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Unilift Locking Klaw

Concrete Lifting Systems

Design Guide

March 2015

Unilift concrete lifting systems


for the precast industry.
Unicon Systems is a division of Ancon Building Products.
When Unicon Systems joined Ancon, it created a unique business with the
customer in mind. We now offer an unrivalled service to the precast concrete
industry of Australia. The combined technical and commercial strengths of the
businesses, together with an extensive product range and nationwide operations,
enable us to provide a customer-focused service that is second to none.
Ancon is part of the Engineered Accessories division of CRH plc, an international
building materials group with operations in over 35 countries and 80,000
employees. Our product portfolio of lifting, fixing and anchoring technologies
includes market leading brands from across the CRH network.
Service and Support
Ancon sales and technical support is available nationwide to offer advice,
process orders and provide a one-to-one service. Choose your location to
identify your nearest regional sales office.
Sydney

Tel: 1300 304 320

Brisbane

Fax: +61 (0) 2 9675 3390

Tel: 1300 304 320

Fax: +61 (0) 7 3395 6693

Melbourne Tel: 1300 304 320

Fax: +61 (0) 3 9311 1777

Perth

Fax: +61 (0) 8 9453 2300

Tel: 1300 304 320

Email: info@ancon.com.au
Web: www.ancon.com.au

Unilift Systems

Contents
4

Locking Klaws

Cone (foot) Anchors

Reo (eye) Anchors

Standard Recess Formers

Locking Klaws

Unilift Systems

10

Performance
Serviceability Limit States

12

Designing Concrete Lifting Anchors with AS3850:2003

14

Concrete Strength Limit State

17

Design for Concrete Strength

20

FAQ: Contribution of Panel Reinforcing Steel

21

Concrete working load limit

22

Design of Hanger bars for Reo (eye) Anchors

27

FAQ: Hanger bars

28

Anchor Installation

29

Rigging Guide

32

Reo (eye) Anchors

11

Cone (foot) Anchors

Limit State Design of Concrete

Standard Recess Formers

Ensure you have read and understood this manual before designing
with Unilift Systems.
Use Unilift Systems strictly in accordance with Ancons recommendations
Do not modify any lifting component by welding or other means
If in doubt contact our sales engineers who will be pleased to assist you
For best results always specify genuine Unilift components

Performance

Unilift Systems
Unilift - the quickest, safest, most economical systems for lifting
and handling a wide variety of precast concrete products,
particularly for civil engineering applications.

How is Unilift used?

Benefits

Specify the optimum Unilift system according to


the loads, type of panel, and handling methods

Versatile

Choose a recess former to suit the casting method


Attach the recess with the anchor to the mould

Standardised load range groups of


1.3, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 32 tonnes
Working Load Limit (WLL)

Cast and cure the panel to the minimum strength


required for lifting (normally 15MPa)

Fast, efficient handling of products in the


factory, during transport and on the job-site

Insert Unilift anchors into the recess formers

Remove the moulds and recess formers to expose


the anchor head
Attach the Unilift Lifting Klaw by rotating the Klaw
and locking it over the anchor head
Hoist slowly, removing the panel from the casting
bed and avoiding impacts

Systems to suit all applications

Safe
Engineered for safety. Anchor WLL includes
a factor of 3 against ultimate failure
Components of different load groups are not
interchangeable
Anchors and Locking Klaws are clearly marked
with their performance (WLL)
Locking Klaws safely and securely lock onto
the anchor head

Easy to use
Simple and quick to install
Locking Klaw
Safety clutch which locks
to the anchor head

One click connection


Easy to train operators in use and then
minimal supervision required.

Efficient and Economical


Standardised components reduce costs
Quick connections save labour and crane time
Recessed anchors avoid remedial work
Anchor
Forged anchor set below the
concrete surface
Recess
Formed in the concrete by a
recess former to permit
attachment of the Locking Klaw
to the Anchor head.

Efficient stacking with less product damage

Dependable Quality
Designed and tested to meet or exceed the
requirements of AS3850 and OSH NZ Code
of Practice ISBN 0-477-03658-9 May 2002
Recessed anchors resist damage in handling
and transport
Nothing to clog or jam
Anchors are Hot-Dip Galvanised for superior
corrosion resistance

Trusted
Well known, proven technology
Engineered and tested for safety
Backed by Ancon experience and
comprehensive technical support
4

Unilift Systems

System Components
Locking Klaw

Cone Anchor

Reo Anchor

Ancons unique safety


clutch. Safer, stronger,
faster, lighter.

Classic spherical
headed, forged foot
anchor - the first choice
for most applications.

Eye anchor used with


hanger bar if concrete is
too weak for cone
anchors.

Steel Recess with


rubber ring

Rubber Former

Articulated Steel
Recess

Plastic Recess Former


with Steel Collets

Robust former for rigid


anchor connection in
production precasting.

Ideal for attachment to


steel and timber forms or
floats.

Ideal for production


precasting and
permanent mould
attachment.

Flexible former suitable


for most situations.

Also available:
Colletted Steel
Recess
Rigid anchor connection
for severe conditions e.g.
pipemaking.

Plastic recess

Tilt-up Sets

One-trip recess.

For site casting, e.g.


tilt-up anchors with
support chairs.

Special products to meet individual applications, available on request.

Locking Klaws
Safer, faster, lighter, stronger
clutches for all spherical head
lifting anchors

These clutches are used for lifting a wide range of precast concrete products for building and
civil engineering including panels, pipes, pits, manholes, box culverts, road barriers, bridge
beams, planks, sound walls, culverts etc.
They meet the requirements of AS3850 and are
compatible and interchangeable with standard clutches for
1.3t to 32t WLL anchor systems.
Locking Klaws improve safety, performance and flexibility
in all situations.
LK Technologies* fix the design flaws which have caused
failures of other clutches.

CentriLok
Unique well in the curved lifting lips locates the
anchor in its optimum, central position at the rear of
the slot!

Taperwall
Reinforced side walls. The unique tapered
cantilever increases the strength when turning and
side lifting.
Lighter but stronger - more efficient metal
distribution.
Higher WLLs for 1LK and 2LK compensates for
sling angles.
Designed to fit spherical and reduced recesses.

Under load, the Klaw locks and resists rotation


toward the disconnected position, locking the tail.
The side of the well traps the anchor head and
locks the Klaw at its position of maximum strength
and safety.
Safe for use in hanger applications (upside down).
The locked Klaw protects against dangerous
disconnections where there is a risk of fouling, a
common problem when lowering precast drainage
products in confined spaces (e.g. lowering
products into trenches or past formwork).

FlushTail
Tail has clearance to the concrete surface.
Less concrete damage when lifting toward the tail.

Compact-8
Lightweight and efficient figure-8 chain link design.
Additional clearance when side lifting.
Round links do not damage lifting hooks, links etc.

Unique well

Anchor in central position


at rear of slot

Figure-8 shaped chain link design

Cw

Ch

SI

Locking Klaws

Sw

S, Smax

Nominal Dimensions, Working Load Limits


L
W
Ch
Cw
Sw
SI

S
Smax

1LK
170
66
44
40
33
72
56
11
13

2LK
215
85
59
52
42
88
68
16
18

5LK
270
110
62
70
57
113
88
22
25

10LK
365
145
83
90
73
144
112
31
32

20LK
515
210
103
130
110
195
152
43
46

20LC*
506
180
135
106
110
195
152
41
46

32LC*
680
272
189
172
160
300
180
52
58

* Halfen clutches carry a CE mark, more information is available on request.

WLL t
0 sling
angle
2
Annual Proof
24
Load kN
WLL t
60 sling
1.7
angle
Nominal
1.3
WLL anchor

10

20

32

36

60

120

240

384

2.6

4.3

8.6

17.2

27.6

2.5

10

20

32

Locking Klaws solve these critical problems, caused by traditional clutch designs

Anchor loses support from the rear of the sphere and


the load spreads the lips of the clutch.

Side loading worsens the


problem.

Spread lips cause pull-off


failure and shearing of
anchor heads.

Typical example of a
standard clutch with lips
spread by the anchor
moving around the slot.
This clutch is at the point
of failing.

Sphere rotation under load because


nothing traps the anchor.

And in severe cases, the


side of the clutch bends
and breaks.

Cone (foot) Anchors


Classic spherical headed,
forged foot anchor - the first
choice for most applications

Hot dip galvanised, forged, high impact strength


construction steel
Cone (foot) Anchors

Genuine Unilift anchors are stamped with U


on the head.
Anchor Strength WLL and length stamped on the
head of the anchor
S

Anchor Dimensions
H
(mm)
19
26
36
47
70
88

WLL
1.3
2.5
5.0
10.0
20.0
32.0

S
(mm)
10
14
20
28
39
50

F
(mm)
25
35
50
70
98
135

Part Codes and Anchor Lengths


Other sizes are available for special order
WLL
1.3
2.5
5.0
10.0
20.0
32.0

35
CA01035
-

45
CA01045
-

55
CA01055
CA02055
-

Standard Anchor Length L (mm)


65
75
85
95
CA01065
CA01085
CA02075 CA02085
CA05075
CA05095
-

120
CA01120
CA02120
CA05120
-

WLL
1.3
2.5
5.0
10.0
20.0
32.0

170
CA02170
CA05170
-

200
CA10200
-

240
CA01240
CA05240
-

Standard Anchor Length L (mm)


280
340
500
700
CA02280
CA05340
CA10340
CA20340 CA20500
CA32700

960
1200
CA05960
CA321200

150
CA05150
CA10150
-

Reo (eye) Anchors


Eye Anchor used with hanger
bar if concrete is too weak for
cone anchors.

Hot dip galvanised, forged, high impact strength


construction steel.
Genuine Unilift anchors are stamped with U on the head.
Anchor Strength WLL and length stamped on the head of the anchor.
Ideal for thin panels and other applications where the concrete shear cone developed by
the anchor is insufficient to provide the working load limit of the anchor (e.g. low strength
concrete).
A hanger bar, also known as a tension bar, is threaded through the hole in the anchor and
embedded deep in the concrete. See below for the appropriate hanger detail.
Part Codes and Dimensions
50
RA01050
-

65
RA01065
RA02065
-

Standard Anchor Length L (mm)


90
120
180
RA02090
RA05120
RA10180
-

250
RA20250
-

Reo (eye) Anchors

WLL
1.3
2.5
5.0
10.0
20.0
32.0

300
RA32300

To suit
D
HL
H

S
L
D

WLL
1.3
2.5
5.0
10.0
20.0
32.0

H
19
26
36
47
70
88

L
65
90
120
180
250
300

S
10
14
20
28
39
50

Hanger / Tension HL Cut Hanger / Tension Bar Length


Bar Dia D
for 15MPa (AS3600 60mm cover)
R8
700
N10
870
N16
1020
N20
1520
N28
2760
N40
5300
9

Standard Recess Formers


Used to accurately and reliably set the anchor into its recess in
the concrete product. Recess formers are non-interchangeable
between load groups, minimising errors. Available in a variety of
types to meet the demands of different applications.

Semi-Spherical Rubber Recess


Hard oil resistant, yet flexible, rubber
For attachment to steel and timber forms or floats
Size
Diameter (mm)
Part Code

1.3
60
RRF01

2.5
74
RRF02

5
94
RRF05

10
118
RRF10

20
160
RRF20

32
214
RRF32

Steel Recess with Rubber Retaining Ring

Economical recess for production precasting


Long service life
Uses a replaceable rubber retaining ring
May be attached directly to the mould
Available also with magnetic attachment

Size
Diameter (mm)
Recess Part Code
Ring Part Code

1.3
60
SRF01
RR01

2.5
74
SRF02
RR02

5
94
SRF05
RR05

Articulating Steel Recess Former


Standard Recess Formers

Similar in action to the semi-spherical rubber recess


but manufactured from steel
Long service life for production precasting
Size
Diameter (mm)
Part Code

1.3
60
SRF01A

2.5
74
SRF02A

5
94
SRF05A

Plastic Recess Formers with Steel Collets


Long service life if maintained
For attachment to steel and timber forms or floats
No more issues of recess formers opening up when using this solid
reusable plastic recess former with solid steel collets
Plastic recess formers and collets can be purchased separately
Size
Diameter (mm)
Part Code
10

10
130
PRFC10

20
175
PRFC20

Limit State Design of


Concrete Lifting Systems
The designer must analyse all limit states and failure mechanisms.

Strength Limit States


Anchor strength:
Will some part of the anchor or other component
(e.g. hanger bar) on which the anchor depends for its
load carrying capacity fail?
Concrete strength:

There are no Australian standards which provide the


WLL for inserts in concrete, and no standard method
for calculation of the tensile and shear capacities of
thin concrete panels. These must be determined from
tests. In this regard AS3850 says:
2.2 WORKING LOAD LIMIT (WLL)

Will the concrete crack or fail?

The WLL shall be derived from one of the


following, as appropriate:

What are the consequences of cracking?

(a) The relevant Australian Standard.

If the concrete cracks does this cause complete


failure (pull-out) of the anchor or is pull-out prevented
by a secondary anchoring attachment (e.g. hanger
bar)?

(b) By dividing jRu, obtained from the relevant


Australian Standard, by the limit state factor (LSF)

Design for anchor strength


If the anchor is to be used without a hanger bar,
select an anchor which has a WLL as specified to
meet or exceed the factored anchor load.
If the anchor is to be used with a hanger bar, check
the WLL of the anchor and the WLL of the hanger
bar (AS3850 and AS3600) is sufficient to meet or
exceed the factored anchor load.

Design for concrete strength


Well embedded anchors transfer the applied loads
to the concrete. If the applied load exceeds the
concrete flexural, tensile or shear strength concrete
cracking will occur.
If cracking results in complete anchor pull-out, this
defines the concrete strength limit state.
A designer may choose to reinforce the anchor
and/or concrete to control cracking and retain the
anchor, preventing pull-out e.g. with a hanger bar.
Serviceability may then limit the design.

(c) By dividing the multiple of the mean value of the


test results (x) (see Appendix A of AS3850) and the
capacity reduction factor (j), by the limit state
factor (LSF) and the sampling factor, ks.
Check the WLL of the concrete for its
(compressive) strength at the time of lifting for each
lifting situation (e.g. edge lifting from the mould,
edge lifting while suspended, face lifting, handling
in the factory and storage, loading and unloading
on transport, erection).
For well embedded anchors of given embedment
depth, panel thickness, concrete tensile, flexural and
compressive strengths, the concrete strength limit
state (and therefore WLL) is independent of the
anchor itself - it is a function of the load applied to the
concrete.
In Australia, the limit state design of concrete lifting
systems for precast concrete elements is governed
by the Australian Standard AS3850:2003.

Performance

11

Serviceability Limit States


The strength limit state is not the only consideration and
not always the limiting factor.
Serviceability limit states also control the selection of materials.

Impact strength limit state anchor toughness and resilience


Lifting anchors are subject to high load concentration,
possible impact loads and extreme environmental
conditions (temperatures, corrosion etc), requiring
materials of high toughness. This has been
recognised in AS3850 which specifies minimum
toughness properties. Unilift anchors are forged from
high toughness alloy steel (DIN 1.0570) with impact
strength exceeding the requirements of AS3850.

Fatigue and multiple lifting limit states


The WLL of Unilift anchors is ~60% of the 40,000
cycle fatigue limit for these steels and so fatigue is not
a significant issue. On the other hand, mechanical
damage, loss of metal, notching or corrosion pitting
reduce both impact and fatigue strength.

General guidelines
Undamaged anchors can be considered safe for
multiple lifting for at least 100 lifts over at least
the half-life of the galvanised coating from the
corrosion table on page 13.
Where anchors are designed for intentional longterm multiple lifting, the design factor should be
increased from 2.5 to 5 to account for additional
wear and tear.
NB: Standards require a design factor of 5 for
lifting equipment intended for long term multiple
re-lifting operations to compensate for wear in
service.
Check for wear, mechanical or corrosion damage
before attempting to lift with anchors after long
term exposure which may have suffered
corrosion or other damage.

12

Welding and welding embrittlement


Whilst Unilift anchors are manufactured from steels
which are readily weldable, there are issues with zinc
contamination, localised hardening (e.g. uncontrolled
heat inputs), joint design, undercutting etc.
Welding of Unilift components or indeed any
type of lifting anchors is not recommended.

Strain age embrittlement


Unilift anchors are forged from alloy steels and
metallurgical condition insenstitive to SAE.

Corrosion limit state


Unilift anchors are hot dip galvanised (coating
thickness >50 micron) to provide resistance to
atmospheric corrosion in most environments. Long
term exposure to marine environments can be
expected to result in eventual corrosive attack and
possible rust staining of the concrete.

The service life of Unilift galvanised anchor coatings depends on the environment in which it is used.

ISO 9223
category
C1
C2

C3

C4
C5

Typical
AV Long Term
Environmental
corrosion rate
External
of steel
Interior
micron/year
Alpine
< 0.1
Dry interiors
Arid/rural/urban
0.1 - 1.5
Low
Interiors with occasional
condensation
Coastal
Medium
50 metres to 1 km inland from
sheltered seas or 1 km to 10-50 km
from surf beaches depending upon
prevailing winds and
typography.
Industrial e.g. dairies,
food processing etc
High
Sea-shore calm
Swimming pools
Very high Sea-shore surf and offshore
-

AS/NZS
2312
corrosivity
Very low

AV Long Term
corrosion rate
of Zinc
< 0.1

Typical
Service life 42 micron coating
>50 years

0.1 - 1.7

40-50 years

14-40 years

7-14 years

5-7 years

* Source: Galvanisers Association of Australia

Stainless steel anchors are available for aggressive environments.

Is minor concrete cracking/spalling


acceptable?
High Finish Building Panels
Minor flexural cracking may be tolerable and
controlled by reinforcing detailing to close the cracks
to permissable crack widths. Generally severe
cracking and spalling is not permissable and would
require expensive patching and repair in the factory or
in-situ.
Where a high finish is required, typically visible and
exterior walls, un-cracked design and systems which
minimise cracking (e.g. EdjPro) should be specified.

Panels and precast elements for civil and general


applications
In some cases minor cracking and spalling may not
be a significant issue for the intended application e.g.
pits, bridge planks, bunker walls for gravel storage,
lids etc. Cracked and spalled products give the
impression of poor quality. Reputable
manufacturers, proud of their products seek to
minimise cracking and damage around the anchor
points of their otherwise well finished, high quality
products.
Where thin products are to be lifted from their edges,
Unilift and similar systems can lead to damage
around the recess and in these cases the Unicon
EdjPro system offers users a superior performance
with a unique recess, anchor and clutch design
developed to eliminate cracking for Perfect Panels.

Performance

13

Designing Concrete Lifting Anchors


with AS3850:2003

Historical Note:
Prior to the adoption of AS3850 in 1990, safe working loads for concrete lifting anchors were calculated using
a factor of 3 between the working load and the minimum ultimate strength of the anchor.
The AS3850 code committee chose to reduce this (Design Factor) from 3 to 2.5 for the Working Load Limit of
anchors and applied a mandatory Load Factor of 1.2 (essentially a dynamic load factor) to the static load,
thereby retaining the overall minimum factor of 3 (1.2 x 2.5 = 3.0).

Calculate the weight of the object

Volume x Density
e.g. Rectangular panel 10 x 2.5 metres x 150 mm thick, normal weight concrete (density 2.4)
Weight in tonnes: = 10 x 2.5 x 0.150 x 2.4 = 9 tonnes

Calculate the factored load

Select the Load Factor


Design Lifting Condition
Lifting from smooth, oiled steel moulds and
casting beds, handling and erection with a crane
Lifting from concrete casting beds,
e.g. site-cast tilt up
Lifting deep ribbed panels or objects where high suction
and adhesion loads can be generated
Lifting from moulds without removable side forms
Travelling over rough ground whilst suspended

Load Factor
1.2

AS3850 Requirement
1.2

1.5

1.5

3
4-5

Design guide for load factors, reference AS3850, Clause 3.5.2


Note: AS3850 always requires a minimum load factor of 1.2!

Calculate the total factored load

Weight x Load Factor


High impact loads - e.g. travel over rough ground
Bouncing whilst suspended can generate loads up to 5 times the static load at the anchor point. Where this
type of loading cannot be avoided e.g. transporting pipe components with a backhoe, then increased dynamic
factors must be applied when factoring the load to ensure that the anchors, locking klaws, chains attachments
and lifting equipment are capable of withstanding these impact overloads.

14

Calculate the loads applied to the lifting system during lifting from the mould; and also
when suspended during handling and panel erection.
Note! When a panel is supported on one edge and tilted from the horizontal position to the vertical, half of the
panel weight may be used for the calculation of loads prior to final lift off. After lift off the full weight of the panel
must be used for the calculation of factored loads.

Select the number of lifting points


Determine the minimum (normally 2 points) or required number of lifting points to ensure that the stresses from
lifting do not exceed the strength of the object being lifted. e.g. a long thin panel lifted from its edge will
normally require multiple lifting points so that the flexural stresses do not exceed the panel strength.

Select the method of rigging and apply a sling factor if required


NB: 1LK and 2LK Locking Klaws have increased WLLs (2t and 3t respectively) to enable these to be used at
full nominal anchor capacity (1.3t and 2.5t) at sling angles up to 60 an advantage for slinging many small
elements.

Included angle a
between the slings
0
30
60
90
120

Sling Angle Factor

1
1.04
1.16
1.42
2

Check the factored load at each anchor

Factored anchor load =


factored load / number of anchors x sling angle factor

Check the factored load in the clutch and sling components

Factored clutch load =


factored load / number of anchors x sling angle factor

Performance

15

Designing Concrete Lifting Anchors with AS3850:2003


If the factored anchor load...
...exceeds the WLL of the Locking Klaw

= Increase the number of lifting points or:


Select a higher WLL Klaw and anchor group

...exceeds the WLL of the anchor strength = Increase the number of lifting points or:
Select a higher WLL anchor group
...exceeds the WLLc for concrete strength = Select an eye anchor with hanger bar

Check whether the factored load exceeds the WLL


of the concrete
Case 1: Cone anchor - uncracked concrete design
Is the concrete strong enough to support the WLL without cracking the concrete?
Check the WLL of the concrete - WLLc (fRuc /2.5), either by reference to the
tables in this manual or by calculation.
Consider a longer cone anchor or increase the concrete strength at the time
of lift.

WLLct = fRuc / 2.5


Case 2: Reo (eye) anchor cracked concrete design
If the concrete cracks at a load less than the WLL x 2.5
Use a Reo anchor with correctly designed and detailed hanger bar.
The limit state is controlled by hanger bar failure Ruh.

WLLt = fsRuh / 2.5


AS3850:2003 does not provide full design methods for lifting inserts.
Refer: the following extracts:
1.5 Use of Limit States Design
Tilt-up panels shall be designed for all phases of their design life, from casting to their service in the final structure.
Where these aspects are covered by AS3600, the design shall be carried out using limit states design (LSD)
procedures.
C1.5

Limit states design at this stage is under investigation and the committee is not in a position to recommend
limit state procedures for insert design and erection stresses in panels.

C2.2

The WLL of a system will need to be assessed by a suitably experienced and competent person. It should be
noted that the manufacturer of a device cannot determine the WLL of the device for each and every
configuration that may be involved in a given system.

3.5.4

Design of panels for manufacture and erection


Panels may be designed

(a) to be uncracked; or
(b) assuming they are cracked, in accordance with reinforced concrete design methods.
When designing a panel on the basis of cracked sections, that is, using the assumptions of reinforced
concrete design, sufficient reinforcement shall be used to provide the necessary design capacity. The designer
shall ensure that the assumptions for effective depth are consistent with the reinforcement detailing.
C3.5.4 Generally, panels will be designed for erection assuming they are uncracked and for the appropriate loads in
the completed structure on the basis of reinforced concrete design. Cracks in panels, which occur during
lifting, are difficult to repair and/or camouflage and therefore tilt-up panels are usually designed to remain
uncracked during the erection process. In panels with large openings, designers need to make a judgement
as to the position of reinforcement in the panel adjacent to the opening.

16

Concrete Strength Limit State: Ruc

For a Cone anchor the concrete failure


load is dependent on:
compressive strength f'c of the concrete
depth of embedment h of the anchor in
the concrete
distance a from the anchor to any edge
or face
the spacing c between anchors
The geometry of Cone anchors efficiently transfers
the full load from the foot of the anchor to the
concrete. The anchor length defines the embedment
depth (plus the set down from the surface).
When the load causes concrete failure, it does so by
a shear cone being pulled from the concrete with a
depth equal to the embedment depth of the anchor.
The strength limit state of the concrete is proportional
to the area of shear cone.

Concrete cone failure

Embedment depth

c
Centre spacing

3h

a
Edge distance

The fully developed shear cone has a diameter of approximately 3h. Where anchors are placed closer to an
edge than a < 3h or with a spacing c < 6h between anchors, the area of the shear cone is reduced and so the
pull-out capacity of the concrete is proportionally reduced. In thin panels where the edge distances to the faces
are small, the shape of the shear cone is changed to that of a pie shape.

Zipper failure

Performance

Sometimes, in thin panels and short edge distances, when multiple anchors are embedded along a top
edge of a thin panel, the failure surfaces link up and splits the concrete to each face and edge so that a
strip of concrete equal to the embedment depth is zippered away from the rest of the panel.

17

Concrete Strength Limit State: Ruc


Prediction of Cone Anchor Failure and Ruc for design
Where Ruc (kN), h (mm), f'c (Mpa):
Embedment greater than 120mm:
Use the Haeussler equation to predict cone failure:

fRuc = kc . h2. f'c0.67


kc = 9.72 x 10-4
Embedment less than 120mm:
Use the ACI CCD equation (better fit from tests less than 100mm):

fRuc = knc . h1.5. f'c0.5


knc = 1.55 x 10-2
Reduction factors for edge distances
A simple and effective method for calculation of the reduction of conic areas comes from the realisation that a
full cone is developed at a distance of 3h at an angle of ~30 and that the concrete strength limit state Ruc is
directly proportional to the area of the pull-out cone.
From trigonometry, the fully developed shear cone has a conic surface proportional to the hypotenuse of a
triangle with sides h and 3h and since by Pythagoras' theorem the length of the hypotenuse (conic surface)
varies by the square root of the two sides of the triangle, the ratio of the reduced area is as follows:
for

a = edge distance
h = embedment depth so that

Reduced Conic Area a sin(30. a/h)


Note when a = 3h this reduces to sin90 = 1
Ruc-reduced = Ruc . sin(30. a/h)
This power equation may be extended to cater for anchors placed closer than one edge and/or at anchor
spacings less than 6h (3h + 3h).
Ancon provides a simple calculation program to assist designers to calculate Ruc for more complex anchor
placements than the tables in this design guide cater for. The program includes the calculation of Ruc- reduced
according to the geometry and strength of the product to be lifted.

18

Concrete Strength Limit State: Ruc


Other types of failure
Very short anchors
Adhesion failure - where the force required to break
the bond between the concrete and the anchor
results in anchor pull-out without a cone.

Long anchors in thin panels


Side Blowout failure - where the embedment depth
from the surface of the panel to the foot of the anchor
controls cone failure.

Long anchors in the tops of columns


Horizontal splitting failure where the force required
to provoke splitting to each surface is less than to
develop a shear cone. This is similar to zipper failure
and most commonly seen where long anchors are
placed in small piles.

Performance

19

Design for Concrete Strength

Factored concrete strength limit state:

fcRuc = 0.6 Ruc


WLL for concrete strength limit state:

WLLc = fcRuc / 2.5


From AS3850:2003
1.

The factored ultimate load f Ruc is the predicted failure load of the concrete when it cracks and can no
longer support the load. It includes the capacity reduction factor fc = 0.6 for concrete.

This is defined as follows in Appendix A of AS3850


f Ru

= x/ks

. . A4.6

where
f Ru

= strength limit state capacity

= mean value of test data (Paragraph A4.4)

ks

= sampling factor, Table A2 = 1.3 (more than 5 tests)

and
WLL

= f Ru /2.5

NB!
i)

The concrete will crack at Ruc. At this load a cone anchor (foot anchor) will pull-out.

ii)

If an eye anchor is used with a hanger bar then after cracking the load is transferred to the hanger.
If the hanger is not strong enough it will fail by shearing at the connection point (hole in the anchor) or
tensile failure of the bar or pull-out from the concrete.

iii) If the hanger has been correctly designed (see section on hanger bar design) then this shall be
capable of providing an ultimate failure load not less that 2.5 times the WLL of the hanger bar or the
WLL of the anchor, whichever is the lower.
2.

If the design anchor load is less than the WLL of the concrete then the anchor can be used without
additional reinforcing or panel cracking. Shear reinforcing over the anchor and recess can assist in
controlling cracking where serviceability requires.

3.

The factored ultimate load (f Ru) for edge shear (loading toward the edge) is the load at which the panel
edge is predicted to crack, regardless of whether a shear bar is present. If a shear bar is present it should
control the crack and minimise the risk of spalling. Ancon recommends sufficient anchors be installed so
that the design anchor load is less than f Ru or some spalling may occur.

20

FAQ: Contribution of panel reinforcing steel

Can the failure strength be improved by the panel reinforcing steel?

Contrary to a popular misconception, the


presence of reinforcing steel in the panel cannot
be assumed to increase the failure strength!
Steel designed to elastically control cracking for
shrinkage and in-place loads does not necessarily
increase the failure load sufficiently to meet the
requirements for lifting!
The purpose of reinforcing an anchor against ultimate
failure is quite different from adding steel to control
cracking in normal concrete design.
The limit state for crack control steel is the elastic
limit i.e. steel yield.
The limit state for lifting anchor reinforcement is
steel failure i.e. breaking load, multiplied by a design
factor of 2.5.

Additional steel may be designed to specifically


transfer lifting loads but in doing so it becomes part of
the lifting system and must be designed to AS3850
accordingly.
Designers must ensure that effective shear reinforcing
steel (e.g. closely spaced stirrups) encloses the
concrete in the anchorage zone and the steel to
which the loads are to be transferred to prevent
spalling, loss of bond and anchorage.
If it is necessary to reinforce the cracking in and
around the anchor zone, the area of steel required to
transfer the lifting load must be designed to meet the
requirements of AS3850 i.e. f Ru / 2.5 S* and
development, confinement etc according to AS3600.

Lifting loads are not expected to exceed the design


WLL and most don't! However higher loads can
occur accidentally and for this reason the design
factor is required. The most likely accidental
overloads are impact loads.
Concrete subjected to impact loads tends to fail
explosively; whilst the same load applied slowly may
not lead to more than cracking, the additional forces
generated within the concrete from impact cause
spalling, delamination and loss of bond and
confinement of the reinforcing steel. If the impact load
is sufficient to exceed both the WLL and cone failure
strength concrete, then the reinforcing steel must be
capable of resisting the factored lifting load. After the
concrete has cracked only fully confined steel is
capable of reinforcing the concrete in the anchorage
zone.

Performance

21

Concrete working load limit


WLLc design tables

The design tables provide WLLc for the failure of the


concrete (concrete strength limit state).
1. WLLc is calculated for products with shrinkage
reinforcing. As the presence of unconfined
reinforcing makes no difference to the WLLc the
effect of other steel must be disregarded unless it
has been specifically designed for lifting and has
been detailed accordingly.
2. WLLc in these tables includes the design factor of
2.5 required by AS3850.
3. Where the factored load exceeds the WLLc eye
anchors must be used with a hanger bar designed
in accordance with AS3850 and AS3600
(see tables).
4. If the factored shear load toward a free edge
exceeds the ultimate shear capacity, the edge is
likely to fail. Initial cracking may commence from
about 50% of the ultimate capacity. Ancon does
not recommend Unilift systems for edge lifting thin
products toward a face because compression of

the concrete by the clutch may cause edge


cracking and spalling. Ancon EdjPro systems have
been specifically designed for this type of lifting
and offer solutions for the production of Perfect
Panels.
5. Shear bar reinforcing over the recess may help
control, but cannot prevent cracking!
6. When panels are rotated about a supporting edge
(e.g. from mould), with hanger bars fitted to
anchors to prevent them pulling out, shear
cracking does not limit the anchor WLL but could
result in panel damage. Loads should be limited to
the ultimate edge shear capacity of the concrete
and/or shear bars used to control cracking.
7. Ancon recommends a minimum concrete
compressive strength f c=15MPa at time of lifting.
Ancon has expressed the values for the WLLs in
tonnes force (rather than kN) to avoid confusion
because most lifting equipment is specified in
Australia for WLL in tonnes.

Preferred length and short Cone anchors


Special care must be taken when designing with foot anchors shorter than the preferred lengths shown in the
table below for each load range which have been designed to develop the WLL of the anchor when placed at
the minimum edge distance in concrete of at least 10MPa.
Load Group
WLL t
Preferred
Anchor
Length (mm)
Part Code

22

1.3

2.5

10

20

32

120

170

240

340

500

700

CA01120

CA02170

CA05240

CA10340

CA20500

CA32700

Concrete Strength WLLc of anchors with minimum edge distance a3h and spacing s6h
Embedment
mm
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
160
170
185
190
240
280
340
400
500
700

Min Edge
Distance
90
105
120
135
150
165
180
195
210
225
240
255
270
285
300
315
330
345
360
375
390
405
420
435
450
480
510
555
570
720
840
1020
1200
1500
2100

Min Anchor
Spacing
180
210
240
270
300
330
360
390
420
450
480
510
540
570
600
630
660
690
720
750
780
810
840
870
900
960
1020
1110
1140
1440
1680
2040
2400
3000
4200

10MPa
0.33
0.41
0.51
0.60
0.71
0.82
0.93
1.05
1.17
1.30
1.43
1.57
1.71
1.85
2.00
2.15
2.31
2.47
2.67
2.90
3.14
3.38
3.64
3.90
4.18
4.75
5.36
6.35
6.70
10.69
14.55
21.45
29.69
46.39
90.93

WLLc = Ruc / 2.5 tonnes Force


15MPa
20MPa
30MPa
0.40
0.46
0.57
0.51
0.59
0.72
0.62
0.72
0.88
0.74
0.85
1.05
0.87
1.00
1.23
1.00
1.15
1.41
1.14
1.31
1.61
1.28
1.48
1.82
1.44
1.66
2.03
1.59
1.84
2.25
1.75
2.02
2.48
1.92
2.22
2.72
2.09
2.42
2.96
2.27
2.62
3.21
2.45
2.83
3.47
2.64
3.04
3.73
2.83
3.26
4.00
3.02
3.49
4.27
3.51
4.25
5.58
3.80
4.61
6.05
4.12
4.99
6.55
4.44
5.38
7.06
4.77
5.79
7.59
5.12
6.21
8.15
5.48
6.64
8.72
6.23
7.56
9.92
7.04
8.53
11.20
8.33
10.11
13.26
8.79
10.66
13.99
14.03
17.01
22.32
19.09
23.15
30.37
28.15
34.13
44.79
38.96
47.24
61.99
60.88
73.82
96.86
119.32
144.68
189.84

40MPa
0.66
0.83
1.01
1.21
1.41
1.63
1.86
2.10
2.34
2.60
2.86
3.14
3.42
3.70
4.00
4.31
4.62
4.93
6.76
7.34
7.94
8.56
9.21
9.88
10.57
12.03
13.58
16.08
16.96
27.06
36.83
54.31
75.17
117.45
230.20

Performance

23

Concrete working load limit WLLc design tables


Concrete Strength WLLc for preferred length anchors when the anchor is placed closer
to one edge, less than the critical edge distance: a1 < 3h, and the remaining edge
distances exceed the critical edge distance: a2, a3, a4 3h
Anchor WLL
Length
1.3 x 120

Effective
Embedment
mm hef
125

2.5 x 170

177

5 x 240

250

10 x 340

350

20 x 500

510

32 x 700

710

Edge
Distance
mm a
30
40
50
40
50
75
50
75
100
75
100
150
100
150
200
100
200
250

10MPa
1.03
1.18
1.32
2.00
2.23
2.73
3.75
4.59
5.29
7.61
8.78
10.72
15.45
18.90
21.80
25.39
35.86
40.05

WLLc = Ruc / 2.5 tonnes Force


15MPa
20MPa
30MPa
1.35
1.63
2.14
1.55
1.88
2.47
1.73
2.10
2.76
2.62
3.18
4.17
2.93
3.55
4.66
3.58
4.34
5.69
4.92
5.97
7.83
6.02
7.30
9.58
6.94
8.41
11.04
9.98
12.10
15.88
11.52
13.96
18.32
14.07
17.06
22.39
20.28
24.59
32.26
24.81
30.08
39.47
28.60
34.68
45.50
33.32
40.40
53.01
47.06
57.06
74.87
52.56
63.73
83.62

Bolded values: Concrete WLLc exceeds the nominal WLL of the anchor steel.

WLL Concrete Tension


a3 3h

a4 3h
a1 < 3h

a2 3h

24

40MPa
2.60
3.00
3.35
5.06
5.65
6.90
9.49
11.61
13.39
19.26
22.22
27.15
39.12
47.86
55.17
64.28
90.78
101.40

Concrete working load limit WLLc design tables


Concrete Strength WLLc for preferred length anchors placed in the centre of thin panel
when the panel thickness t < 6h (a1, a2 < 3h) and the remaining edge distances exceed
the critical edge distance: a3, a4 3h
Anchor WLL
Length
1.3 x 120

2.5 x 170

5 x 240

10 x 340

20 x 500

32 x 700

Effective
Panel
Embedment Thickness
mm hef
mm t = 2a
120
60
80
100
177
80
100
150
250
100
150
200
350
150
200
300
510
200
300
400
710
200
400
500

10MPa
0.38
0.50
0.63
0.69
0.86
1.28
1.21
1.81
2.41
2.55
3.39
5.06
4.95
7.40
9.84
6.89
13.75
17.15

WLLc = Ruc / 2.5 tonnes Force


15MPa
20MPa
30MPa
0.50
0.60
0.79
0.66
0.80
1.05
0.82
1.00
1.31
0.90
1.09
1.43
1.12
1.36
1.79
1.68
2.04
2.67
1.59
1.93
2.53
2.38
2.89
3.79
3.16
3.84
5.03
3.34
4.05
5.31
4.45
5.39
7.07
6.64
8.05
10.56
6.49
7.87
10.33
9.72
11.78
15.46
12.91
15.66
20.55
9.04
10.97
14.39
18.04
21.87
28.70
22.50
27.29
35.80

40MPa
0.96
1.27
1.59
1.74
2.17
3.24
3.07
4.59
6.10
6.44
8.58
12.81
12.52
18.74
24.91
17.45
34.80
43.41

Bolded values: Concrete WLLc exceeds the nominal WLL of the anchor steel.

WLL Concrete Tension

a4 3h

a3 3h

a1, a2 = t/2 < 3h

Performance

25

Concrete working load limit WLLc design tables


Concrete Shear Strength WLLc.shear for anchors loaded toward a free edge
Where the edge distance is substantially less than 3h
care must be exercised in selecting anchor systems
to avoid cracking and spalling of the panel edge.

WLL Concrete Tension

Ancon recommends EdjPro systems, specifically


designed for edge lifting thin panels, for the
production of Perfect Panels.

The following table shows that the full working load


limit of preferred length anchors is not supported by
the shear capacity of the concrete when loaded
toward the free edge until the edge distance
approaches 3h.
Typically, minor cracking commences from about
50% of the limit state strength fRuc.s.
Shear bar reinforcing may help control cracking
but shear bars cannot prevent cracking!

Anchor WLL
Length
1.3 x 120

2.5 x 170

5 x 240

10 x 340

20 x 500

32 x 700

26

Edge
Distance
mm a
50
75
100
300
75
100
125
400
100
125
150
540
150
175
200
770
200
300
400
1050
500
1250

fRuc.shear and WLLc.shear = Ruc.shear / 2.5 tonnes Force


10MPa
15MPa
20MPa
30MPa
40MPa
fRuc.s WLLc.s fRuc.s WLLc.s fRuc.s WLLc.s fRuc.s WLLc.s fRuc.s WLLc.s
0.36
0.66
0.97
3.45
0.85
1.29
1.73
6.54
1.65
2.27
2.89
12.53
3.75
4.61
5.48
25.20
7.23
12.28
17.32
50.09
29.69
82.34

0.14
0.27
0.39
1.38
0.34
0.52
0.69
2.62
0.66
0.91
1.15
5.01
1.50
1.84
2.19
10.08
2.89
4.91
6.93
20.04
11.88
32.94

0.44
0.81
1.19
4.22
1.05
1.58
2.12
8.01
2.02
2.78
3.53
15.34
4.59
5.65
6.71
30.87
8.86
15.03
21.21
61.35
36.36
100.85

0.17
0.33
0.48
1.69
0.42
0.63
0.85
3.21
0.81
1.11
1.41
6.14
1.84
2.26
2.68
12.35
3.54
6.01
8.48
24.54
14.54
40.34

0.50
0.94
1.38
4.87
1.21
1.83
2.45
9.25
2.33
3.21
4.08
17.72
5.30
6.52
7.75
35.64
10.23
17.36
24.49
70.84
41.99
116.45

0.20
0.38
0.55
1.95
0.48
0.73
0.98
3.70
0.93
1.28
1.63
7.09
2.12
2.61
3.10
14.26
4.09
6.94
9.80
28.34
16.79
46.58

0.62
1.15
1.69
5.97
1.48
2.24
3.00
11.33
2.86
3.93
5.00
21.70
6.49
7.99
9.49
43.65
12.53
21.26
30.00
86.77
51.42
142.62

0.25
0.46
0.67
2.39
0.59
0.90
1.20
4.53
1.14
1.57
2.00
8.68
2.60
3.20
3.79
17.46
5.01
8.50
12.00
34.71
20.57
57.05

0.71
1.33
1.95
6.89
1.71
2.58
3.46
13.08
3.30
4.54
5.77
25.05
7.49
9.22
10.95
50.41
14.47
24.55
34.64
100.19
59.38
164.68

0.28
0.53
0.78
2.76
0.68
1.03
1.38
5.23
1.32
1.81
2.31
10.02
3.00
3.69
4.38
20.16
5.79
9.82
13.85
40.08
23.75
65.87

Design of Hanger bars


for Reo (eye) anchors

AS3850 requires hanger bars (being part of the anchor system) be designed as follows:
Clause 2.2 Working Load Limit (WLL)
The WLL shall be derived from one of the following, as appropriate:
(a) The relevant Australian Standard.
(b) By dividing f Ru, obtained from the relevant Australian Standard, by the limit state factor (LSF).
(c) By dividing the multiple of the mean value of the test results (x) (see Appendix A of AS3850) and the
capacity reduction factor (f), by the limit state factor (LSF) and the sampling factor, ks.
Note: option (a and b) are determinative because (c) is not appropriate. It is not possible to guarantee that the
strength of the bar which is used for testing is the same as, or representative of, every bar delivered for making
the hanger bars in practice. The characteristic strength of reinforcing bars specified in AS4671 and AS3600
should be used in the design of hanger bars made from standard grade reinforcing steels.
Example:
500N grade hanger bars. AS4671 specifies an ultimate/yield strength ration of 1.08 (minimum).
ultimate strength in tension

Ru

=
Ab x 1.08 x 500 N
=
Ab x 1.08 x 500 / 1000 (kN)
=
0.54 x AAb (kN)
where Ab
=
cross sectional area of the bar
Now the WLL of lifting inserts (including the hanger reinforcing bar which is part of the anchor)
WLL
=
f Ru /LSF ...... Cl. 2.2 (b) AS3850
fs
=
0.8 ...... table 2.3 (a) (i) AS3600
LSF
=
2.5...... Cl 2.4.2 AS3850
Therefore
WLL
=
0.8 x 0.54 x Ab / 2.5 = 0.173 x Ab (kN)
Since a hanger bar has 2 legs in tension, the capacity of the bar in tension is double this force:
Ru
=
2 x Ab x 0.54 / 9.8 (tonnes Force)
WLLhanger bar
=
2 x Ab x 0.173 / 9.8 (tonnes Force)
The following table shows the calculated loads and development lengths according to the requirements of
AS4671, AS3850 and AS3600 for a hanger bar with two legs centrally located with a minimum of 60mm cover
either side.The recommended hanger bar lengths shown in this table have been calculated conservatively, for
concrete compressive strength f'c =10MPa. This is to provide effective hanger reinforcement when
demoulding. Shorter lengths may be used at higher concrete strengths.

Hanger
db
Rebar
N12
N16
N20

Area
Ab
Area
113
201
314

Total
Area
2 x Ab
226
402
628

Ru
Ultimate Tensile Strength
for 2 legs
tonnes Force
12.45
22.15
34.60

WLL Tension Limit State


AS3850 f*Ru / 2.5
tonnes Force
4.0
7.1
11.1
Performance

The development length of the hanger bar is calculated from AS3600 to develop Ru.

27

FAQ: Hanger bars

Why use a hanger bar?


Thin concrete panels cannot support a high load
when they are lifted by their edges. If the concrete
were to crack, a pie shaped segment including the
anchor would be torn from the panel.
A hanger bar is a reinforcing bar which improves the
load capacity of the anchor beyond the load at which
the concrete would otherwise fail.

What is a hanger bar?


A reinforcing bar bent in an inverted V shape which is
passed through a hole in the anchor. The lifting load is
therefore transferred by the hanger bar, deep into the
concrete panel.

When are hanger bars required?


When the concrete cracking load is less than 2.5 times the required WLL.
Hanger bars are always required for edgelift anchors of any type in 150mm thick panels when the Anchor
Lifting Load is greater than about 2.3tonnes. This is because most panels are lifted from the mould when the
concrete is only 10-15MPa.
At 10MPa, the cracking strength is only 5.7tonnes which provides a 2.3tonne Working Load Limit
(including the Design Factor of 2.5 required by AS3850).

Will a horizontal bar e.g. edge trimmer


work?
NO!
Horizontal bars do not transfer vertical load they
zipper out of the edge.

Does panel mesh improve the lifting


load?
NO!
Panel mesh is only designed for shrinkage forces.
It must NEVER be relied upon to improve the lifting
load capacity of anchors in panels!

Can the lifting load be improved by the


other panel reinforcing bars?
Maybe, but ONLY if that reinforcing steel has been
especially designed to accept the lifting load!
This is NOT normal! Normal panel reinforcing steel is
only designed for in-service structural loads. It must
NEVER be relied upon to improve the lifting load
capacity of anchors in panels.
28

7
7
7

Anchor Installation

Installation of Rubber Round Void against formwork


1. Attach Unilift Rubber Recess Former to Unilift Anchor

2. Pass the setting bolt through the formwork and fasten with wing nut

Installation of Rubber Round Void puddle-in to wet concrete

1. Fasten wing nut to the


base of the void former

2. Hold the void former


assembly and anchor
via the setting bolt

3. Puddle in anchor until


void former is flush with
wet concrete
Performance

29

Anchor Installation
Installation of Steel Round Void against formwork

Formwork

Rubber
Ring
Anchor
SettingFormwork
Bolt

1. Secure Rubber Ring


around anchor head

Steel Round
Void Former

2. Secure steel round void


former to the formwork
with setting bolt

The Anchor is
secured by
insertion of the
rubber ring

3. Insert Unilift anchor


with the attached
rubber ring into the
steel round void former

Installation of Articulated Void against formwork

1. Attach articulated void former to Unilift anchor


Formwork

Setting
Bolt
Unilift
Anchor
Articulated
Recess Former

2. Secure assembled articulated void former


with Unilift cone anchor to formwork

30

4. Unilift anchor in final


position secure to the
steel round former

Anchor Installation
Installation of Colleted Void against formwork

1. Attach the collet set


and collet collar to the
Unilift anchor head

2. Insert the Unilift anchor


with the attached collet
set and collet collar into
the steel void former

3. Secure the assembled


colleted void former
with the Unilift anchor
to the formwork with a
setting bolt

Installation of Reo Anchor


Void Former

Unilift Reo Anchor

Unilift Reo Anchor

Tension Bar
35-45

Tension Bar

Concrete cover

Performance

31

Rigging Guide

Regulatory Requirements
AS3850 and the National Code of Practice for Precast and Tiltup Construction require that rigging systems
be designed to distribute loads equally between all anchors in precast components. If loads are not equally
distributed, damage or failure can occur to the precast components, the rigging components or both.
Rigging Geometry affects the loads in the rigging equipment and the precast components being lifted.
Common rigging errors can result in loads of twice the design loads. A common mistake is to lift a
component designed with four equally loaded points with four fixed length slings attached to a ring or hook.
The small variations in the lengths of the rigging result in the load in this case only being shared by two of the
slings, resulting in double the load applied to the anchors and the concrete surrounding the anchor. When
lifting thin precast panels this has been the cause of many failures.
Rigging with multiples of three lifting points (except for the special case shown) is not recommended by codes.

Rigging Diagrams for Equalised Loading


Correct rigging for equalised anchor loading
2 points

3 points
Only for special cases!

2 sheaved slings
Equal loads in each

2 fixed length
Equal loads in each

T
T

T
c.g.

T
T

T
2T 2T

2T

P=3T
P=2T

Special Case! 3 fixed leg


slings equally distributed
around the centre of gravity

P=2T

P=6T

4 points
2T

TT

P=4T

c.g.

32

2T

TT

P=4T

Always ensure that the centre of


gravity (centroid) of the object
being lifted lies below the centre
of lift of the lifting anchors to
avoid instability and toppling
during lifting.

Flat lift - equalised

Flat lift - equalised

Flat lift - equalised

Flat lift - equalised

Rigging Guide
Recommended Rigging Configurations when Facelifting with Unilift QwikTilt systems
Minimum 3C + D

Minimum 2D
Minimum
C + 300mm

C
q
C
D

D
The maximum sling
angle q should be
specified in the
lifting design.

2x1

2x2

Minimum 4.5D or
4.5E whichever is
the greater

4x2

Minimum 3D

E
D

Minimum 3D

2x4

4x2

Performance

33

Rigging Guide
Rigging diagrams showing unequal loading
Many accidents and failures have occurred with these rigging configurations because of the difficulty of
ensuring that the loads are evenly distributed.

4 point rigging with fixed length slings develops


unequal loads i.e. load is shared on two slings only

0 T

0T

T
0

0
Flat lift
4 x fixed slings
no equaliser

P=2T

2T

P=2T

Fixed leg slings can lead to indeterminate loading

4 equal length slings unequal loads. Panel


tries to bend to equalise the loads. This
overstresses the panel causing cracking.

Rigging with multiples of 3 slings is


particularly difficult and not recommended
Flat lifting with three points is possible when they are
equi-distant from the centre of gravity.

This can be OK but it is generally safer for


stability to lift with 4 fixed leg slings and
design for sharing the load on 2 of the
4 points.

T
2T 2T

2T

P=6T
Equal Load

T
2T

T
c.g.

P=4T
Central Anchor
Double Loaded

P=3T
Special Case! 3 fixed leg slings equally
distributed around the centre of cravity

34

NOTES

35

Masonry Support Systems


Windposts and Lintels
Wall Ties and Restraint Fixings
Channel and Bolt Fixings
Tension and Compression Systems
Stainless Steel Fabrications
Flooring and Formed Sections
Shear Load Connectors
Stainless Steel Reinforcement
Reinforcing Bar Couplers
Reinforcement Continuity Systems
Punching Shear Reinforcement
Precast Concrete Accessories

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The construction applications and details provided in this literature


are indicative only. In every case, project working details should be
entrusted to appropriately qualified and experienced persons.
Whilst every care has been exercised in the preparation of this
document to ensure that any advice, recommendations or
information is accurate, no liability or responsibility of any kind is
accepted in respect of Ancon Building Products.
With a policy of continuous product development Ancon Building
Products reserves the right to modify product design and
specification without due notice.

Ancon Building Products 2012