionic Information Information on the ions present in the stream can be calculated using this analysis if an
electrolytic environment is being used.
Line Sizing ProMax can calculate the required nominal pipe size based on a limited gas velocity, pressure drop, or
both. This rigorous calculation can include the inclination angle, pipe schedule, pipe roughness, material of
construction, corrosion allowance, and other variables.
Phase Envelope This analysis can generate a plot or table from the stream on either a wet or dry basis. The Hydrate
Curve, Dry Ice Curve, or Ice Curve can all be included if desired. Beginning with ProMax v3.1, the required information
(minimum and maximum mole fraction vapor and number of steps) is provided to give a default bubble/dew point
curve. ProMax automatically matches the bubble-point curve if you request the dew-point curve, and similarly will
match the 90% curve with the 10% curve, etc
Relief Valve Sizing This sizing analysis can be performed on various standards, with the default being the ASME
API RP520 standard. Relief Temperature and Pressure, Set Pressure, Over Pressure, Back Pressure, Flow Rates,
Coefficients, and Corrections are all available for specification. The stream Latent Heat can also be found on this
analysis as defined in the standard.
Vapor Pressure, Dew, Bubble Point The Bubble Point and Dew Point pressures and temperatures can be calculated
from this analysis on a wet or dry basis. The True Vapor Pressure (TVP) and Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) can also be
calculated.

28

USING A SIMPLE SPECIFIER IN PROMAX


A specifier is used to set the value of a property based on the value of other known variables or constants. To set a
specifier, right-click on the property you wish to have calculated, then select Create Simple Specifier. The
independent variable must be known and calculated by ProMax prior to the Specified Variable being used.
1.

2.

Write the expression that defines your


specified variable. This must be a single-line
expression, but can have multiple independent
variables.

Select the Add button to add the Independent


Variable to be used in your specifier. The
Property Moniker dialog box, as shown below,
will appear.

4.

From the variable selection dialogue, begin


expanding the tree control through the
project, flowsheets, stream or block, down to
the desired independent variable. When a
valid selection is picked, the gray box below
the tree will fill in with a moniker string.

5.

Upon selecting the variable, type a unique


name to briefly identify the value. This name
must not include any special characters, with
the exception of the underscore (_); a space
will be replaced with an underscore; the name
must not start with a number.

7.

A unit selection must also be made. ProMax


will maintain the units even if project units are
altered.

3.

6.

If you have multiple variables to select, the


Hold button will keep the dialog open after
adding the current variable.

4
5

Select Add when finished, and repeat for as


many variables as required for your specifier.

29

USING A SIMPLE SOLVER IN PROMAX


A solver must be used if ProMax will need to iterate to find the solution to your goal. To create a solver, right click
on the property that the solver is to adjust and select Create Simple Solver.
For example, if you want to adjust the flow rate of air fed to a Claus unit to achieve a set tail gas ratio of H 2S to SO2,
you might place the solver in the inlet air flow rate field. ProMax will use the solver criteria to iterate on the air flow
rate until it achieves the desired tail gas ratio.
1.

ProMax will iterate your Calculated Variable until the


equation written here is equal to zero, so the equation
must be written with this in mind.

2.

Select the Add button to add the Measured Variable


to be used. This is the value ProMax will measure to
see if it meets your goal (in our case, the tail gas ratio).
This opens a tree dialog as shown in the Specifier
example on the previous page.

3.

A guess for the Calculated Value must also be


supplied to give the Solver a starting point.

4.

Upper and lower bounds may be set, though this is


usually not necessary.

5.

A Priority must be set if multiple Solvers are present in


the simulation for acceptable execution time. It is
suggested that the Solvers be prioritized to solve loops
from the inside out.

3
4
5

WRITING THE SIMPLE SOLVER EXPRESSION:


If we would like our example tail gas ratio to be 2, then a simple starting expression for our goal would be:
0 = TailGasRatio 2
Only an expression needs to be written, as ProMax will iterate until this is equal to zero. In other words, you should
not write the 0 = half of the equation.
While writing TailGasRatio 2 is acceptable, we highly recommend that each expression be normalized to aid in
convergence. Normalizing the above expression results in the following:
TailGasRatio/2 1

30

CREATING A SHORT MONIKER IN PROMAX


A moniker in ProMax is essentially the name given to each piece of information within the project.
As seen throughout the program, finding the value required in ProMax often leads you to expand
through a tree diagram, with (+) signs opening to sub-categories.
A shortcut is available to find your required variable. First, create a short
moniker by right clicking on the value you wish to use and select Add to Short
Moniker List. Name the variable in the dialog and add/reset the moniker.
Once created, this can be accessed from any moniker location by selecting the
Short Moniker radio button located above the tree diagram. Note: not all
variables can be added as short monikers, such as compositions.

31

USER DEFINED VARIABLES


ProMax provides a method to define a variable that it does not calculate otherwise. These variables are stored in
User Value Sets, so they may be grouped as you would like. To add a new user-defined variable:
1.

2.
3.
4.

5.

6.
7.

8.

Open the Project Viewer and select (double-click) the User Value Set in which you would like to add the
new variable. If you need to create a new User Value Set, right-click on
the User Value Sets option in the tree diagram of the project viewer
and select Add.
It is recommended to change the name of the User Value Set to
something descriptive.
Select Add to create the new variable.
From the new dialog box that appears, you must tell ProMax what type
of unit this variable will have associated with it. There are three choices:
a. User Defined Units you will define units based on what
ProMax can understand, but in an unusual sequence, different
than available in the Standard Units choices, (e.g. kW*h/ft2)
b. Unrecognized Units you will define units based on something
ProMax cannot understand, such as monetary units (e.g. $, ).
c. Standard Units you will select from the list which set of units
this variable will have.
Choose whether to associate this variable with a new specifier. Choose
to associate with a specifier if any information must be taken from within
the project to calculate what the variable will be (e.g. flow rates,
compositions, horsepower, etc). If you will be providing the value of the variable, leave this unmarked
(e.g. setting an ambient temperature for use in the project).
Name your variable and select OK.
If you have selected to associate this with a specifier, it will create an undefined specifier. Right-click on the
blue box, select Show Calculator and define your requirements. See the Specifier section for further
details.
Lower and upper bounds are optional, but may be set. If the Enforce Bounds box is selected, a warning
message will be generated if the variable exceeds either of these bounds.

32

PROPERTY STENCIL
The ProMax Property Stencil is designed to add customizable functionality to ProMax. This self-contained stencil
augments ProMaxs Callout or Property Table and adds the ability to embed and share VBScript-based calculations.
Many examples are available for your use and modification, as listed below. The Stencil may be found in the File
menu, under Shapes or Stencils (this location is slightly different for each version of Visio).
Single Line Property Displays any single piece of information from the project on the flowsheet.
Property Input Displays any input-ready field from the project
on the flowsheet. The value may be modified from the flowsheet by
typing in the new value and pressing enter.
Property Connector Connects to another property shape, such as
the Property Calculator, to allow the use of an offset moniker in the
connected shape. This essentially will preselect a moniker fragment
up to the object the connector is connected to, simplifying and
allowing quick changes to similar objects without the need to fully
redefine a moniker.
Property Calculator Displays the results of a script calculation on
the flowsheet, and gives you the option to assign a prefix and suffix
to the answer. You can define any number of variables by doubleclicking in the grid area and browsing through the tree diagram.
Once you have found all the necessary variables, click on Edit Script
Function and define what you would like displayed on the
flowsheet.
Streams Cn+ GPM Displays the potential Cn+ from any single
stream in standard gallons per MSCF (thousand standard cubic feet).
The n may be modified by double-clicking on the shape, selecting
edit source and then double-clicking on the intMinCAtoms value
and replacing the number.
Sum I/O Property Displays the sum of a selected property across
all input streams, if an input stream is selected; sums the property
across all outlet streams if an outlet stream is selected; or sums the
property across all internal (non-outlet/inlet) streams if an internal stream is selected.
API Vapor Relief Area Calculates the API Relief Valve Area for a vapor stream.
API Steam Relief Area Calculates the API Relief Valve Area for a steam-only (vent to atmosphere) stream.
Data Exchange Allows bi-directional specifications between an embedded Excel workbook and ProMax.
Solver/Specifier Example This is a shell that supplies a value to a script based ProMax Calculator (Solver or
Specifier) with appropriate VBScript edits.
Cn+GPM Solver This shape works identically to the [Cn+] solver on the following page except that the units solved
for will be standard gallons per MSCF.
Cn+ Flow/Frac. Displays the total flow rate or fraction of any single stream of all components containing the
minimum carbon atoms. By default, it calculates the flow rate of C3+. It can report in molar, mass, normal vapor,
standard liquid or vapor, or volumetric units. This shape can also be used to calculate VOC emissions.
Flow Duplicator Copies a reference streams composition, and sets target stream flow rate. Pressure and
temperature are not set, and must be designated by the user. Target stream MUST be connected to a block, even if
it is a valve with 0 pressure drop. The flow rate will NOT update otherwise.

33

UA Wizard Creates a solver on the variable of your choice to solve an exchanger to a desired UA, LMTD, Approach
Temperature, or percent over design. Starting with ProMax 3.0, some of these may be directly specified.
Elemental Flow Example Displays the total flow of a given element in a selected process stream.
Copy Stream Copies a reference stream by transferring molar enthalpy (not shown by default), pressure,
component mol fraction, and molar flow rate. Target stream MUST be connected to a block, even if it is a valve with
0 pressure drop. The flow rate will NOT update otherwise.
[Cn+] Solver Manipulates a selected variable to achieve a desired Cn+ fraction or flow rate in a selected target
stream. A blank simple solver must be created on the manipulated variable prior to placing the shape on the
flowsheet. The connector on the shape should then be placed on the target stream. The desired fraction or flow rate
should be defined by double-clicking on the shape and changing the value.
PipeLine Mach Number Solves for a specified Mach number through the pipe. By default it will change the flow
rate of the fluid until the Mach number is 1. You should set an inlet flow rate as an initial guess for the solver. A
desired Mach value can be specified by double-clicking on the shape.
Flow Multiplier Copies a reference streams molar enthalpy, pressure, and composition, then modifies the
reference streams flow rate by a multiplier. Default = 2x. Target stream MUST be connected to a block, even if it is
a valve with 0 pressure drop. The flow rate will NOT update otherwise.
Membrane Solves for asynchronous vapor separation in a membrane. Permeability values and available
membrane area is defined in the block.
Orifice Plate This can simulate either an orifice plate or a nozzle/venturi. It is capable of solving outlet pressure,
inlet pressure OR mass flow, depending on what is specified in the inlet and outlet streams. Double-click on the
shape to specify parameters.
Salt Example Double-click on the shape to specify the stream in which you wish to have an aqueous salt. Then,
select which salt you would like and the mass percent of the salt in the solution. The tool will then add the required
acid and base to the environment, calculate the required amount of each in the stream, and define the composition
based on this.
Chart Allows the user to generate simple plots such as the column temperature profile or the temperature at each
increment through a heat exchanger. These plots can be generated using the Plots tab of these blocks, but the Chart
version is smaller and can be conveniently placed on the flowsheet without obstructing anything else.
Component GPM Displays the standard gallons per MSCF of any single selected component.
Date Example Displays the project name and the created, saved, modified, and solved dates and times. This can
be modified by changing the solver scripts.
Phase Envelope Displays the phase envelope of a selected stream on the flowsheet. The current stream conditions
are shown on the diagram with a red X.
Heat Transfer Displays the heat transfer chart of a selected exchanger on the flowsheet.
Sum Component Flow/Frac. Displays the sum of flows or fractions of components selected by the user. Amines,
BTEX, HAPs, Mercaptans, Sx, VOCs, and Greenhouse Gases are included as pre-defined groups, but any components
in the selected stream may be summed by choosing User Defined in the drop-down list.
GWP Calculator Displays the global warming potential of the selected stream in mass flow of equivalent CO 2.
Emission Factor Calculates the emission factor for pollutants in lb/bbl for a user-specified vapor and liquid PStream.
Pollutants include VOCs, Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylenes, n-Hexane, and 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane.
Reversipator This reverse separator calculates the pressurized liquid and flash gas compositions and flow rates
by supplying the temperature, pressure, flow rate, and composition of a condensate stream, and the temperature
and pressure of the pressurized liquid stream. Assumes that the condensate and pressurized liquid streams are at
their bubble point. More information on the process can be found in a following section of this manual titled
Reverse Separator.

34

Oil/Water Emulsion This will modify the properties of an existing single oil to create an emulsion, and save this
new component into the current environment. The water volume fraction is then specified by double-clicking on the
shape.
P/H Diagram Displays the Pressure/Enthalpy diagram of a selected stream on the flowsheet. The current stream
conditions are shown on the diagram with a red X.
Inline Flow Multiplier Transfers a process streams conditions and composition from one connected stream to
another. The flow specification is set from the source stream and multiplied by the Flow Multiplier parameter. The
user has the ability to select which properties to transfer to the target stream.
Depressurization Example This tool estimates an orifice diameter required to depressurize a vessel to a given
pressure in a given amount of time. The user should set the vessel volume, vent pipe diameter, vessel initial pressure,
vessel initial temperature, downstream pressure, target pressure, time to reach target pressure, heat input into the
vessel, etc.
Block Calculator Creates a new shape that is based on an existing block from your flowsheet. The shape saves user
defined properties (e.g., temperature on an outlet stream) and specifiers or solvers associated with the block. The
values can be changed from the dialog for each user defined property. A Master Name should be selected for the
shape name, and then Store in Stencil selected to save the shape. Once stencils have been saved, you should select
the Save button in the top right-hand corner of the stencil for future use. Both this saved stencil and the ProMax
Property Stencil set must be open to use these created stencils.
Shape Converter Modifies any Visio object into a ProMax shape. Connection points can be added from the
connection point tool (in the same group as the connector tool); block type and connection point assignments are
made in the shape. Once both the shape and stencil are saved, the shape may be used in any project.

Tips
Instead of using the relief valve property shapes available, use the Relief Valve Sizing Analysis
available for any stream in ProMax.

35

UPDATING THE PROPERTY STENCIL


In order to run some of the exercises in this manual, the ProMax Property Stencil needs to be up-to-date. To
update this tool:
1. Obtain a copy of the new version from the files downloaded for this course:
L1 Air Emissions Air Emissions Tools ProMax Property Stencil
If you do not have these files, please contact BR&E Support.
2.

If you have administrative rights on your machine, save the ProMax Property Stencil file to the following
location and overwrite the previous version:
C:\Program Files (x86)\Bryan Research & Engineering Inc\ProMax3\AddOns\Visio

(Note that in 32-bit operating systems the (x86) is omitted.)


3.
4.
5.
6.

If you do NOT have administrative rights on your computer, save the file to:
\My Documents\My Shapes
Open the ProMax Property Stencil.vss file and if prompted about macros, click the Trust All from Publisher
button. If no prompt appears, continue on to step 5.
Close this file.
In ProMax, open the stencil by clicking on More Shapes.
a. If you saved the Property Stencil to your C:\ drive (step 2), you will see ProMax Property Stencil in
the list of shapes.
b. If you saved the Property Stencil to \My Documents (step 3), click on the My Shapes submenu and
the stencil will appear in the next list, as shown below.

Regardless of which method is selected, the new Property Stencil set will be displayed with a new version number.

36

TANK LOSSES SHAPE


In ProMax, calculating the working, breathing, and loading losses is accomplished through the use of the Tank Losses
shape. This shape is extremely useful in calculating air emissions, and will therefore be described more in-depth than
the other shapes in the ProMax Property Stencil.
The Tank Losses shape is based on AP 42, which is the primary compilation of EPAs emission factor information.
Working losses refer to the evaporative losses that occur during the filling and emptying operations of tanks.
Breathing losses, also called standing losses, are the result of evaporative losses during storage. The main cause of
breathing losses is the cycle of heating and cooling that the tank exhibits throughout the day and night.
Loading losses occur as organic vapors in "empty" cargo tanks are displaced into the atmosphere by the liquid being
loaded into the tanks. These vapors are composed of (1) vapors formed in the empty tank by evaporation of residual
products from previous loads, (2) vapors transferred to the tank in vapor balance systems as a product is being
unloaded, and (3) vapors generated in the tank as the new product is being loaded.
When the shape is dragged onto a flowsheet, select the desired stream and the following window will appear. While
most of the options are fairly self-explanatory, a few fields require special mention.
Location Selecting a city from the drop-down list
sets the maximum and minimum temperature,
Daily Solar Insolation, Average Wind Speed, and
Average Absolute Pressure based on that location,
which is specified on Table 7.1-7 of AP 42. In newer
versions of the shape, a custom location can be set
that allows these values to be modified by the user.
Include Non-VOC components in calculations?
This toggle is used to select whether non-VOCs will
be included in the calculations for the losses. AP 42
does not require Non-VOCs to be included for
permitting and reporting of these losses (AP 42
Section 7.1.3) so this should generally be toggled
off. However, this option may be useful for
estimating heating values or properties if these
gases are sent to a flare.
Material Category This field allows the selection
of either Heavy Crude or Light Organics. AP 42 does
not make a clear distinction between the two, but
TCEQ uses 40 degrees API as the cutoff10.
Calculate Loading Losses If this field is toggled on,
the shape will not display any values until the
Loading Loss Parameters tab is fully specified. If
loading loss calculations are not desired, this field
needs to be toggled off.
Overall Reduction Efficiency Found in the Loading Loss Parameters tab, this specification establishes how much
of the vapor is recaptured while loading a vessel. A value of 100% means that all vapor is recovered, while 0%
indicates that no vapor is reclaimed.

10

http://www.tceq.texas.gov/assets/public/implementation/air/ie/pseiforms/producedwaterstoragetank.pdf
37

Once all necessary parameters are properly specified and the dialog is closed, the shape will become a box on the
flowsheet that displays the results of the flashing, working & breathing, and loading losses. If the shape is missing
required data it will present a message indicating what information is still required.
If you double-click on the shape, additional information can be obtained from the Results tab including the
atmospheric pressure of the selected location, the surface temperatures necessary for AP 42 (which are not the
same as ambient temperature), and losses per tank if multiple tanks are present. The Working and Breathing Report
and the Loading Report tabs also display the composition of the losses.
If a current version of the stencil is used (version 3.2.14127.0 or newer) there are small attachment points on the
shape itself, as shown below:

These attachment points allow process streams to be connected to the shape. These streams will populate with the
composition, flow rate, and temperature of the flashing, working/breathing, and loading loss streams, respectively.
However, since these streams are set in ProMax to be 100% saturated vapor, the pressure may be somewhat
different in order to achieve this specification.
These streams can be disconnected from the shape and will retain their properties at the time of detachment unless
manually changed by the user. After being disconnected, the stream will not change in response to a modification
in the shape. However, if the stream remains connected to the shape, any update to the shape will result in a change
in the attached streams.
For additional information, a copy of AP 42 can be obtained by going to EPAs website:
http://www.epa.gov/ttnchie1/ap42/
Information on working and breathing losses can be found in chapter seven, and loading losses can be found in
chapter five.

TRUE VAPOR PRESSURE


Its important to note that the True Vapor Pressure calculated by the Tank Losses shape is different from the TVP
used in the ProMax Vapor Pressure Analysis is because theyre not really the same TVP.
The TVP calculated by the Vapor Pressure Analysis is the pressure of the vapor in equilibrium with the liquid at
100F based on ASTM D1267 Standard Test Method for Gage Vapor Pressure of Liquefied Petroleum (LP)
Gases. This is equal to the streams bubble point pressure at 100F, and is only dependent on the streams
composition. This is the standard TVP used in the midstream gas processing industry.
In AP 42, page 7.1-16 defines True Vapor Pressure as the equilibrium partial pressure exerted by a volatile organic
liquid, as defined by ASTM D2879 or as obtained from standard reference texts. This suggests that another ASTM
standard that calculates TVP (like ASTM D1267) would qualify as a standard reference text as the definition
states. However, ASTM D2879 Standard Test Method for Vapor Pressure-Temperature Relationship and Initial
Decomposition Temperature of Liquids by Isoteniscope does not calculate TVP at a constant temperature, and the
following tables listed in AP 42 supply TVPs at various temperatures for certain components. In the next several
paragraphs equations are also presented for how to calculate TVP at the stored liquid surface temperature of a
38

tank based on the Antoine equation, which is a vapor pressure equation that describes the relation between vapor
pressure and temperature for pure components. In these cases, this TVP is not only dependent upon a streams
composition, but also on its set temperature.
Since all of the methods explicitly discussed in AP 42 are both composition- and temperature-dependent, the Tank
Losses shape calculates the TVP as the pressure of the vapor in equilibrium with the liquid (bubble point pressure)
at the tanks average liquid surface temperature (the temperature specifically mentioned in AP 42). As such, the
TVP calculated by the Tank Losses shape will almost always be different than the TVP calculated by the Vapor
Pressure Analysis because the average liquid surface temperature is generally below 100F.

REVERSE SEPARATOR
In air emissions-related work, it is common to know the composition and flow rate of only the liquid outlet from a
tank. At first glance, it may seem very difficult to calculate the emissions from such a tank (i.e. the composition and
flow rate of the vapor). A brute force-type method could be employed, whereby the composition and flow of the
inlet are varied manually until the corresponding values for the outlet match the measured data. This would,
however, be a rather tedious process, particularly if it has to be done repeatedly.
In such a scenario, a solid estimate for the emissions can be obtained fairly simply by utilizing the saturator block in
reverse. This process has two main steps: 1) determine the composition of both outlet streams, and 2) backcalculate the composition and flow of the inlet stream. Note that the procedure requires knowing the temperature
and pressure of both the inlet and outlets. Fortunately, these can usually be obtained without much difficulty.
Consider the following scenario: the temperature and pressure of the pressurized liquid are known, but not the
flow rate. The temperature, pressure, composition and flow rate are known for the liquid product, but nothing is
known regarding the flash gas.

What are the emissions for this tank?


Step A: determine the composition of both outlet streams
1. Create a process stream.
2.

Set the composition and pressure equal to those of the known liquid outlet.

3.

Set the mole fraction vapor to 0%. This places the stream at its bubble point. If the sample was handled and
analyzed properly, the calculated temperature should be approximately equal to that of the known liquid
outlet.

4.

Read the vapor composition directly from the stream. This is the composition of the vapor that is in
equilibrium with this liquid at the specified temperature and pressure. In other words, this is the composition
of the flash gas leaving the tank.

39

Step B: back-calculate the composition and flow of the inlet stream


1. Create two more process streams.
2.

In one of the streams, enter the temperature and pressure of the pressurized liquid, and the composition and
flow rate of the liquid outlet.

3.

In the other stream, enter the composition of the vapor calculated previously. DO NOT specify a temperature,
pressure or flow rate, as these will be determined automatically.

4.

Add a saturator block to the flowsheet. Connect the liquid stream as the inlet and the vapor stream as the
saturant.

5.

Attach a blank process stream to the outlet of the saturator and execute the flowsheet.

The calculated values for the outlet stream provide a solid estimate of the pressurized liquid. The saturator has
determined the flow rate of the vapor required to produce a saturated liquid at the temperature and pressure of
the pressurized liquid. The emissions can then be determined directly from this saturant stream.
This procedure, while powerful, requires that the following assumptions be valid:
1.

The inlet fluid is saturated.

2.

The initial known composition contains at least some measurable amount of all of the species present in the
pressurized liquid sample. If it does not, the procedure will, of course, fail to identify the presence of these
components, which can drastically alter the calculations.

The procedure just described involves a situation with a saturated liquid inlet and a known outlet liquid, but it could
be applied equivalently to cases where the feed is a saturated gas and/or the known outlet is the vapor phase.
However, be aware that in these cases the procedure is less reliable, since the vapor is less likely to contain the
entire component list than the liquid.

40

PROMAX AIR EMISSIONS EXERCISES

EXERCISE 1 FLOWSHEET BASICS


This exercise teaches flowsheet basics in ProMax: how to draw and/or modify a process, and how to configure and
analyze it.

PROCESS INFORMATION

Draw the flowsheet as shown on the next page. Be sure to attach an energy
stream to each of the four separators.

Set the environment to Peng-Robinson and include the components listed in


the table at right.

Set the outlet pressure of the choke valve to 700 psig.

Set the outlet temperature of the high pressure separator to 85F, and the
pressure drop to 0 psi.

Set the outlet temperature and pressure of the heater-treater to 150F and
20 psig, respectively.

Set the outlet temperature and pressure of the atmospheric hydrocarbon


and water tanks to 80F and 0 psig, respectively.

Set the polytropic efficiency of the VRU compressor to 60% and the outlet
pressure to 700 psig.

Wellstream Inlet Conditions


Temperature
90F
Pressure
1000 psig
Flow Rate
350 lbmol/hr
Component
Mol%
Methane
47.59
Ethane
7.11
Propane
4.22
i-Butane
1.76
n-Butane
0.86
i-Pentane
0.79
n-Pentane
0.51
n-Hexane
0.68
n-Heptane
0.36
n-Octane
0.28
n-Nonane
0.12
Benzene
0.16
Toluene
0.06
Ethylbenzene
0.07
m-Xylene
0.06
Water
35.37

QUESTIONS
1.

Attach a callout to the HC liquid stream and display the flow rate (bbl/d) and API gravity. Display only three
significant figures for each.

2.

Add a property table to the flowsheet that displays the mass flow rates (ton/yr) of the BTEX components
(benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene) in the two flash emission streams. Increase the font size of the table
to 10 point.

3.

What happens to the BTEX emissions if the heater-treater is removed from the process? Why? (Hint:
disconnect the two liquid streams leaving the heater-treater from their corresponding atmospheric tanks, and
disconnect the VRU compressor outlet from the mixer. Then route the HP Liquid stream directly to the
atmospheric hydrocarbon tank.)

41

42

EXERCISE 2 SAMPLE VALIDATION


When estimating emissions from a tank or separator, a compositional analysis of a process stream is often used.
The emission estimate is only as good as the laboratory analysis; an incorrect analysis will give an incorrect
emission estimate. ProMax can help you spot a bad analysis. A common sample point for estimating storage tank
emissions is the pressurized liquid leaving an upstream heater-treater. This stream should be at its bubble point,
since it is in equilibrium with the gas leaving the heater-treater. A good indication that the sample is bad is a large
difference between the reported stream temperature and the bubble point temperature that ProMax calculates
based on the sample compositional analysis.
The newest version of the ProMax Property Stencil may be required to complete the questions in this exercise, and
instructions for how to update your version of the stencil are included in the introductory portion of this manual.

PROCESS INFORMATION

The environment is already defined using the PengRobinson property package and all necessary components.

The heater-treater conditions immediately upstream of an


atmospheric storage tank are reported to be 150F and 20
psig.

The samples were collected from the pressurized liquid


leaving the heater-treater. These samples were sent to
three different laboratories to determine the accuracy of
each lab. The composition results from each laboratory are
shown to the right.

The atmospheric hydrocarbon tank operates at 90 F and 0


psig, which has already been set for you in the exercise file.

Fully specify a process stream for each laboratory analysis.


Set the temperature and pressure of each to the heatertreater conditions, and the flowrate to 10 bbl/d.

Pressurized Liquid Composition


Laboratory
#1
#2
Component
Mol%
Mol%
Methane
0.2
0.1
Ethane
0.6
0.3
Propane
2.1
1.8
i-Butane
3.1
3.1
n-Butane
2.4
2.4
i-Pentane
5.9
6.0
n-Pentane
5.1
5.1
n-Hexane
18.2
18.3
n-Heptane
17.2
17.4
n-Octane
18.9
19.0
n-Nonane
9.5
9.6
Benzene
4.5
4.5
Toluene
3.2
3.2
Ethylbenzene
4.8
4.8
m-Xylene
4.3
4.4

#3
Mol%
0.3
0.8
3.0
4.6
3.6
8.4
7.0
20.7
15.8
14.6
6.7
5.0
2.8
3.5
3.2

QUESTIONS
1.

Find the bubble point temperature for each pressurized liquid stream, which can be found under the Vapor
Pressure analysis. Compare this to the heater-treater temperature. What does this tell you about the validity
of the sample? Why?

2.

Estimate the storage tank VOC flash emissions for each compositional analysis, using the Sum Components
property shape.

3.

Which laboratory gives the most believable results?

4.

What does this exercise show about the importance of proper sampling and analysis methods?

5.

Does a high bubble point temperature cause an underestimation or overestimation of flash emissions? Why?

6.

Add a Phase Envelope Analysis to each pressurized liquid stream, and look at the accompanying plots.

43

EXERCISE 3 FLASH EMISSIONS


This exercise simulates an atmospheric tank for the purpose of flash emissions calculations. It also introduces more
Air Emissions shapes in the ProMax Property Stencil. The newest version of the ProMax Property Stencil may be
required to complete the questions in this exercise, and instructions for how to update your version of the stencil
are included in the introductory portion of this manual.

PROCESS INFORMATION

The project is already drawn, and the environment and inlet stream are
already configured.

The tank is modeled as a two-phase separator and operates at 80F and


0 psig.

Pressurized Liquid Conditions


Temperature
82F
Pressure
50 psig
Flow Rate
40 bbl/d
Component
Mol%
Methane
0.9
Ethane
2.6
Propane
7.9
i-Butane
10.4
n-Butane
13.6
i-Pentane
12.5
n-Pentane
11.3
n-Hexane
10.2
n-Heptane
9.1
n-Octane
8.4
n-Nonane
7.0
Benzene
2.7
Toluene
1.1
Ethylbenzene
0.7
m-Xylene
1.6

QUESTIONS
1.

Calculate the flash emissions (ton/yr) for this process for VOCs, BTEX, HAPs and GHGs (greenhouse gases). Use
the Sum Components property shape.

2.

Calculate the global warming potential for this process. Use the GWP Calculator property shape.

3.

Find the bubble point temperature of the pressurized liquid stream. This stream was drawn off of a separator
and should therefore be saturated (at its bubble point). Is the bubble point temperature of this particular
stream consistent with the measured temperature?

4.

Find the Reid Vapor Pressure of the condensate stream. (Hint: use the Vapor Pressure analysis.)

44

EXERCISE 4 - TANK LOSSES


At an oil well site, pressurized liquids are sent to a storage tank to await transportation. The storage tank vents to
the atmosphere. This exercise demonstrates how to find the flash, working, breathing and loading losses for the
tank using the Tank Losses property shape. The results are then compared to those from a published study on
the following page.

PROCESS INFORMATION

The environment is already defined except for the C 10+ component. Add
a single oil to the project using the oils dialog (click the
icon).
Rename it C10+ and set its molecular weight to 262.7 lb/lbmol and its
specific gravity to 0.88. Then add this component into the environment.

Specify the temperature, pressure and composition of the pressurized


liquid using the table at right.

Set the temperature and pressure of the condensate to 64.2F and


13.98 psia, respectively. These are the conditions in Sioux Falls, SD.

The only flow rate known is that of the condensate: 188 bbl/d
(standard).

Add a Tank Losses property shape to the flowsheet and configure it


using the following information:
o Stream: Pressurized Liquid
o Tank Geometry: vertical cylinder
o Tank Dimensions: height 25 ft, diameter 12 ft
o Number of Tanks: 5
o Location: Sioux Falls, SD
o Fraction Fill: 90% max, 50% avg.
o Material Category: Light Organics
o Tank & Roof Color / Condition: medium gray / good
o Breather vent pressure: 0.03 psig
o Breather vacuum pressure: -0.03 psig
o Roof Type: Conical, slope of 0.05
o Calculate loading losses: No

Pressurized Liquid Conditions


Temperature
66F
Pressure
42 psig
Flow
?
Component
Mol%
Methane
0.93
Ethane
2.59
Propane
5.46
i-Butane
1.33
n-Butane
6.22
i-Pentane
2.30
n-Pentane
4.15
2-Methylpentane
2.17
n-Hexane
2.26
2,2,4-Trimethylpentane
0.12
n-Heptane
10.04
n-Octane
8.92
n-Nonane
3.71
Benzene
0.28
Toluene
0.92
Ethylbenzene
0.33
p-Xylene
1.41
C10+
46.86

QUESTIONS
1.

Find the mass flow rate (ton/yr) of VOC flash emissions.

2.

Find the working and breathing losses (ton/yr).

3.

What is the API Gravity of the condensate?

4.

Add loading losses to the working and breathing loss calculations. Go to the Loading Loss Parameters tab of
the Tank Losses shape. This oil is loaded using a submerged loading device with dedicated vapor balance
service. The overall reduction efficiency is 60%. What are the loading losses?
45

SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR ELEVATED TEMPERATURE FEEDS


In some cases the Pressurized Liquid stream comes directly from a separator operating at an elevated
temperature, such as with a heater-treater as shown below. Some jurisdictions require modification of the AP 42
methods to accommodate the elevated temperature feed. The ProMax Tank Losses shape will take into account
the elevated feed temperature if the Set Bulk Temperature to Stream Temperature? option is checked. One
suggestion is to use this option when the feed temperature is greater than 100 F.
There is typically a level control valve between the Heater-Treater and the atmospheric tank. Most compositional
analysis samples will be taken upstream of this valve to avoid sampling a 2-phase mixture. As the Pressurized
Liquid flows through the level control valve it will flash down to very near atmospheric pressure, which can cause a
noticeable temperature drop. Therefore it is recommended that when elevated temperature feeds must be
considered, the simulation be altered slightly to reflect this. Modify the exercise as follows:
1.

Add a valve between the Pressurized Liquid and the Atmospheric Tank.

2.

Connect the Pressurized Liquid to the inlet of the valve (dont add a heater-treater block in this case),
and add a new stream from the valve to the tank.

3.

Set the pressure drop in the Atmospheric Tank to 0 psig.

4.

Point the Tank Losses shape to the new stream (Stream 1 in the example below).

5.

Check the Set Bulk Temperature to Stream Temperature? option in the Tank Losses shape.

6.

Compare these losses to the previous results. How are they different?

If the process equipment looks like this

To VRU
Heater-Treater

Flash Gas

HP from Upstream

Pressurized Liquid

Atmospheric Tank

Level Control

Condensate

Model in ProMax like this

Flash Gas

Pressurized Liquid

Atmospheric Tank

VLVE-100

Heat Transfer

Condensate

46

In 2010 Marathon Oil Company published a study of emissions from a tank battery in the Bakken formation. The
study compared the emissions predicted by various simulators with those measured in the field. Results are
provided below11.

Though ProMax was not originally included in the study, the oil composition and process conditions were included
in the report, so the model can easily be compared with any other simulator. The plot below adds ProMax results
to all of the previous data. Note that the plot has been modified to improve readability.
350
Data

300

VOCs (ton/yr)

E&P Tanks Flash

250

PSDPT

200

HYSYS
ProMax Flash + W/B

ProMax

ProMax Flash

150

E&P Tanks Generic

100

MSPT

50

GOR Flash
V-B Flash

0
73

136

188

209

227

231

254

Production Rate (bbl/d)


PSDPT = Prevention of Significant Deterioration Permitting Threshold, MSPT = Major Source Permitting Threshold

11

P. Peacock. Bakken Oil Storage Tank Emission Models. Presented at the Bakken VOC Emission Control Solution Session; 23 March 2010;
Bismarck, ND. http://www.ndoil.org/image/cache/Peacock_-_March_23_2010._ppt.pdf

47

EXERCISE 5 - PROCESS EMISSIONS


Amine sweetening processes are used to remove acid components from gas, particularly H2S and CO2. Glycol
dehydration processes are used to remove water from gas. Both are very common procedures with the potential
for significant emissions. This exercise shows how to calculate process emissions, as well as some methods for
reducing them. It also introduces the Scenario Tool in ProMax for automated calculation of different scenarios.

PROCESS INFORMATION

Both processes are already fully configured. The inlet gas flow rate is 40 MMSCFD.

Amine Sweetening Process

The amine sweetening process must reduce the sweet gas CO2 content below 2 mol%.
The circulation rate of amine solvent is 50 sgpm.

Glycol Dehydration Process

The glycol dehydration process must reduce the dry gas H2O content below 7.0 lbm/MMSCF.

The circulation rate of glycol is 3 sgpm.

48

QUESTIONS
1.

What are the current values for the mole fraction of CO2 in the sweet gas and the BTEX emissions from the
amine stripper?

2.

The amine unit is sized for a maximum circulation rate of 70 sgpm. Embed an Excel workbook into the project
and use the Scenario Tool to monitor the change in BTEX emissions as this rate is increased from 50 to
70 sgpm. (Note: the Scenario Tool may be added using the procedure outlined earlier in this manual.) How
strongly does this circulation rate affect the emissions?

3.

Return the amine circulation pump to its design rate (50 sgpm). What is the water content (lbm/MMSCF) of the
dry sales gas exiting the glycol dehydration process. Use the Freeze Out, Hydrate, H2O Dew Point analysis to
find this information.

4.

What are the BTEX emissions from the glycol still?

5.

A vapor condenser is often used to reduce the emissions from a glycol still. To model this condenser, attach a
new two-phase separator to the Still Overheads stream and set its outlet temperature and pressure to 150F
and 0.1 psig, respectively. How much water is in the condensed liquid? What is the new BTEX emissions rate?

ADDITIONAL DISCUSSION
Glycols, such as the triethylene glycol (TEG) used in this exercise, will absorb non-negligible quantities of BTEX
components from a natural gas stream. Accurate prediction of BTEX absorption is needed to calculate emissions
rates from downstream process equipment.
A third-party organization, John M. Campbell & Co., recently compared ProMax predictions for BTEX absorption in
TEG solutions to experimental values reported by the Gas Processors Association 12,13. The Peng-Robinson equation
of state was used. The results of this comparison are provided below.

12

M. Moshfeghian and R. A. Hubbard. Absorption of Aromatics Compounds (BTEX) in TEG Dehydration Process (2011).
http://www.jmcampbell.com/tip-of-the-month/2011/06/absorption-of-aromatics-compounds-in-teg-dehydration-process/
13
H.J. Ng, C.J. Chen, and D.B. Robinson. RR-131, The Solubility of Selected Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Triethylene Glycol. Gas Processors
Association (1991).

49

EXERCISE 6 - FLARES
To reduce BTEX emissions from a glycol dehydration unit, the operating company has installed a flare to burn the
still/regenerator overhead stream. This exercise shows how to model such a continuous flare using reactors in
ProMax. It also demonstrates how to use simple specifiers to fix some process parameters as functions of others.
This flare is air-assisted, meaning that air is mixed with the feed to provide a source of oxygen for combustion. US
Federal Regulations require that the net or lower ideal gas heating value of the feed be at least 300 BTU/ft3 for airand steam-assisted flares (200 BTU/ft3 for unassisted flares). However, efficient combustion of all species may
require a much higher heating value than this minimum. One convention is to use air at a rate that provides 170%
excess oxygen, or 2.7 times the amount of oxygen required to fully burn all combustible species in the feed. This
ensures complete combustion and also helps maintain the flare tip temperature below a reasonable value. This
excess air may be referred to as quench air.
Note that flaring has the potential to generate N2O. This is not explicitly covered in this exercise, but EPA
regulations14 estimate that 0.0001 kg of N2O are generated for each MMBTU of gross combustion duty.

PROCESS INFORMATION

Set the pressure drop of the knock-out drum to 7 psi.

Increase the heating value of the vapors by adding fuel


gas at a rate of 0.1 MMSCFD.

Set the air temperature to the ambient temperature.

Set the air pressure equal to the pressure in stream 2.


Use a simple specifier to accomplish this.

Add a Combustion analysis to stream 2 to calculate


the minimum flow rate of oxygen required for complete
combustion.

Set the molar flow rate of air 2.7 times higher than the
minimum required for complete combustion. Use a
simple specifier to accomplish this. The expression
should take the following form:
ReqO2 * 2.7 / xO2
where ReqO2 is the required molar flow of oxygen from
the Combustion analysis on stream 2 and xO2 is the
mole fraction of oxygen in the air. Both of these must be included as independent variables.

For the flare itself, set the reactor Type to Gibbs Minimization, the Gibbs Set to Burner, and the pressure
drop to 1 psi.

A 98% destruction efficiency for hydrocarbons can be assumed 15 within the flare, provided a number of design
constraints are satisfied. Configure this using a Bypass Fraction of 2% in the flare.

14
15

http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=9734d64216e4ff1832fba36faadf70ec&node=40:21.0.1.1.3.1.1.10.11&rgn=div9
AP 42 Section 13.5 Industrial Flares. http://www.epa.gov/ttnchie1/ap42/ch13/final/c13s05.pdf

50

QUESTIONS
1.

What is the net ideal gas heating value (BTU/ft3) for the vapors being sent to flare in stream 1?

2.

After fuel gas is added, what is the new net ideal gas heating value (BTU/ft3) in stream 2?

3.

How much air (lbmol/hr) is required at 170% excess oxygen?

4.

Find the total BTEX emissions (ton/yr) from the flare. Is flaring an effective way to reduce BTEX emissions?

5.

How can the flare tip temperature be controlled?

6.

Save a copy of this exercise.

51

EXERCISE 7 BACK BLENDING


With an entire well site, it is common to have composition and flow information only for the sales gas, the
hydrocarbon liquid, and the water (i.e. the non-emissions outlets). This exercise demonstrates how to calculate the
emissions for such a site using only this information, together with the known operating conditions at each block.
The method itself is referred to as back-blending, and teaches use of simple solvers in ProMax.

PROCESS INFORMATION

The environment is already properly configured.

The following process parameters are already set:


o The high-pressure separator operates at 700 psig
and 105F.
o The heater-treater operates at 145F and 25 psig.
o The two atmospheric tanks operate at 80F and
0 psig.
o The VRU compressor operates at 60% polytropic
efficiency.

The table at right provides the measured values for


the three known streams. These are the actual outlet
values after emission losses. These values will be used
to populate the inlet to the site in a method referred
to as back-blending.
o Add a mixer with three separate feed streams to
the front of wellstream fluid. See the diagram
below for detail.
o Populate the first of these inlet streams with the
flow and composition of the sales gas outlet, the
second with the flow and composition of the HC
liquid outlet, and the third with the flow and composition of the water outlet.
o Set the temperature and pressure of each of these three inlets to 90F and 1000 psig, respectively.

Conditions
Temperature
Pressure
Flow Rate
Composition
Methane
Ethane
Propane
i-Butane
n-Butane
i-Pentane
n-Pentane
n-Hexane
n-Heptane
n-Octane
n-Nonane
Benzene
Toluene
Ethylbenzene
m-Xylene
Water

Sales Gas
135.8F
700 psig
2 MMSCFD
Mol%
75.3
11.2
6.63
2.70
1.30
1.10
0.65
0.57
0.16
0.06
0.01
0.13
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.15

HC Liquid
80F
0 psig
36 bbl/d
Mol%
0.1
0.5
2.3
3.9
3.1
7.8
6.5
20.8
16.6
15.7
7.3
5.0
2.9
4.0
3.5
0.0

Water
80F
0 psig
152 bbl/d
Mol%
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
100

52

QUESTIONS
1.

What are the VOC and BTEX emissions from the two tanks?

2.

How similar are the calculated outlets to the measured values given in the table? Which stream is the most
different, and why?

3.

In order to make the model better represent the real site, the flow rate of each inlet can be adjusted until the
measured and calculated values are in better agreement. While this could be done manually, it is usually
easier to automate the process using the built-in solvers in ProMax.
Add a simple solver to the inlet gas flow rate and configure it to produce a sales gas flow rate equal to the
table value. Use the measured sales gas flow as the initial guess (calculated value). The expression should look
like the following:
SalesGasFlow - 2
where SalesGasFlow must be referenced as a measured variable, and should be the standard vapor
volumetric flow rate of the sales gas in units of MMSCFD. The solver will then modify the inlet gas rate until
the sales gas flow rate is equal to 2 MMSCFD (to within tolerance).
Repeat this same procedure for the HC liquid and water inlets. Does this improve the final solution?

4.

What are the VOC and BTEX emissions from the two tanks after adding the solvers?

53

EXERCISE 8 LINKING FLOWSHEETS AND PROJECTS


This exercise shows how to link different flowsheets and projects together in ProMax. In place of modeling the
amine, glycol and flare processes as separate projects, all are combined into a single file, and streams from one
flowsheet are linked to those of other flowsheets.

PROCESS INFORMATION

Open a solved version of the flare exercise (either saved from earlier or the solution file to exercise 6).

Export this file using the Export Project feature (FileExport Project).

Open the Ex08Linking Flowsheets project, which models an amine sweetening unit and a glycol
dehydration unit. Use the Append Project feature (FileAppend Project) to append the file just exported
from the flare project.

Add a cross flowsheet connector (XFS1) to the Dehydration flowsheet and set the coupled flowsheet to
Flare.

On the Dehydration flowsheet connect the Still Overheads stream to the tail end of XFS1.

On the Flare flowsheet connect a new stream to the tip of XFS1.

The flare environment does not currently include TEG, so the stream transfer cannot immediately be
performed. To correct this, add TEG to the flare environment. (Alternatively, the mole fraction transfer
threshold inside of XFS 1 could be set to 1 ppm. This would filter out all components found at
concentrations below this level.)

On the Flare flowsheet, detach the stream currently feeding the KO drum and attach the new stream to it
instead.

Execute the project.

54

EXERCISE 9 - USER VALUE SETS


This exercise demonstrates how to create custom variables in ProMax (i.e. values which are not calculated by the
program by default and arent necessarily required to execute the project), how to tie these variables to known
parameters in a simulation, and how to neatly display and adjust these values on a flowsheet. The process itself is
a gas recompression skid to supply pressurized CO 2 for reinjection. There are three stages of compression, with aircooled exchangers between each stage. Air coolers can typically cool a process stream to within 10F of ambient
temperature. This example will examine the effect of ambient temperature on total compression work.

PROCESS INFORMATION

The flowsheet below is already drawn in the exercise file, but you will need
to configure it properly with the specifications to the right and below. The
Peng-Robinson property package is already selected.

The acid gas enters the compression skid saturated with 100% water. Its
composition (on a dry basis) and conditions are given in the table to the
right.

The compressors have an adiabatic efficiency of 75% and are driven by diesel
engines.

Each compressor stage has an outlet pressure as follows:


o

Stage 1 = 75 psia, Stage 2 = 260 psia, Stage 3 = 1000 psia

The pressure drop in each separator is 0 psi.

Assume a 3 psi pressure drop across each air cooler.

Proceed to the instructions about this process below.


Stage 2 Compression
Stage 1 Compression

Stage 1 Outlet

120F
20 psia
1 MMSCFD
Mol% (dry)
99.5
0
0.4
0.045
0.015
0.005
0.02
0.011
0.003
0.001

Stage 3 Compression

P-2

P-1

Inlet Conditions
Temperature
Pressure
Flow Rate (wet)
Composition
CO2
Water
Methane
Ethane
Propane
n-Butane
Benzene
Toluene
o-Xylene
Ethylbenzene

P-3

Stage 2 Outlet

12

Outlet to Injection Well

4
Wet Feed

Q-1

Q-2

Q-3

Dry Basis Acid Gas


5
Water (Saturant)

Saturator

Stage 1 Air Cooler

13

Stage 2 Air Cooler


Stage 1 Knockdown

Stage 3 Air Cooler


Stage 2 Knockdown

Stage 3 Knockdown
15
11

INSTRUCTIONS
1.

Create a new user value to store the ambient temperature. Set its initial value to 90F.

2.

Use Simple Specifiers to set the three air cooler outlet temperatures to 10F above the ambient temperature.

3.

Add a Property Input shape from the ProMax Property Stencil to the flowsheet. Link it to the Ambient
Temperature user value.

4.

Create a user value that sums the compressor power from all three compressors. Display this value on the
flowsheet using a Short Moniker.

5. When the ambient temperature is 80F, what is the total compressor power? When its 100F?
6. Save this project.

55

EXERCISE 10 EXCEL IMPORT/EXPORT


This exercise shows how Excel export/import functionality in ProMax to perform external calculations using an
Excel spreadsheet. Any value in the Project Viewer is available for exporting to Excel, but import is available only
for blank cells in the Project Viewer. The Import/Export feature is available by right-clicking on a value in the
Project Viewer. This exercise will use Excel export/import to calculate engine-driven compressor emissions using
emission factors.

INSTRUCTIONS
1.

Start with the converged solution from the previous exercise. An Excel worksheet has already been embedded
in the ProMax project, it is color-coded to indicate import from or export to Excel.

2.

Import the ambient temperature from Excel into the ambient temperature user value in ProMax.

3.

Export the total compressor power to the Excel workbook.

4.

The NOx emission factor for diesel engines is 16 g/bhp-hr16. Multiplying the emission factor by the total
horsepower for the compressors estimates total NOx emissions for the engines. g/bhp-hr stands for
grams/(brake horsepower * hour).Calculate the NOx emissions in ton/yr in Excel using the 16 g/bhp-hr
emissions factor.

5.

When the ambient temperature is 80F, 90F, and 100F, what are the total engine NOx emissions for each
case? Record the answers in a table in Excel and create a plot of this data.

6.

How do the NOx emissions compare to total horsepower?

16

Based on Dresser Waukesha F18GSI Specifications (2010). http://dresserwaukesha.com/documents/7013_0710.pdf

56

EXERCISE 11 - REPORTS
This exercise provides another demonstration of the Tank Losses shape, and also shows how to use the tools in
ProMax to automatically populate a report in Excel with the process information.
The Tank Losses shape is an implementation of AP 42, which prescribes the methods for calculating emissions from
hydrocarbon tanks. AP 42 does not consider lighter components (e.g. methane, ethane) when calculating flash
emissions. Therefore, if these are to be included the flash emissions should be taken directly from the saturated
vapor stream leaving the tank, rather than from the Tank Losses shape. This is demonstrated below.

PROCESS INFORMATION

The environment and pressurized liquid are already configured using the
information in the table at right.

Inlet Conditions
Temperature
Pressure
Flow Rate
Composition
Methane
Ethane
Propane
i-Butane
n-Butane
i-Pentane
n-Pentane
n-Hexane
n-Heptane
n-Octane
n-Nonane
Benzene
Toluene
Ethylbenzene
m-Xylene

82F
45 psig
29 bbl/d
Mol%
0.89
2.27
7.18
8.49
5.92
10.56
8.12
18.27
12.04
10.37
4.64
4.31
2.06
2.62
2.26

Add a new Tank Losses shape to the flowsheet and configure it as follows:
o Stream: Pressurized Liquid
o Tank geometry: horizontal cylinder, 25 ft. length, 12 ft. diameter
o Location: near Montgomery, AL
o Material category: Light Organics
o Tank color: white, in good condition
o Underground tank: yes
o Loading loss parameters: tank truck, filled using submerged loading of a
clean cargo tank, 70% reduction efficiency

Set the tank outlet pressure to the atmospheric pressure at the tank location.
Likewise set the outlet temperature to that of the maximum liquid surface
temperature. Both of these are found on the Results tab of the shape.

Determine the total emissions for the process by mixing the flash gas with only
the working and breathing and loading streams leaving the Tank Losses
shape. This will require attaching two outlet streams to the shape: one for the
working and breathing losses, one for the loading losses.

Create a report for this process in Excel using the Report tool. Include only the PStreams and User Value Sets
in the report, as well as a picture of the flowsheet. Note that the report will be easier to read if each stream is
assigned a descriptive name, rather than just a generic number.

QUESTIONS
1.

Looking at the report, what is the molecular weight of the sales oil stream? The loading losses? Do these
match the values in the ProMax project?

2. Where in the report is the information about the tank dimensions located?
3. Change the stream for the Tank Losses shape to Sales Oil. What happens to the total emissions, and why?
Has the value in the report changed?
57

The plot below shows the effect of tank color on ProMax-calculated working and breathing losses for a tank in
Dallas, TX. The plot shows that the use of lighter, more reflective tank colors can yield a significant reduction in
storage tank emissions.

Working & Breathing Losses


Varying Tank Color and Paint Condition
20

Tank W&B Losses (ton/yr)

18

16

14

12

10

White

Beige/Cream
Good Paint Condition

Medium Grey

Black

Poor Paint Condition

58

EXERCISE 12 REVERSE SEPARATOR


In practice it is common to know the flow and composition only for the outlet liquid from a tank. This exercise
demonstrates how the emissions for such a tank may be approximated using just this information, together with
the temperatures and pressures up and downstream of the tank. The method essentially involves executing a
separator in reverse.
A detailed explanation of this method is found in the first portion of this manual.

PROCESS INFORMATION

For the sales oil, all required properties are known and are provided in the table
at right.

For the pressurized liquid, the temperature (82F) and pressure (50 psig) are the
only properties available. It is known that this stream is saturated.

Nothing is known about the flash gas flow rate or composition.

Use the Reversipator property shape to perform this calculation.

QUESTIONS
1.

What are the VOC, BTEX and HAPs emissions for this process?

2.

Add a new stream to the flowsheet and set its temperature, pressure, flow rate
and composition equal to those of the pressurized liquid just calculated. Connect
this stream as the inlet to a separator, and attach an energy stream and two
outlet streams to the separator as well. Set the outlet temperature and pressure
equal to those of the sales oil. How do the flow rate and composition of the
liquid compare with those of the sales oil?

Sales Oil Conditions


Temperature
80F
Pressure
0 psig
Flow Rate
29 bbl/d
Composition
Mol%
Methane
0.01
Ethane
0.24
Propane
2.18
i-Butane
5.64
n-Butane
9.25
i-Pentane
12.54
n-Pentane
12.34
n-Hexane
13.65
n-Heptane
12.99
n-Octane
12.28
n-Nonane
10.31
Benzene
3.62
Toluene
1.58
Ethylbenzene
1.02
m-Xylene
2.35

59

ADDITIONAL EXERCISES

EXERCISE 13 ADDITIONAL USER VALUE SETS


This exercise gives additional practice in creating user value sets. The process itself is a comprehensive well site
setup, which includes a high-pressure separator, a heater-treater and a vapor recovery compressor. The
wellstream fluid contains significant amounts of gas, hydrocarbon liquid and water.

PROCESS INFORMATION

The process is already fully configured with the following information:


o The inlets are at the conditions and compositions shown in the table at
right.
o The high pressure separator operates at 500 psig and 90F.
o The heater-treater operates at 50 psig and 140F.
o The atmospheric hydrocarbon and water tanks both operate at 0 psig and
80F.
o The VRU Compressor has a polytropic efficiency of 60% and is driven by a
gas engine.
Proceed directly to the questions about this process below.

Inlet Conditions
Temperature
Pressure
Flow Rate
Composition
Methane
Ethane
Propane
i-Butane
n-Butane
i-Pentane
n-Pentane
n-Hexane
n-Heptane
n-Octane
n-Nonane
Benzene
Toluene
Ethylbenzene
m-Xylene
Water

90F
1000 psig
8000 lb/h
Mol%
47.60
7.00
4.30
1.80
0.90
0.80
0.50
0.70
0.30
0.30
0.10
0.17
0.08
0.07
0.08
35.30

60

QUESTIONS
1.

Calculate the NOx and CO emissions (ton/yr) from the compressor gas engine. To do this, create a new user
value set, add values for NOx and CO (units of mass per time), and calculate each using a simple specifier. Use
the table below where needed. g/bhp-hr stands for gram/(brake horsepower * hour).
Engine Specification Sheet17
Available Power
General

Brake specific fuel consumption


Fuel Consumption

Emissions

Performance @ 1500 rpm


20.00
7150.00

bhp
BTU/bhp-hr

230.00

MBTU/hr

NOx

16.00

g/bhp-hr

CO

8.00

g/bhp-hr

Total Hydrocarbon (THC)

1.50

g/bhp-hr

Non-Methane Hydrocarbon (NMHC)

0.25

g/bhp-hr

2.

What are the VOC and BTEX emissions from the hydrocarbon tank?

3.

Install a two-phase separator between the heater-treater and the atmospheric hydrocarbon tank. Be sure to
include the energy stream. (Refer to the diagram above, if needed.) Set the outlet temperature and pressure
of this block to 95F and 5 psig, respectively. Add another compressor (60% polytropic efficiency) to increase
the pressure of these vapors back to 50 psig, then mix them with the heater-treater gas. Connect the liquids to
the atmospheric hydrocarbon tank.
Create two new user values to calculate the additional emissions this new compressor will create. Also create
two more to calculate the total NOx and CO emissions from both compressors. Display the total emissions
values directly on the flowsheet using short monikers.

4.

What are the new VOC and BTEX emissions from the hydrocarbon tank?

5.

What are the advantages and disadvantages associated with using this additional separator?

17

Table design based on Dresser Waukesha F18GSI Specifications (2010). http://dresserwaukesha.com/documents/7013_0710.pdf

61

EXERCISE 14 ADDITIONAL IMPORT/EXPORT FROM EXCEL


In this exercise, you will use ProMax interactions with Excel to perform some external calculations using a
spreadsheet. To activate the Import/Export functionality in ProMax, you first need to add an Excel sheet to the
project through the ProMax menu. Any value in ProMaxs Project Viewer is available for exporting to Excel, but
import is available only for blank cells in the Project viewer.

PART 1: OPERATION COST


Set up the first stage of a compression system as shown in the diagram. The
compressor is being fed with 100 lbmol/hr pure methane at 120 oF and 20 psia.
Embed an Excel sheet to the project and setup ProMax to import the
compressors polytropic efficiency and the discharge pressure from Excel, and
export the compressors power (in kW) from ProMax to Excel. Set the efficiency
and the output pressure to 0.80 and 70 psia, respectively, through Excel.

Compressor
Q

Calculate the compressor operating cost assuming a price of $0.06/kWh, 4200


operation hours per year, 85% running time, and 90% loading. The following is the general cost equation for
operating the compression; however, ProMax accounts for the efficiency in calculating the power, therefore those
two terms can be combined.
(1)

QUESTIONS
1.
2.

What is the annual operation cost for running the compressor at 0.80 efficiency? What will be the cost if the
output pressure is increased to 90 psia?
If the compressor efficiency drops to 0.70, what will be the annual operation cost to run the compressor at 70
psia discharge pressure?

PART 2: BRAKE POWER


The compressors brake power (in horsepower) can be estimated using the following equation:

(2)
Where = inlet mass density (lb/ft3), Q = inlet actual volumetric flow (ft3/min), h = polytropic head (ft) and p =
polytropic efficiency (fractional). Use ProMax to export the required variables for equation (2) and calculate Pbhp
for the compressor in Excel.

QUESTIONS
3.

At 0.7 efficiency and 70 psia outlet pressure, what is the brake power calculated by ProMax? What is the
value calculated with the equation above?

62

EXERCISE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL BTEX CALCULATIONS


CONDENSATE TANK FLASH
Goal:

Build the following flowsheet which represents a field


production and separation facility.

Process Information:
In Project Options, set Atmospheric Pressure to 11.3 psia
Use the Peng-Robinson property package in the environment.
Add the components listed in the inlet composition and H 2O
Water rate is 0.5 sgpm
The inlet mix goes through a choke valve and line heater and
then enters the high pressure separator at 875 psig and 95F. Set
the line heater pressure drop to 0 psi.
The sample line contains material that will be sampled for
extended GC analysis
The liquids leave the condensate tank at 0 psig. Do not set
pressure drop in the condensate tank

Inlet HC:
Conditions
Temperature
Pressure
Flow Rate
Inlet HC:
Composition
Methane
Ethane
Propane
i-Butane
n-Butane
n-Pentane
n-Hexane
n-Heptane
n-Octane
n-Nonane
n-Decane
Benzene
Toluene
Ethylbenzene
m-Xylene

115 oF
2000 psig
1.04 MMSCFD
Mole%
90.2
6.3
1.2
0.06
0.08
0.13
0.15
0.5
0.2
0.17
0.73
0.03
0.13
0.012
0.137

Questions:
1. What is the molecular weight of the inlet HC feed?
2. How much heat in BTU/hr must be supplied to the line heater?
3. What mole fraction of the HP Flash feed left as a vapor?
4. How many barrels/day of liquid condensate are produced?
5. What is the API gravity of the condensate?
6. How many tons/yr of BTEX leave with the condensate tank emissions? Use the Sum Components
ProMax Property Stencil.
7. Prepare a Phase Envelope Analysis of the Sales Gas. What are the critical temperature and pressure?
8. What are the Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) and True Vapor Pressure (TVP) of the condensate?
9. Using a combustion analysis, determine the rate of oxygen required (lbmol/hr) to completely combust
the emissions stream.

63

EXERCISE 16 PIPELINE SIMULATION


Natural gas and condensate are mixed and sent through a 17.3 mile long pipeline to the processing facility. Along
the way, another gas stream from a different production facility is added to the mixture. Build a simulation to
represent this process based on the information below.

PROCESS INFORMATION

The first 15 miles of 8 inch pipe is divided into


four segments. Segment one is 24,000 ft long
and horizontal. Segment two is a 45o elbow.
Segment three is 25,000 ft long and has an
elevation rise of 500 ft. Segment four is 30,000
ft long and horizontal.

Stream

Condensate

Gas

T (F)
P (psia)
Flow rate
Composition
CO2
N2
C1
C2
C3
iC4
nC4
iC5
nC5
nC6
nC7

75
610
1100 sbbl/d
Mole %
0
0
3.5
3.5
15
15
14
11
11
23
4

100
610
900 lbmol/h

50
510
8 MMSCFD

0.2
0.5
84.3
5
5
1.5
1.5
0.7
0.3
0.5
0.5

0.1
0.8
85
6.5
3.7
1
1
0.6
0.4
0.4
0.5

The second gas stream is mixed after 15 miles

The ambient temperatures for the first pipeline


is 50 oF for segment one, 40 oF for segment
three, and 30 oF for segment four. The ambient
temperature is 40 oF as the pipeline approaches
the processing facility.

The heat transfer coefficient should be


calculated by ProMax based on Carbon Steel A134 welded pipe buried 24 inches in dry clay ground.

The pipe schedule for all piping is 80S.

After the second gas stream joins the pipeline,


it becomes a 12 inch line and continues for
another 2.3 miles to the processing facility.
There is a 10 foot elevation rise.

QUESTIONS
1.

What is the temperature and pressure of the gas exiting the pipeline to the processing facility?

2.

What is the calculated overall heat transfer coefficient for the first pipe segment?

3.

For each pipe segment, plot length vs. pressure drop

4.

Use a solver to determine how much condensate can be introduced into the pipeline such that the line does not
fall below 450 psia at the entrance to the facility? Limit the step size of the solver to 1000 bbl/d.

64

EXERCISE 17 SIMPLE MDEA SWEETENING UNIT


We are currently selling our gas to a plant that requires less than 2 mol% CO2 and less than 4 ppm H2S. Use the
following information to simulate this amine sweetening unit and determine if we are meeting our requirements or
not. Use an Amine Sweetening environment, as there are reactions here that occur between ionic species. Start
your simulation by opening Exercise 17 MDEA Sweetening Unit.pmx file in the unsolved exercises folder.

PROCESS INFORMATION

Use the stream conditions to the right to define the inlet stream.
The inlet gas stream is 100% saturated with water
Use 40 wt% MDEA at a circulation rate of 190 sgpm.
Absorber diameter is 4 ft and weir height is 3 in. System factor of 0.8
and tray spacing of 2 ft.
The condenser operates at 120 oF and the reboiler duty is 17 MMBtu/hr.
The regenerator top stage pressure is 12 psig with a 4 psi pressure drop
through the tower.
The rich amine enters the regenerator at 210 F.
The rich flash tank operates at 100 psia.
Remember to supply a guess for the recycle block outlet stream.
After setting up the simulation, place a Call-out to display the H2S and
CO2 mole fractions of the Rich Amine, Sweet Gas and Acid Gas streams.

Inlet Conditions
Temperature
100 F
Pressure
1000 psia
Flow Rate
50 MMSCFD
Composition
H2S
CO2
Methane
Ethane
Propane
n-Butane
n-Pentane
n-Hexane
n-Heptane
Benzene
Toluene
Ethylbenzene
o-Xylene

Mole%
1.5
3.5
83.4
5.65
4.07
0.9
0.5
0.32
0.15
0.005
0.002
0.001
0.002

QUESTIONS
1.

What are the sweet gas CO2 and H2S compositions?

2.

What are the H2S, CO2, and total lean loadings (mol/mol)? Rich loadings?

3.

What is the liquid residence time and percent flood on an absorber tray?

4.

What is the lean and rich approach in the absorber for H 2S?

5.

Determine the BTEX and VOC emissions in the Acid Gas Stream.

65

EXERCISE 18 GLYCOL DEHYDRATION UNIT


Simulate a TEG dehydration unit that dries the inlet gas to a water content of less than 7 lb H 2O/MMSCF.

PROCESS INFORMATION

Use the stream conditions to the right for the Wet Gas stream.

Use 5.6 sgpm for the glycol circulation rate.

Use a guess of 20 000 BTU/hr for the Q-Recycle.

The Wet Gas stream is first cooled to 100 oF.


The absorber has 2 ideal stages and the regenerator has 4 ideal
stages.
Specify a complete guess for the recycle.
The rich flash operates at 60 psig.
The rich feed to the regenerator is 300 F.
The regenerator reboiler should not exceed 390F.
The regenerator operates at atmospheric pressure with a small
amount of reflux generated from the reflux coil.
The lean glycol enters the absorber at 110 F.
After setting up your simulation, insert Callouts to display the water
content of the Dry Gas and Lean TEG streams.

Inlet Conditions
Temperature 125 F
Pressure
990 psia
Flow Rate
10600 lbmol/hr
Composition Mole%
H2S
3.1ppm
CO2
1.5
Methane
86.23
Ethane
5.84
Propane
4.15
n-Butane
0.88
n-Pentane
0.48
n-Hexane
0.3
n-Heptane
0.2
Benzene
0.15
Toluene
0.01
Ethylbenzene
0.02
o-Xylene
0.02
Water
0.22

QUESTIONS
1.

What is the water content of the dry gas?

2.

At what temperature will hydrates form in the dry gas?

3.

What is the mass flow of water in the feed gas?

4.

Create a ProMax report of your choice using the current project.

5.

Determine the BTEX emissions in the Water Gas stream.

66

SOLUTIONS
EXERCISE 1
1.
2.

3.

Flow rate = 35.9 bbl/d, API gravity = 67.8.


BTEX emissions with a heater-treater:
Names
Units
Benzene(Mass Flow)
ton/yr
Toluene(Mass Flow)
ton/yr
Ethylbenzene(Mass Flow)
ton/yr
m-Xylene(Mass Flow)
ton/yr
BTEX emissions without a heater-treater:

Flash Emissions from HC Tank


0.0327
0.0077
0.00454
0.00336

Flash Emissions from Water Tank


0.181
0.025
0.0111
0.00824

Names
Units Flash Emissions from HC Tank
Flash Emissions from Water Tank
Benzene(Mass Flow)
ton/yr
57.6
0.181
Toluene(Mass Flow)
ton/yr
10.9
0.025
Ethylbenzene(Mass Flow)
ton/yr
5.56
0.111
m-Xylene(Mass Flow)
ton/yr
4.05
0.00824
This increase occurs because the heater-treater serves to move most of the BTEX components from the HC liquid into the
sales gas. Without it, these components remain in the HC liquid.

EXERCISE 2
1.
2.
3.
5.

Lab 1 = 150.1 F, Lab 2 = 174.8 F, Lab 3 = 120.1 F.


Lab 1 = 0.976 ton/yr, Lab 2 = 0 ton/yr, Lab 3 = 6.764 ton/yr
Laboratory 1
Underestimation

EXERCISE 3
1.
2.
3.
4.

VOCs = 372 ton/yr, BTEX = 5.2 ton/yr, HAPs = 22.9 ton/yr, GHG = 3.0 ton/yr.
Global warming potential = 76 ton/yr CO2e
Stream temperature = 82F, bubble point temperature = 82.1F. These two values are very close, so the analysis is
consistent with the pressurized liquid being a saturated liquid.
RVP = 16.4 psi.

EXERCISE 4
1.
2.
3.
4.

VOC flash emissions = 111 ton/yr.


Working and breathing losses = 15.2 ton/yr.
Sales oil API gravity = 40.3.
Loading losses = 4.2 ton/yr.

67

EXERCISE 5
1.
2.

Sweet gas CO2 = 1.95 mol%, stripper BTEX emissions = 195 ton/yr.

3.
4.
5.

Sales gas water content = 3.9 lbm/MMSCF


Glycol still overhead BTEX emissions = 203 ton/yr.
Condensate water content = 92 mol%, overhead vapor BTEX emissions = 20.5 ton/yr.

EXERCISE 6
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Stream 1 Net Ideal Gas Heating Value = 175 BTU/ft3.


Stream 2 Net Ideal Gas Heating Value = 466 BTU/ft3.
Air flow rate ~430 lbmol/hr.
Flaring is indeed an effective way to reduce emissions. In this particular case, it reduced emissions from 168 to 3.4 ton/yr,
a decrease of 98%.
The flare tip temperature is primarily controlled by changing the amount of excess air that is used. Adding more fuel can
also have a small impact on temperature, but mainly affects the heating value of the stream sent to flare.

EXERCISE 7
1.
2.
3.
4.

HC tank: VOC = 5.32 ton/yr, BTEX = 0.157 ton/yr; water tank: VOC = 1.33 ton/yr, BTEX = 0.244 ton/yr.
Sales gas: 2.001 vs. 2.00 MMSCFD; HC liquid: 34.03 vs. 36 bbl/d; water: 151.9 vs. 152 bbl/d. The HC liquid is the most
different, and this is due to the non-negligible flow of emissions out of the HC tank.
The use of solvers allows the outlet and measured flow rates to agree exactly.
HC tank: VOC = 5.62 ton/yr, BTEX = 0.165 ton/yr; water tank: VOC = 1.33 ton/yr, BTEX = 0.245 ton/yr.

EXERCISE 8
(No questions)

EXERCISE 9
4.
5.

At 90 F, total power = 270.2 hp.


At 80 F, total power = 266.2 hp.
At 100 F, total power = 274.2 hp.

68

EXERCISE 10

Emissions vs. temperature


42.6

NOx emissions, ton/yr

42.4
42.2
42
41.8
41.6
41.4
41.2
41
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

Temperature, F

EXERCISE 11
1.
2.
3.

Sales oil molecular weight = 87.1 lb/lbmol, loading loss MW = 57.19 lb/lbmol. These agree exactly with the values in the
ProMax project.
Tank dimensions are reported under User Value Sets.
Total emissions do not change when switching the tank losses calculations from the pressurized liquid to the sales oil. This
is because the working and breathing and loading losses are all calculated on the liquid that remains after the initial
flashing, and flashing losses are not included in the total emissions in this case. Also, the tank is set to operate at the
specific temperature and pressure given for Montgomery, AL in the Tank Losses shape. Note that the value in the report
does not update automatically. The report must be generated anew whenever changes in the simulation are applied.

EXERCISE 12
1.
2.

VOC emissions = 477 ton/yr, BTEX = 6.7 ton/yr, HAPs = 29.5 ton/yr.
The values for the predicted sales oil agree very well with the measured values. This is the result of the analysis being
consistent with the assumption that the sales oil was saturated at the measured conditions (i.e. the calculated bubble
point temperature of 80.5F is very close to the measured temperature of 80F). If these two values were not in
agreement, it would suggest that the sample and/or the analysis were not taken accurately, and that the procedure used
to estimate the emissions would not be as accurate.

EXERCISE 13
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

VRU compressor: NOx emissions = 2.25 ton/yr, CO emissions = 1.13 ton/yr.


VOC emissions = 151.7 ton/yr, BTEX emissions = 3.62 ton/yr.
Both compressors combined: NOx emissions = 2.51 ton/yr, CO emissions = 1.25 ton/yr.
VOC emissions = 10.71 ton/yr, BTEX emissions = 0.25 ton/yr.
The additional separator reduces the overall emissions but increases both the capital and operating costs.

EXERCISE 14
1.
2.
3.

$12,734.87/yr; $15,774.00/yr
$14,880.09/yr
97.759 hp; the same.

69

EXERCISE 15
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

19.48 lb/lbmol
3492.4 Btu/h
86.6%
23.67 bbl/d
61.76
1.962 ton/y
Pc=867.23psia; Tc=-86.17oF
57.93oF
RVP=3.7 psi; TVP=4.0 psig
3.25 lbmol/h

EXERCISE 16
1.
2.
3.

50.7 oF, 492.3 psig


0.11489 Btu/(h*ft2oF)

4.

3945 lbmol/hr

EXERCISE 17
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

(mol) 3.3 ppm H2S, 1.55% CO2


0.0007; 0.00151; and 0.00239
1.54 seconds, 72.7% flood
9.2%; 80.2%
BTEX = 10.5 ton/yr; VOCs = 17.4 ton/yr

EXERCISE 18
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.98 lbm/MMSCF
40.5o F
235.7 lb/h
24.72 ton/yr
409.5 ton/yr

70

NOTES

ProMax Air Emissions Training


Revision 1509

71