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ARTICLE

Effect of sample disturbance on triaxial and oedometer

behaviour of a stiff and heavily overconsolidated clay

For personal use only.

Toralv Berre

Abstract: The tests in this investigation were performed on a natural soft clay with plasticity index around 32%, which was K0

consolidated to a vertical stress of 2942 kPa and then K0 unloaded to a vertical stress of 74 kPa (i.e., to the in situ stress). The

specimens so created were disturbed in various ways to study the effect of sample disturbance on the stressstrain relationships

during undrained shearing and during drained K0 loading (i.e., K0 triaxial and oedometer tests). The results for two testing

alternatives may be summarized as follows. Alternative 1: Allow the specimen to swell at the correct in situ effective stresses, but

accept an initial water content that is higher than the in situ value. This alternative was found to give the best stressstrain

relationships around the in situ effective stresses for undrained triaxial tests, but with undrained shear strength values up to

about 20% too low, due to the swelling taking place during consolidation to the in situ effective stresses. Alternative 2: Prevent

swelling by starting the test at effective stresses that are higher than the in situ stresses, but with a water content that is closer

to the in situ value than if alternative 1 is chosen. Using only isotropic stresses prior to shearing, this alternative was found to give

better undrained shear strength values (although up to about 14% too high) but strain values much too small around the in situ

effective stresses. For oedometer tests, only alternative 2 was investigated. Also, for these tests, the strains around the in situ

stress were too small, but preconsolidation stresses estimated from stressstrain curves were typically only around 60% of the

true value.

Key words: stiff clay, sample disturbance, undrained shear strength, preconsolidation stress, triaxial tests, oedometer tests.

Rsum : Les essais dans cette tude ont t raliss sur de largile molle naturelle avec un indice de plasticit denviron 32 %,

qui a t consolide en K0 a` une contrainte verticale de 2942 kPa et ensuite dcharge en K0 a` une contrainte verticale de 74 kPa

(cest-a`-dire la contrainte in situ ). Les chantillons ainsi crs ont t remanis de diffrentes faons pour tudier leffet du

remaniement des chantillons sur les relations contraintedformation durant le cisaillement non drain et durant le chargement en K0 drain (cest-a`-dire essais triaxiaux-K0 et domtriques). Les rsultats des deux alternatives dessai suivantes peuvent

tre rsums comme suit. Alternative 1 : Permet a` lchantillon de goner aux contraintes effectives in situ correctes, mais on

doit accepter une teneur en eau initiale qui est suprieure a` la valeur in situ. Cette alternative donne les meilleures relations

contraintedformation autour des contraintes effectives in situ pour les essais triaxiaux non drains, mais la rsistance au

cisaillement est trop faible denviron jusqua` 20 %, en raison du gonement qui se produit durant la consolidation aux contraintes effectives in situ. Alternative 2 : Empcher le gonement en commenant lessai a` des contraintes effectives suprieures

aux contraintes in situ, mais dune teneur en eau qui est plus prs de la valeur in situ qua` lalternative 1. Puisquelle applique les

contraintes isotropes seulement avant le cisaillement, cette alternative sest avre donner de meilleurs rsultats de rsistance

au cisaillement non drain (malgr des valeurs jusqua` environ 14 % trop leves), mais aussi des dformations trop faibles

prs des contraintes effectives in situ. Pour les essais domtriques, seulement lalternative 2 a t value. Pour ces essais, les

dformations prs de la contrainte in situ taient aussi trop faibles, mais les contraintes de prconsolidation estimes a` partir

des courbes de contraintedformation taient typiquement seulement a` 60 % de la valeur relle. [Traduit par la Rdaction]

Mots-cls : argile rigide, remaniement des chantillons, rsistance au cisaillement non drain, contrainte de prconsolidation,

essais triaxiaux, essais domtriques.

Introduction

Reconsolidation of strongly disturbed, stiff, and very overconsolidated clay specimens to the in situ effective stresses in connection with triaxial tests sometimes ends up with swelling of the

specimens. If swelling is prevented by increasing the stresses,

these stresses may be signicantly higher than the in situ effective stresses. The main purpose of this investigation is to try to

gain a better understanding of how such materials should be

reconsolidated to the in situ effective stresses, i.e., should correct

stresses or correct water content be given priority.

To investigate this, soft clay samples from the Troll eld were K0

consolidated rst in a large oedometer cell up to 1000 kPa, and

74 kPa, i.e., to an overconsolidation ratio (OCR) of 40 and a K0

value of 2.64. Most of the specimens were then dismounted from

the triaxial cell, given various amounts of disturbance and reconsolidated in different ways before being loaded, undrained in triaxial cells or drained under K0 conditions in triaxial cells and (or)

in oedometer cells.

Material tested

The material used for the tests reported here comes from the

Troll eld in the North Sea, through projects which NGI (Oslo,

Norway) has had for Statoil (Stavanger, Norway).

T. Berre. Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Sognsveien 72, P.O. Box 3930 Ullevaal Stadion, 0806 Oslo, Norway.

E-mail for correspondence: toralv.berre@ngi.no.

Can. Geotech. J. 51: 896910 (2014) dx.doi.org/10.1139/cgj-2013-0077

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

2

1

r (%)

Col. No.

Note: Water content values in parentheses are values obtained from neighbor specimens only.

0.80

2.93

1.54

2.18

3.90

8.97

3.29

0.75

5.98

1.92

vol (%)

a (%)

1.61

2.47

2.46

2.87

3.73

10.78

3.44

1.24

4.78

4.09

195.3

195.2

195.5

195.4

195.3

1765

195.4

195.4

195.4

195.4

74.0

73.7

74.2

73.7

73.5

2941

73.6

73.7

73.5

73.6

0.56

0.12

0.62

0.65

0.68

1.01

0.50

0.81

0.26

0.78

8.56

9.51

9.85

9.76

9.74

8.97

9.76

7.72

10.76

9.89

9.57

9.72

10.95

10.92

10.96

10.78

10.66

9.18

11.23

11.28

1765

1765

1765

1765

1765

1765

1765

1765

1765

1765

2942

2940

2941

2941

2943

2941

2942

2941

2942

2942

35.9

50.5

36.2

50.6

50.0

35.6

51.0

35.7

51.6

36.2

27.37

(27.37)

28.57

(28.57)

(28.57)

27.73

26.86

27.32

28.10

28.23

5.03

5.03

4.55

4.55

4.55

4.55

4.70

4.70

4.70

4.70

1B

1C

2B

2C

2D

2E

3B

3C

3D

3E

1

1

2

2

2

2

3

3

3

3

6

6

6

6

6

6

G

G

C

C

C

E

r (kPa)

a (kPa)

At end of K0 unloading

r (%)

vol (%)

a (%)

r (kPa)

a (kPa)

Diameter (mm)

w (%)

DWS 208

DWS 208

DWS 204

DWS 204

DWS 204

DWS 204

DWS 202A

DWS 202A

DWS 202A

DWS 202A

tests

Specimens 1B, 2B, 2E, and 3C were not disturbed in any way.

They were not even dismounted from the triaxial cell. Specimen

2E was, after K0 consolidation to 2941 kPa, sheared at constant

volume, i.e., a CK0CV test at OCR = 1. (CK0CV is a triaxial test with

K0 consolidation prior to shearing at constant volume (shearing at

constant volume gives the same result as undrained shearing

when B = 100%).) The purpose of this test was to determine the

undrained shear strength at OCR = 1 for the stress history and

normalized soil engineering properties (SHANSEP) equation.

Part

The Troll samples were mounted into a large oedometer cell, and

the vertical stress was increased to 1000 kPa. After dismounting the

samples from this oedometer cell, the water contents were between

27% and 28%, and the liquidity indexes between 0.11 and 0.17.

The large oedometer samples were then divided into smaller

pieces, which all were trimmed to triaxial test specimens with initial

diameters of about 50 or about 38 mm. The specimens were K0

loaded (i.e., loaded so that no radial strain could take place) up to an

axial effective stress, a, equal to 2942 kPa, then K0 unloaded to a =

74 kPa, i.e., to an overconsolidation ratio, OCR, equal to 40, see

Table 2.

The K0 values used for this K0 loading were determined on a specimen from large oedometer sample No. 1 in a triaxial cell equipped

for automatic K0 loading and direct measurement of radial strain as

described by Berre (2011), except that the radial strain was measured

outside the conning rubber membrane. The measurements were

corrected for change in thickness of the membrane during the test.

In this test, i.e., the initial K0 test, the stresses were increased continuously in such a way that the cross-sectional area of the specimen,

according to the directly measured radial strains, was kept constant.

All other tests (except for test 3C) were performed in soil mechanics

cells where the stresses were increased in small steps, in such a way

that the same stress path, on the average, was followed as found by

this initial K0 test. The data for this test are not included in this paper;

however, strain values (all from external sensors) are very close to

those for tests 1B and 1C in Table 2, especially at the maximum

consolidation stresses.

Following this procedure, nine specimens with OCR equal to 40

and water contents close to the plastic limit were created. Key

data for these specimens are given in Table 2. The further testing

procedures are described in the following ve subsections.

Tube

Testing procedures

Boring No.

The samples come from depths varying from 4.5 to 5.1 m. The

index data were as given in Table 1.

Depth

(m)

2.76

60

13

Specimen

No.

5364

1113

1.72.5

5157

2224

3034

1.1

27

Large oedometer

sample No.

Fall cone strength, undisturbed (kPa)

Fall cone strength, remoulded (kPa)

Liquid limit (%)

Plastic limit (%)

Plasticity index (%)

Liquidity index

Salt content of pore water (i.e., equivalent

amount of NaCl) (g/L)

Density of solid particles (g/cm3)

Content of clay particles (i.e., % <0.002 mm) (%)

Content of smectite in clay fraction

(Lunne et al. 2007) (%)

K0 loading

Value

At start of K0 loading

in triaxial cell

Parameter

Table 2. Data from K0 loading of specimens that have been used to investigate effects of sample disturbance on triaxial and oedometer tests.

For personal use only.

Table 1. Index data for clay from Troll eld in the North Sea

used in this investigation.

17

897

0.41

+0.24

0.47

0.36

+0.08

1.01

0.07

1.00

0.64

1.12

Berre

For personal use only.

898

For specimens 1B and 2B, a back pressure of 980 kPa was applied

and both specimens were sheared undrained in compression at a

rate of axial strain of about 2.4%/h.

For specimen 3C, the K0 loading was continued (after unloading

to 74 kPa), but by direct measurement of radial strain as described

earlier in the text, rst to an axial stress of 6750 kPa (i.e., equal to

about 2.3 times the maximum previous consolidation stress of

2942 kPa), then unloaded to 168 kPa (i.e., to an OCR value of 40),

and nally loaded to an axial stress of about 27 230 kPa. The axial

stress was kept constant for about 2 days at 6750 and at 168 kPa. At

the nal stress, i.e., 27 230 kPa, it was kept constant for about

3 days. Because the specimen had free drainage both at top and

bottom, the excess pore pressure at mid height had to be calculated from the constant rate of strain (CRS) formulae (see Wissa

et al. 1971) using permeability values from oedometer test 3B-1.

Each time the calculated excess pore pressure tended to exceed 2%

of the minor effective principal stress, the rate of compression

was reduced. This led to rate of compression values varying from

0.005 to 0.020 mm/h (i.e., rate of axial strain varying from

0.0126%/h to 0.050%/h). The calculated excess pore pressure values

have not been taken into account when calculating the effective

stresses, however, the estimated maximum excess pore pressure

values should not, at any time, reduce the average effective minor

principal stress values by >1.3%.

Slight disturbance (by compression), triaxial test

Specimen 1C (initial diameter about 50 mm) was dismounted

from the triaxial cell after the K0 unloading to 74 kPa and trimmed

down to 38 mm by pressing it through a 38 mm cutting cylinder.

The 50 mm specimen was rst pressed into a cutting cylinder with

an internal diameter slightly smaller than 50 mm. The 50 and

38 mm cutting cylinders were then placed on the same mounting

frame so that they could be moved along a common centerline.

The 38 mm cylinder was placed so that the lower end of the

cylinder (i.e., the cutting edge) came about 14 mm above the top of

the 50 mm cylinder. The specimen was then pushed quickly

through the 50 mm and further into the 38 mm cylinder while the

distance between them was kept constant at 14 mm. This was

done to simulate disturbance due to tube sampling. The new

38 mm specimen, now called 1C-1, see Table 2, was mounted into

the triaxial cell again with dry lter disks, as usually done at NGI,

and a cell pressure close to the assumed swelling pressure was

applied. (Swelling pressure is dened as the all-around stress required to prevent swelling when the specimen has free access to

water.) The lter disks at the ends of the specimen were then

ushed with salt water (with correct salinity) and the cell pressure

adjusted continuously over about 4 days to determine the swelling pressure as accurately as possible. A back pressure of 980 kPa

was then applied, and the undrained shearing started from an

effective isotropic stress equal to the swelling pressure. The test

on specimen 1C-1 is designated as a test on a specimen that is

slightly disturbed by compression.

Severe disturbance (by compression), triaxial tests

Specimens 2C, 2D, and 3B (initial diameters 5051 mm) were

dismounted from the triaxial cell. Specimens 2C and 2D were

trimmed down to about 38 mm and named 2C-1 and 2D-1, respectively (analogous to tests 1C and 1C-1), but with an extra disturbance created by gluing grains of aluminum oxide on the inside of

the 38 mm cutting cylinder to increase the inside friction. Due to

this increased friction, the height of the specimens decreased by

about 9.9% for specimen 2C-1 and by about 14.7% for specimen

2D-1. The reason for these differences in compression is not exactly known; however, it is assumed that both specimens were

strained so much that they were close to the maximum possible

degree of disturbance. Both specimens had a nearly horizontal

crack near the top of the specimen after the disturbance process.

Both specimens were again mounted into the triaxial cell, with

swelling pressure determined and back pressure applied as previously described for test 1C-1. For test 2C-,1 undrained shearing was

started from the swelling pressure as for test 1C-1. For test 2D-1, the

specimen was subjected to the same stresses acting on the

mother specimen 2D at the end of the K0 unloading, i.e., the in

situ stresses, axial and radial effective stresses being equal to 74

and 195 kPa, respectively, before start of undrained shearing.

Severe disturbance (by compression), oedometer tests

Specimen 3B was severely disturbed by compressing it vertically between two frictionless end plates so that it deformed

approximately as a right cylinder. The compression was done in a

triaxial cell in a few minutes. The maximum compression was

about 12%, and the permanent axial compression about 10%. The

specimen was then cut horizontally into three equal parts, and

the two at each end were used for oedometer tests on severely

disturbed material. The two oedometer specimens are named

3B-1 and 3B-2.

This type of disturbance is believed to be very close to what was

described for triaxial test specimens 2C-1 and 2D-1, as the main

type of deformation obtained for these specimens was axial compression when they were pressed through a cutting cylinder with

very high inside friction.

The two oedometer specimens were mounted into 20 cm2 oedometer cells with initial specimen height 2 cm and loaded with

constant rate of strain following the procedure for constant rate

of strain oedometer tests, without back pressure, as described by

Sandbkken et al. (1986). Both tests were performed at constant

rate of strain with measurement of pore pressure at the undrained bottom.

For specimen 3B-1, the rate of strain, except for the unloading

reloading loop, was about 0.3%/h. The initially dry lter disks were

saturated with salt water (26.58 g/L NaCl) at an axial stress of about

40 kPa. No swelling was permitted after saturation of the lter

disks. The total axial stress was kept constant for 16 h at a value of

5884 kPa, i.e., twice the maximum stress applied to the specimen

prior to the dismounting from the triaxial cell, the excess pore

pressure being negligible at this stage. The specimen was then

unloaded to a total axial stress of 147 kPa. The total axial stress was

kept constant for 16 h at this stress, the intention being to achieve

an OCR value equal to 40; however, the excess pore pressure at

this stage was equal to 31 kPa, which gives an OCR value equal to

35. The specimen was then loaded to 12 265 kPa, with a rate of

strain of about 0.3%/h. This stress was kept constant for about

4 days.

The test on specimen 3B-2 was performed in the same way as for

specimen 3B-1 except for the following:

Two additional unloadingreloading loops were applied, one

starting unloading from about 2945 kPa and ending up with

OCR equal to about 39, and one starting from about 12 260 kPa

and ending up with OCR equal to about 36.

The total stress was kept constant for 24 h (instead of 16 h) at

the minimum stress for all three loops.

The stress was kept constant for 1.6 days (instead of 4 days) at

12 260 kPa.

oedometer and triaxial tests

After K0 unloading to 74 kPa, specimens 3D and 3E were subjected to a Baligh type of disturbance (Baligh 1985) as follows:

After applying a back pressure of 980 kPa, the drainage from the

specimen was stopped (by closing the drainage valve) and the

specimen compressed to an axial strain of +3.5%, then extended to

an axial strain of 3.5%, and nally compressed back to 0% strain.

The values 3.5% axial strain were used by Lunne et al. (1998) to

simulate a typical thick wall tube sampling. Clayton and Siddique

Published by NRC Research Press

For personal use only.

Berre

(1999) give peak values of +2.62% and 1.96% for the British Standard general purpose (U100) sampler (with liner). After application of the Baligh cycle under undrained conditions, the total

axial stress was decreased, under undrained conditions, to become equal to the total radial stress; the cell pressure was then

further decreased, still under undrained conditions, as described

in the following text.

For specimen 3D, the cell pressure was decreased until the pore

pressure was equal to zero. The difference between cell and pore

pressure was then equal to 127 kPa. This is probably somewhat

lower than would have been found if more time for stabilization

had been allowed. The water in the lter disks was then blown out

before dismounting the specimen from the triaxial cell. A small

part of specimen 3D, called 3D-1, was then mounted into a 20 cm2

oedometer cell with initial specimen height 2 cm and loaded with

a constant rate of strain of about 0.3%/h following basically the

same procedure as described previously for test 3B-1. This test is

denoted 3D-1.

For specimen 3E, water could not be blown out of the lter

disks, the reduction of the cell pressure was therefore stopped at

a pore pressure of 235 kPa and a cell pressure of 356 kPa. The

drainage valve was then opened and the cell pressure increased

somewhat to prevent signicant swelling. The original back pressure of 980 kPa was then reapplied while keeping the difference

between cell and pore pressure equal to about 166 kPa (i.e., the

swelling pressure). Finally, the same effective stresses acting on

the specimen at the end of the K0 unloading, i.e., axial and radial

effective stresses equal to 74 and 195 kPa, respectively, were applied about 1 day before start of undrained shearing, in compression, at a constant rate of strain of about 2%/h.

Test results

Analysis of test specimens

In Table 2, key data are given from the K0 loading of the nine

specimens that have been used to investigate effects of sample

disturbance. Because all the specimens in Table 2 (except for specimen 2E) have been loaded in exactly the same way, and because

the drainage conditions have been very similar for all the tests, all

strains given in the table (except for specimen 2E) should have

been almost identical, at least for all specimens from the same

large oedometer sample. However, this is not always the case,

especially not for specimens from large oedometer sample No. 3.

No corrections are applied in the following to account for possible

differences in the stressstrain properties for the specimens listed

in Table 2.

Slight disturbance (by compression), undrained triaxial

tests

In Fig. 1, test 1B, the test on totally undisturbed material from

the large oedometer sample No. 1 is compared with the test on the

somewhat disturbed specimen 1C-1 (trimmed from specimen 1C)

from the same large oedometer sample. The shearing for the latter was started from the swelling pressure, which was measured

to be 149 kPa (i.e., a = 153 kPa and r = 147 kPa, which gives an

octahedral stress of 149 kPa). If the material had been isotropically

elastic and totally undisturbed, the swelling pressure should have

been 155 kPa, which is very close to the measured value. It is seen

from Table 3 and Fig. 1 that the shear strength for test 1C-1 is

somewhat higher, about 6%, than for test 1B. However, the initial

parts of the stressstrain curves are very different for the two

tests, the initial strains being much smaller for test 1C-1. The

effective stress paths for the two tests shown in Fig. 1 are, except

for the initial parts, seen to come fairly close to each other.

899

tests

In Fig. 2, test 2B, the test on totally undisturbed material from

the large oedometer sample No. 2, is compared with the strongly

disturbed specimens 2C-1 and 2D-1 (trimmed from specimens 2C

and 2D, respectively) from the same large oedometer sample. The

main difference between tests 2C-1 and 2D-1 is that for test 2C-1

shearing was started from the swelling pressure, while for test

2D-1 the stresses, after determination of the swelling pressure,

were adjusted back to the stresses the mother specimen, 2D, carried at the end of its consolidation, i.e., 74 and 195 kPa, before start

of shearing. The swelling pressures for the two tests were about

256 and 277 kPa, respectively, i.e., about 3.5 and 3.7 times the axial

effective stress at end of consolidation. It is believed that values

signicantly higher than 3.5 and 3.7 cannot be created only by

dilatance due to shearing and must be due to breakdown (because

of sample disturbance) of cementation bonds created in the eld

at stresses higher than the present overburden. This is in agreement with the nding by Hight and Leroueil (2003) who reported

that the swelling pressures in specimens of stiff and hard plastic

clay are lower the lower the degree of sample disturbance.

The reason that the swelling pressure is somewhat higher for

2D-1 than for 2C-1 is probably that the axial strain during trimming was higher for 2D-1.

The following can be seen from Table 3 and Fig. 2:

The shear strength for test 2C-1 is about 14% higher than for test

2B. The initial parts of the stressstrain curves are very different for the two tests, the strain at a certain shear stress being

much smaller for test 2C-1 than for test 2B.

The shear strength for test 2D-1 is about 20% lower than for test

2B. However, if the strength is corrected upwards to account for

the swelling that takes place during the reconsolidation to the

correct initial effective stresses, the corrected strength comes

fairly close to the strength for test 2B. The correction is based

on the slope of the virgin compression curve for oedometer test

3B-1 using the same procedure as described by Berre et al. (2007)

in connection with the large-strain correction for sample disturbance. Further, as seen from Fig. 2, the initial part of the

stressstrain curve for test 2D-1 comes much closer to the initial

part of the stressstrain curve for test 2B than the initial part of

the stressstrain curve for test 2C-1.

The following conclusion may be drawn from the ndings reported in the preceding list. A possible way to determine the

undrained stressstrain relationship for strongly overconsolidated clays may be to reconsolidate the specimen anisotropically

to the best estimate of the in situ effective stresses, allow the

specimen to swell freely there, shear undrained, and correct the

nal large-strain shear strength upwards for the swelling according to the slope of the virgin compression curve. The slope of the

virgin compression curve may be determined by K0 triaxial or

oedometer tests. However, an upwards correction of the shear

strength is only recommended to estimate the strength value that

may be obtained by an improved sampling technique.

Severe disturbance (by compression), K0 triaxial and

oedometer tests

The K0 triaxial test 3C can be considered as a totally undisturbed

oedometer test, which should be compared with oedometer tests

3B-1 and 3B-2 on severely disturbed material. The results of test 3C

are given in Tables 4 and 5 and in Figs. 39.

The stress path followed for this test is shown in Fig. 3. In Fig. 4,

axial strain is plotted versus axial stress, with the latter in a logarithmic scale. Figure 4 also shows preconsolidation stresses determined by the Casagrande method. The maximum stress the

specimen was K0 loaded to prior to starting loading from point a

in Figs. 37 (i.e., the maximum previous consolidation stress) was

Published by NRC Research Press

900

For personal use only.

Fig. 1. Effect of slight sample disturbance on results of a CIU triaxial test (test with isotropic stresses (equal to the swelling pressure) followed

by undrained shearing) where shearing starts from swelling pressure.

Stresses and strains

prior to start of

undrained shearing

Specimen Notes regarding

No.

specimens

Type of

a

test

wi (%) wc (%) wf (%) (kPa)

1B

1C-1

2B

2C-1

2D-1

2E

3E

CK0U

CIU

CK0U

CIU

CAU

CK0CV

CAU

Entirely undisturbed

Slightly disturbed

Entirely undisturbed

Severely disturbed

Severely disturbed

Entirely undisturbed

Baligh disturbance

26.9

25.4

27.6

26.3

25.8

27.7

27.00

26.9

25.3

27.6

26.3

27.1

22.0

27.26

27.2

25.6

28.2

26.1

27.2

22.7

26.0

r

(kPa)

a

(%)

vol

(%)

74.0 195.3 0

0

152.9 147.3 0.18 0.23

74.2 195.5 0

0

262.7 252.0 0.41 0

73.7 195.4 4.36 2.13

2941 1765

10.78 8.97

73.2 195.2 2.49 0.44

B value a r/2 a r /2

a

(kPa)

(%)

(kPa)

u (kPa) (%)

a

(%/h)

98.4

98.2

98.6

99.0

98.2

17.0

96.1

2.08

2.04

2.43

2.70

2.73

2.63

1.93

196.0

208.0

187.5

213.4

150.9

800.4

185.9

400.0

420.9

385.0

446.5

309.8

2214

393.6

8.3

65.1

1.5

19.6

37.2

0

11.6

15.30

13.68

16.9

14.86

19.16

0.93

17.93

Note: Triaxial test specimens have been K0 consolidated in laboratory to a = 2942 kPa, then, except for specimen 2E, K0 unloaded to a = 74 kPa, then, except

for specimen 2E, subjected to various degrees of sample disturbance, and nally sheared undrained in compression. Specimen 2E was, after K0 consolidation

to 2941 kPa, sheared at constant volume, i.e., a CK0CV test at OCR = 1. The purpose of this test was to determine the shear strength at OCR = 1 for the SHANSEP

equation. CAU, triaxial test with anisotropic consolidation to the in situ effective stresses (also referred to as the correct stresses) followed by undrained

shearing in compression; CIU, triaxial test with isotropic stresses (equal to the swelling pressure) followed by undrained shearing in compression; CK0CV,

triaxial test with K0-consolidation followed by shearing at constant volume in compression; CK0U, triaxial test with K0-consolidation followed by undrained

shearing in compression.

Published by NRC Research Press

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901

For personal use only.

Table 4. Initial data for K0 triaxial and three oedometer tests on material from large oedometer sample No. 3.

Boring No.

DWS 202A

DWS 202A

DWS 202A

DWS 202A

Depth (m)

Test No.

Type of test

Type of material

Initial water content, wi (%)

Calculated degree of brine saturation (%)

Height (mm)

Diameter (mm)

4.70

3C

K0 triaxial

Undisturbed

27.3

99

39.7

36.0

4.66

3B-1

Oedometer

Severely disturbed

26.2

102

20

50.5

4.74

3B-2

Oedometer

Severely disturbed

26.2

101

20

50.5

4.66

3D-1

Oedometer

Baligh disturbance

25.72

97

20

50.5

2.94 MPa. However, due to creep the value of the apparent preconsolidation stress (i.e., the yield stress), pc , will be about 8% higher

than the maximum previous consolidation stress, (ac

)max. The

value of 8% was judged from plots of a versus a (in log scale),

including points prior to and during the creep phase. For curve

ab in Fig. 4, the true value of pc then will be 1.08(2.94) = 3.18 MPa.

Thus, the pc value of 3 MPa determined by the Casagrande method

(Casagrande 1936) is only about 6% lower than the true value. For

part cd, the true value of pc is equal to 6.75(1.08) = 7.29 MPa. The

Casagrande value is 7.3 MPa, i.e., equal to the true value. (If the

rate of loading during reconsolidation is low enough, the yield

)max.)

stress should become close to (ac

parallel with the average slope of the unloadingreloading loop,

this line will intersect the virgin compression line at an axial

stress equal to 2.8 MPa, which again is fairly close to the pc value

obtained with the Casagrande procedure, i.e., 3.0 MPa. The average slope of the unloadingreloading loop is the slope of a line

through the point representing the end of the creep at point c and

the point on the recompression curve at the pc value after the

reloading, i.e., 7.3 MPa in Fig. 4. The virgin compression line is a

line through the steepest part of the virgin compression curve.

This way to estimate pc is called the simplied method. This

procedure could be an alternative or a supplement to the CasaPublished by NRC Research Press

902

For personal use only.

undisturbed material.

Type of pc value

pc (MPa)

True value for part cd (6.75 1.08)

Simplied method for part ab

Casagrande method for part ab

Casagrande method for part cd

Lunne et al. (2008) for part ab

Lunne et al. (2008) for part cd

Karlsrud (2009) for part ab

Karlsrud (2009) for part cd

3.18

7.29

2.8

3.0

7.3

3.6

7.7

3.1

6.8

1.00

1.00

0.88

0.94

1.00

1.13

1.06

0.97

0.93

test 3C on entirely undisturbed material. True value of pc is 3.18 and

7.29 MPa for parts ab and cd, respectively.

undisturbed material, starting at correct stresses (i.e., point a, 74 and

195 kPa).

undisturbed material.

Casagrande procedure is difcult to determine due to sample disturbance. Actually, if the true pc value had not been known, the

point of maximum curvature in Fig. 4 could have been taken out

at point A instead of at 8% axial strain. This would have given a pc

value of about 1.1 instead of 2.8 MPa. If the loading had been

stopped at a stress lower than about 2 MPa, a pc value as low as

about 0.15 MPa would have been found due to the change in the

slope of the virgin compression line. It is seen from Fig. 4 that

there is a very stiff portion of the stressstrain curve between 74

and 100 kPa. This portion is shown in the M plots in Fig. 6 for test

3C and in Fig. 11 for test 3B-1.

In Fig. 5, axial and radial strain are plotted versus effective axial

stress, with the latter in a natural scale. In Fig. 6, constrained

modulus, M, is plotted versus axial stress, a, for determination of

pc as suggested by Janbu (1969). Two different interpretations have

been used to determine pc from this plot (see Fig. 7). With the

Lunne et al. (2008) interpretation, the pc value is set equal to the a

value at the intersection between a horizontal line through the

minimum M value and a tangent line to the M values between the

maximum and the minimum values. For part ab, a pc value of

3.6 MPa is then obtained, i.e., 13% higher than the true value for

this branch, which is 3.18 MPa. For part cd, a pc value of 7.7 MPa

is obtained, i.e., about 6% higher than the true value for this

branch, which is 7.29 MPa. With the interpretation by Karlsrud

(2009), pc is set equal to the a value midway between the maximum and the minimum M value. For part ab, a pc value of 3.1 MPa

is obtained by this procedure, which is very close to the true value

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constrained modulus versus axial stress (Janbu 1969) for K0 triaxial

test 3C on entirely undisturbed material. True value of pc is 3.18 and

7.29 MPa for parts ab and cd, respectively.

Fig. 7. Principal sketch showing how pc has been determined when

using Janbus plot of M versus a (Janbu 1969). Procedure described

by Karlsrud and Hernandez-Matinez (2013) differs slightly from

procedure referred to as Karlsrud (2009); however, for type of

material tested here, pc values are fairly close for both procedures.

(which is 3.18 MPa). For part cd, a pc value of 6.8 MPa is obtained,

i.e., about 7% lower than the true value (which is 7.29 MPa).

The pc values obtained by the various methods for test 3C are

summarized in Table 5.

Karlsrud and Hernandez-Martinez (2013) have described a

procedure which differs slightly from the procedure referred to

as Karlsrud (2009). Their procedure is not used in this paper;

however, for the type of material tested here, the pc values are

fairly close to the two procedures.

In Fig. 8, the following two curves are shown for test 3C:

M versus a for part ab (i.e., from about 0.3 to about 6.5 MPa).

Normalized M values versus normalized a values for part cd.

The normalization is done by multiplying the M and a values

for this part, up to a = 15 MPa, by 2.94/6.75, i.e., the ratio

903

values for K0 triaxial test 3C on entirely undisturbed material.

entirely undisturbed material) and oedometer test 3B-1 on severely

disturbed material.

stresses for parts ab and cd.

According to the SHANSEP concept (Ladd and Foott 1974), the

two curves should fall on top of each other. The curves in Fig. 8 are

seen to agree reasonably well with each other, although the normalized curve is seen to give M values that are somewhat too

high.

Published by NRC Research Press

904

Table 6. Values of pc obtained from oedometer test 3B-1 on severely disturbed material and from oedometer test 3D-1

on material with Baligh disturbance.

Test 3B-1

Type of

pc

value

For personal use only.

True value for part cd (5.884 1.12)

Simplied method for part ab

Casagrande method for part ab

Casagrande method for part cd

Lunne et al. (2008) for part ab

Lunne et al. (2008) for part cd

Karlsrud (2009) for part ab

Karlsrud (2009) for part cd

pc

Test 3D-1

(MPa)

3.30

6.59

2.0

1.8

7.0

No value obtained

6.4

No value obtained

5.7

pc (MPa)

1.00

1.00

0.61

0.55

1.06

No value obtained

0.97

No value obtained

0.86

3.30

6.59

1.5

1.9

1.00

1.00

0.45

0.58

disturbed material. True value of pc is 3.30 and 6.59 MPa for parts

ab and cd, respectively.

Fig. 11. Axial strain and constrained modulus versus axial stress for

oedometer test 3B-1 on severely disturbed material. True value of pc

is 3.30 and 6.59 MPa for parts ab and cd, respectively.

In Fig. 9, the plot of axial strain versus log a for triaxial test 3C

is compared with the same plot for oedometer test 3B-1 (on severely disturbed material). The curve for test 3C has been adjusted

slightly downwards so that the two curves coincide at about

74 kPa. It is seen that for strains up to about 7.5%, the strains are

somewhat smaller for test 3B-1. This is very similar to the results

shown in Figs. 1 and 2 where the strains during the initial part of

the shearing for the tests, where shearing starts at the swelling

pressure, are much smaller than for the tests on entirely undisturbed material. It may be that the initial part of the curve for test

3B-1 would also have come closer to the curve for the test 3C if the

specimen had been allowed to swell at the in situ stresses, i.e., 74

and 195 kPa. This could easily have been achieved for a K0 triaxial

test. For an oedometer test, a would have had to be loaded to a

somewhat higher stress than 74 kPa and then unloaded to 74 kPa

to get an improved starting r value. However, if swelling had

been allowed at 74/195 kPa, the pc value determined from the

disturbed specimen probably would have been even lower in the

same way as the undrained shear strength was found to be lower

when swelling was allowed.

The unloadingreloading loop show, on the average, less swelling for the oedometer test than for the K0 triaxial test. This is

believed to be partly due to the side friction that is reversed each

time the loading direction is changed for the oedometer test, and

perhaps also not enough time being allowed for swelling during

the unloading for the oedometer test.

The results of oedometer tests 3B-1 and 3B-2 are given in

Tables 4 and 6 and in Figs. 1013. In Fig. 10, axial strain is plotted

versus axial stress for test 3B-1, with the stress in a logarithmic

scale. When water (with correct salinity) was ushed through the

lter disks at a = 40 kPa, the stress increased rapidly to about

150 kPa because of the tendency for the specimen to swell. The

swelling pressure for the most disturbed triaxial test specimens

were 256 and 277 kPa. However, if the height of the oedometer

specimen had been kept constant for 4 days as for the triaxial

tests, and if a more correct radial stress could have been applied

for the oedometer tests, the axial stress probably would have

increased more also for the oedometer tests.

The apparent preconsolidation stress, pc has been determined

for parts ab and cd by the Casagrande method. The maximum

stress the specimens were K0 loaded to prior to the mounting into

)max, was, as for the other tests, equal to

the oedometer cell, (ac

2.94 MPa. However, due to the creep taking place before start of

unloading, the apparent preconsolidation stress, pc , determined

during continuous rapid oedometer loading will be about 12%

)max. For part ab in Fig. 10, the true value of pc will

higher than (ac

then be 1.12(2.94) = 3.30 MPa, thus the pc value of 1.8 MPa determined by the Casagrande method is only 55% of the true value.

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and 3B-2 on severely disturbed material.

905

Baligh 1985).

The simplied method gives pc = 2.0 MPa, which is about 11%

higher than the Casagrande value. In Fig. 10, the point of maximum curvature has been chosen at the middle of the long curved

part of ab, as is sometimes done when there is no clear bend to

dene the point with maximum curvature. The steepest part of

the virgin curve has been used when determining pc by the Casagrande method. Again the simplied method can be an alternative or a supplement to the Casagrande procedure. No pc value

could be obtained for part ab from the modulus plot. For part

cd, the true pc value is equal to 1.12(5.88) = 6.59 MPa. The Casagrande value for part cd is 7.0 MPa, i.e., about 6% higher than the

true value. In Fig. 11, axial strain and constrained modulus are

plotted versus axial stress, with the latter in a natural scale. With

the Lunne et al. (2008) interpretation of Janbus M plot, a pc value

of 6.4 MPa is obtained for part cd, i.e., about 3% lower than the

true value. With the interpretation by Karlsrud (2009), a pc value

of 5.7 MPa is obtained for part cd, i.e., about 14% lower than the

true value.

In Fig. 12, a is plotted versus log a for both oedometer tests 3B-1

and 3B-2. For test 3B-2, salt water was ushed into the lters at a =

130 kPa (while for test 3B-1 this was done at 40 kPa). The swelling

pressures appear to be about the same for the two tests. Test 3B-2

is seen to have two extra unloadingreloading loops compared to

test 3B-1, one starting from 2.94 MPa, i.e., the same as the maximum stress the specimen was loaded to during the K0 loading

prior to the oedometer testing, one starting from 5.88 MPa and

one starting from 12.26 MPa. For test 3B-2, the time where the total

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Fig. 15. Stressstrain curves and stress paths (undrained) followed when disturbing specimens 3D and 3E according to Baligh type of

disturbance.

axial stress was kept constant after each unloading was increased

to 24 h (compared to 16 h for test 3B-1). This led to an OCR value of

36 for the unloading from 5.88 MPa, compared to 35 for test 3B-1.

The second loop at about 2 pc corresponds to the normal loading

procedure at NGI. A normalized version of this loop is often used

in connection with correction for sample disturbance for stresses

below pc . It should, in principle, be possible to use the rst loop

directly (i.e., without normalization) to correct for sample disturbance. To use such a loop is one way to achieve approximately

correct radial stresses after unloading for oedometer tests. However, as seen from Fig. 12, the strain after this unloading is significantly higher than the initial strain at this stress (i.e., at 74 KPa).

To obtain approximately correct strain after unloading to 74 kPa,

it seems that unloading would have to start at a signicantly

lower stress than pc . On the other hand, it does not seem that the

introduction of an extra unloading loop starting from pc tends to

disturb the virgin curve above about 1.5 pc signicantly.

In Fig. 13, M is plotted versus a (from about 0.4 to about 6 MPa)

for the following cases:

part ab.

Plot No. 3 Oedometer test 3B-1 on severely disturbed material,

normalized version of part cd. The normalization is done by

multiplying the M and the a values for this part by 2.94/5.88, i.e.,

the ratio between the maximum previous consolidation stresses

for parts ab and cd.

Plot No. 4 Oedometer test 3B-2 on severely disturbed material,

the reloading part of the rst unloadingreloading loop, i.e., the

one where unloading starts from about the maximum previous

consolidation stress, i.e., 2.94 MPa.

part ab.

principle had been fully valid, plots 2 4 should all have coincided

with No. 1, i.e., the one for totally undisturbed material. Plot No. 3

is seen to be the one that comes closest to No. 1.

From the earlier discussion, the following may be concluded for

the oedometer tests:

dramatic, and probably acceptable in most cases.

Normalized values of unloadingreloading loops starting from

about two times the apparent preconsolidation stress and endPublished by NRC Research Press

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ing at about two times the present vertical effective stress may

be used to correct the stress strain data for sample disturbance,

although the corrected modulus values (especially the initial

ones) tend to be somewhat too high.

Baligh type of disturbance (by compression and extension),

triaxial and oedometer tests

Figure 14 shows theoretical strain contours at the center line of

a tube sample as presented by Baligh (1985). In Fig. 15, the stress

strain curves and the effective stress path (points 14) are shown

for the Baligh type of disturbance for specimen 3D (which is the

mother specimen to oedometer specimen 3D-1) and for specimen

3E. Specimen 3D appears to be somewhat stronger than 3E. The

reason for this is not exactly known, but it may be connected with

the fact that less swelling took place for specimen 3D than for all

other specimens during the preparation of the specimens when

K0 unloading from 2942 to 74 kPa. As previously mentioned, the

swelling pressures were found to be between 127 and 166 kPa for

specimens 3D and 3E, respectively, while they were 256 and

277 kPa for tests 2C-1 and 2D-1, respectively (i.e., the two tests with

severe disturbance by compression). For isotropic elastic specimens with no disturbance, the swelling pressure should be [74 +

2(195)]/3 = 155 kPa. If the Baligh type of loading had been stopped

at point 3, i.e., at a vertical strain of 3.5%, swelling pressures up

towards about 300 kPa might have been observed, i.e., up to about

150 kPa in excess of the in situ octahedral effective stress (which is

155 kPa). Those are values closer to what one would expect for a

strongly disturbed and strongly overconsolidated stiff clay of high

plasticity.

In Fig. 16, axial strain is plotted versus axial effective stress, the

latter in a logarithmic scale for oedometer test 3D-1 (the one from

mother specimen 3D with Baligh disturbance) together with the

K0 test on specimen 3C (the totally undisturbed one). The rst

unloadingreloading loop for test 3D-1 was applied by mistake;

however, it does not seem to have had any signicant inuence on

the following virgin part of the curve. The curves for the two tests

follow each other quite well up to an axial stress of about 1.0 MPa

because, in this case, it is believed that there is almost no tendency for swelling to be suppressed at the initial part of the oedometer test, as it was for test 3B-1 in Fig. 9. At higher stresses, the

curves continue to separate from each other until an axial stress

of about 4 MPa, the difference in axial strain then being about

2.0% whereafter the difference gradually decreases to about 1.2%

at an axial stress of about 9 MPa. The unloadingreloading part of

the curve, which starts at about 15% axial strain, shows, on the

average, a stiffer behaviour than seen for the undisturbed specimen 3C and even more so than for specimen 3B-1 in Fig. 9 (the

severely disturbed one). The Casagrande and the simplied methods give estimated pc values of 1.9 and 1.5 MPa, respectively, the

true value being 3.30 MPa. The plot of M versus axial strain does

not give any indication of where to pick out pc in this region.

In Fig. 17, stressstrain curves and effective stress paths are given

for triaxial test 3E. Figure 17 also shows the results of test 2B, the test

on totally undisturbed material from large oedometer sample No. 2.

The curves for the two tests are seen to fall almost on top of each

other. If the strength is corrected upwards to account for the swelling

that takes place during the reconsolidation to the correct initial

stresses, i.e., 74 and 195 kPa, in the same way as previously explained

in connection with test 2D-1, the corrected strength becomes about

6% higher than the uncorrected one, as shown in Fig. 17. The correction is based on the virgin curve for oedometer test 3B-1.

Ladd and Foott (1974) have proposed the following equation (the

SHANSEP equation) to describe the relationship between overconsolidation ratio, OCR, and normalized undrained shear strength,

:

su/ac

907

(totally undisturbed material) and oedometer tests 3D-1 (material

subjected to Baligh type of disturbance).

su

ac

su

ac

(OCRm)

OCR1

K0 unloaded so that the axial consolidation stress has become

equal to ac

; su/ac

OCR1 is the ratio between undrained shear

strength and axial consolidation stress at the maximum previous

)max, i.e., the axial stress before start of

consolidation stress, (ac

unloading; OCR is equal to (ac

)max/ac

; m is a constant.

for the most disturbed

For the triaxial tests reported here, su/ac

specimen, 2D-1, is equal to 2.04, while for the undisturbed specimen with the highest su value, 1B, it is equal to 2.65.

For routine testing at NGI, relationships between su/ac

, OCR,

and plasticity index based on correlations for Drammen clay after

Andresen et al. (1979) would probably have been used. For a clay

versus OCR correspondwith plasticity index of 30%, a plot of su/ac

ing to su/acOCR1 = 0.31 and an m value of 0.82 would then have

been utilized.

For the triaxial tests referred to earlier (1B and 2D-1), OCR values

)max

between 13.7 and 9.95 then would have been found, i.e., (ac

values between 1014 and 736 kPa corresponding to 0.34 and

0.25 times the true maximum previous consolidation stress of

2942 kPa.

The true SHANSEP parameters for the clay used in this investigation have been determined (from tests 2E and 2B) to be as fol

OCR1 = 0.272 and m = 0.606. With these parameter

lows: su/ac

values the following OCR and (ac

)max values are then obtained

(for tests 1B and 2D-1):

OCR 27.8 to 42.8

i.e., ac

max = 20553167 kPa, which are ac

max values correspond

ing to 0.701.08 times the maximum consolidation stress ac

max.

However, the su/ac value for the most disturbed specimen

(2D-1) after correction for the swelling during the reconsolidation

to the in situ stresses is equal to 2.70, which gives an OCR value

908

For personal use only.

Fig. 17. Effect of Baligh type of disturbance on undrained triaxial compression test.

equal to 44.1, i.e., ac

max = 3266 kPa that is a ac

max value corresponding to 1.11 times the true value.

value from a test where shearing starts

Alternatively, an su/ac

max value that was

at the swelling pressure may be used. A ac

about 24% too high was then found.

)OCR=1

In this discussion, it has been assumed that m and (su/ac

both can be considered to be constant. This may not always be

true for such large stress ranges, although Andersen (2004) has

shown that m is quite constant for OCR values up to 40 for tests

unloaded from 400 kPa, having a plasticity index of about 30, i.e.,

about the same as for the triaxial tests reported here. This indicates that reasonable SHANSEP parameters may be determined

values that are of

from two OCR tests if those are performed at ac

the same order of magnitude as the correct ones. However, the

gure examples given earlier in the text indicate that if the tests

values that are too high, then OCR values that

are performed at ac

are too high may be obtained.

ratio 40. The material so created was disturbed in the following ways

to simulate sample disturbance in connection with tube sampling:

1. By pressing the sample quickly through a tube with a very high

inside friction, leading to a rapid compression of the sample of

10%15%, or only by a rapid compression of about 10%.

2. By applying a Baligh type of disturbance in a triaxial cell with

3.5% undrained straining.

The main testing results may be summarized as follows:

1. CAU triaxial tests on specimens with various degree of sample

disturbance gave the following results:

The purpose of the testing has been to study the inuence of

sampling disturbance on a plastic, heavily overconsolidated, noncemented, stiff clay, the maximum previous consolidation stress (applied in the laboratory) being 2942 kPa and the overconsolidation

stresses gave the best stressstrain relationships around the in

situ stresses. The undrained shear strength values were then

up to about 20% too low. They may be corrected upwards by

the use of the virgin part of oedometer curves even from tests

on very disturbed materials; however, an upward correction

of the strengths is only recommended to estimate strength

values that may be obtained by improved sampling technique.

Starting shearing at the swelling pressure rather than at the in

situ effective stresses gave initial strains that were far too

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909

(about 14% too high).

2. CRS oedometer tests on specimens with various degree of sample

disturbance mounted with dry lter disks to prevent initial swelling gave the following results:

For personal use only.

dramatic, and probably acceptable in most cases even for

severely disturbed specimens.

For severely disturbed specimens the initial strains are (as

for triaxial tests when starting shearing from the swelling

pressure) too small. Later, for strains above about 6%8%,

they become gradually somewhat too large.

Estimation of the apparent preconsolidation stress, pc ,

seems to be difcult even for moderately disturbed specimens. Methods based on changes in tangent modulus do

not seem to work unless the specimen is almost entirely

undisturbed. Empirical procedures like the Casagrande and

a new procedure (i.e., the simplied method) based on

unloadingreloading loops gave preconsolidation pressures

for severely disturbed specimens that were typically around

0.6 times the correct value.

Another possibility is to use values of compression undrained

shear strength in combination with the SHANSEP equation,

but this will require at least two, preferably more, triaxial tests

at different OCR values to determine the parameters in the

SHANSEP equation properly. Shearing for such tests may start

at an isotropic stress equal to the swelling pressure, although

the pc values determined by such tests may be somewhat too

high (about 24% too high according to this investigation).

Unloadingreloading cycles starting at about 2 pc , and unloading down to about two times the in situ vertical stress may be

used to correct the stressstrain urve for sample disturbance,

although the corrected modulus values (especially the initial

ones) tend to be somewhat too high.

1. The true pc value for an entirely undisturbed specimen occurred at

a rather high strain, about 9%, but there was also a change in

stiffness at a very low strain (less than about 0.2% strain) that

could have been misinterpreted as a pc value. The true pc value

for entirely undisturbed specimens could be fairly well determined by the Casagrande method and by methods based on

plots of constrained modulus.

2. Disturbance by a rapid compression of the sample of 10%15%

gave a signicant inuence on the stress strain curves and

relatively high swelling pressures, while a Baligh circle of

3.5% axial strain gave a relatively small inuence on the

stress strain curves, and a relatively small increase in swelling

pressure; in spite of that this should correspond to disturbance caused by a typical thick wall tube sampling. It may be

that the Baligh straining should be stopped at the most negative axial strain rather than going back to zero strain, as this

would give a higher swelling pressure.

3. Determination of swelling pressures by increasing the conning

stress in a triaxial cell until no swelling takes place seems to give

reasonable values of swelling pressure for fully saturated specimens; however, values of swelling pressures of more than about

3.7 times the in situ vertical effective stress were not found in this

investigation. It is assumed therefore that higher values than

those are not created by dilatance due to shearing alone, but also

more or less due to breakdown, because of sample disturbance,

of cementation bonds created in the eld at higher stresses than

the present overburden ones.

4. When utilizing unloadingreloading loops to determine preconsolidation stresses and to correct for sample disturbance for

strongly overconsolidated days, it is important to give the speci-

Acknowledgements

The author thanks his NGI colleagues who contributed to this

work, i.e., Geir Sandbkken, Morten Sjursen, Reidar Otter, and

Sven Vangbk for valuable laboratory assistance, Kaare Heg,

Tom Lunne, and Knut Schjetne for their valuable comments to the

draft of this report, and Statoil for giving NGI permission to use

the material from the Troll eld in the North Sea for research

purposes.

References

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List of symbols

B

D

K0

M

outside diameter of sample tube

earth pressure coefcient at rest (= r /a )

tangent value of constrained modulus (= a /a when/

r = 0); M is determined from K0 triaxial or oedometer tests

Published by NRC Research Press

910

m

OCR

p

pc

(pc )true

su

r

For personal use only.

t

u

w

wc

wf

wi

overconsolidation ratio (= (ac

)max/ac

)

effective mean stress

value of apparent preconsolidation stress (i.e., the yield

stress) as determined directly from stressstrain data for

continuous rapid reloading (e.g., oedometer or K0 triaxial

tests)

true value of pc (i.e., equal to (ac

)max (1.08) or (ac

)max (1.12)

for the tests in this paper)

undrained shear strength

distance from centerline of sample to a certain point in the

sample

thickness of sample tube

excess pore pressure, i.e., (total pore pressure)/(back pressure)

water content

calculated value of w at end of consolidation (i.e., at start of

undrained shearing), assuming fully water saturated material

directly determined water content at end of shearing, i.e.,

after dismounting the specimen

initial water content, i.e., water content after K0 unloading

to 74 kPa and after possible disturbance

sample

a axial (i.e., vertical) strain. For the data in Table 2, a is equal

to the axial compression from start of the K0 loading multiplied by 100, divided by the height of the specimen at start

of the K0 loading. For the data in Table 3 and all the gures,

a is equal to the axial compression from start of shearing,

multiplied by 100, divided by the specimen height at start

undrained of shearing

a rate of axial strain during shearing

r radial (i.e., horizontal) strain. This parameter is dened and

used analogous to a

vol volumetric strain. This parameter is dened analogous to a

zz vertical strain

a total axial stress, calculation of a based on average current

specimen area; a is corrected for membrane restraint

a effective axial stress

ac

value of ac

at end of consolidation

(ac)max maximum previous consolidation axial effective stress, i.e.,

before start of unloading

r total radial stress; r is corrected for membrane restraint

r effective radial stress

shear stress (on 45 plane)

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