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Arduino Programming

(C) 2014 James Lewis


james@baldengineer.com
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Arduino Langauge
Machine Language
(Binary Code)
Assembly
(Readable Code)
C / C++
(Readable Code)
C++
Libs
C++
Libs
C++
Libs Arduino
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Arduino Langauge
Arduino
C++
Libs
C++
Libs
C++
Libs
Machine Language
(Binary Code)
Assembly
(Readable Code)
C / C++
(Readable Code)
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Hello World (Blink)

Hello World (Blink)


5
Variable

Hello World (Blink)


6
Comments

Hello World (Blink)


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Comments
Good Comment:
// Blue LED for Activity Indicator
Bad Comment:
// Pin 13

Hello World (Blink)


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Functions

Hello World (Blink)


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Functions

Hello World (Blink)


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Instruction

Hello World (Blink)


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Instruction

Hello World (Blink)


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Function Call

Hello World (Blink)


13Arguments

Hello World (Blink)

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IDE Tools Menu

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IDE Tools Menu

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IDE Tools Menu


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IDE Tools Menu


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Arduino IDE
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Type Stuff Here
Compiler Output

Arduino IDE
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Type Stuff Here
Compiler Output
Serial Monitor

Arduino IDE
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Type Stuff Here
Compiler Output
Serial MonitorVerify & Upload

Arduino IDE
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Type Stuff Here
Compiler Output
Serial MonitorVerify & Upload
Board & Serial Port

Blink Exercise
Load the Blink Example and
program it to your board
Change the values of delay()
to see how it affects the
behavior
Check the correct board and serial port are selected in the tools menu!

Hello World

Serial Example
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Serial objects

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Serial objects
Enables Serial
BaudRate
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Serial objects
Variables
Strings
Control Characters
Print
and Println
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Serial objects
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Variables
Strings
Control Characters
Print
and Println
NOTE: Strings and Variables Can t be used on the same line

Hello World (Serial)

Load up the serial code to the


right
Exercise:
Change the 2000 in delay
into a variable.
Print value of variable on
same line as Hello World
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Variables

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How Much Memory is


in your Arduino?

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Variable Types
Bits Unsigned Range Signed Range
byte 8
8
16
32
32
32
0 to 255
0 to 255
A .. b .. X
0 to 65535
0 to 4,294,967,295
3.4028235E+38
n/a
N/A
N/A
-32,767 to 32,766
-2,147,483,648 to
2,147,483,647
n/a
n/a
char
int
long
float
double
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Variable Do and Don t


DO Use Descriptive Names
BlueLED , ActivityIndicator
DON T Use Bad Names
Integer , Pin13
DO Stick to a naming convention
Variables are Case Sensitive!
DON T use same name for Local and Global Variables
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Variable Scope

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Variable Scope
Global
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Variable Scope
Global
Local to loop()
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Variable Don t!

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Variable Don t!

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Variable Don t!

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arrays
analogReadings[]
0 1 2 3 4 5
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arrays
analogReadings[]
0 1 2 3 4 5
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Size
Elements

arrays
analogReadings[]
0 1 2 3 4 5
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Size
Elements
arrays are
0-index based.
So last element
is always
1 less
than the size!

Pin Functions

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pinMode()
Analog(A0..A5)
Digital(0..13)
INPUT Digital Input,
Pull-Up Off
Digital Input,
Pull-Up On
Digital Output
Digital Input,
Pull-Up Off
Digital Input,
Pull-Up On
Digital Output
INPUT_PULLUP
OUTPUT
Analog Pins can be used as Digital Pins
pinMode(INPUT, Ax) isn t necessary for analogRead()

digitalRead() & digitalWrite()

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Pull-Up Resistor
INPUTs almost always need a Pull-Up or Pull-Down
pinMode(INPUT_PULLUP) Turns on the Internal Pull-Up Resistor
http://www.baldengineer.com/tutorials/arduino-pull-ups/

I/O Exercise

Objective: Understand Inputs


and Outputs
Exercise:
LED
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Fix

the random

Analog
Signal
Convert Digital
Value
10-bits, stored as 8-bits
Values 0 to 1023
Voltage
0v to 5v
5 volts
1023 Steps
= 4.887mV per Step
Calling analogRead() on an Analog Pin,
automatically converts to Input
Analog
Signal
Convert Digital
Value
10-bits, stored as 8-bits
Values 0 to 1023
Voltage
0v to 5v
5 volts
1023 Steps
= 4.887mV per Step
Calling analogRead() on an Analog Pin,
automatically converts to Input

analogWrite()
Actual AnalogPulse Width Modulation (PWM)
analogWrite() isn t Analog (Except on the Due)
Uno Pins: 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11

Analog Exercise

Connect Pin 6 to Analog 0


Run this code
Then, disconnect from Pin 6
While Running the Code
Remember to open the Serial Monitor!
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Analog Exercise

Connect Pin 6 to Analog 0


Run this code
Then, disconnect from Pin 6
While Running the Code
51 A0, A1, A2..A5 are integers!
Remember to open the Serial Monitor!

functions()

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Functions
Getting Data Back

Functions
Getting Data Back
Tip: The Arduino IDE, doesn t require

prototyping

Functions
Getting Data Back
Return Type
Arguments
Return
Function Name

Functions
Returning Nothing
Return Type
If the function doesn t return anything, declare it as void
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Function Exercise

Re-Write the built-in Blink


Example to use a Function
Exercise: add a argument to
adjust the delay time
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Control Structures

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if-statements

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if-statements

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if-statements

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if-statements

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control operators
== Equal to
Greater than>
>= (or equal)
Less Than<
<= (or equal)
Not Equal to!=
|| OR
AND
Bitwise OR
Bitwise AND
&&
|
&
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#1 if-statement mistake

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#1 if-statement mistake

= != ==
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for() loop example

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for() loop

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for() loop
Control Variable
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for() loop
Control Variable
Condition
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for() loop
Control Variable
Condition
Increment
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Array and For Exercise

Use an Array and two forloops to read analog inputs,


then display then
Notice the difference in
brackets between the two
loops
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while() loop

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while() loop
Condition
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while() loop
Condition
Loop conditions are same as
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if conditions

while() and Serial

This program echoes


whatever is on the serial buffer
back out
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More information?
Visit
baldengineer.com

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