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WEAK (p, q) INEQUALITIES FOR

FRACTIONAL INTEGRAL OPERATORS


ON GENERALIZED
NON-HOMOGENEOUS MORREY SPACES
Denny Ivanal HAKIM and Hendra GUNAWAN
Department of Mathematics, Bandung Institute of Technology
Bandung 41032, Indonesia

Abstract
In this paper, we prove weak (p, q) inequalities for fractional integral
operators on generalized non-homogeneous Morrey spaces for 1 p <
q < . The proof involves an inequality for the modified Hardy-Littlewood
maximal operator and the Chebyshev inequality. Our results generalize
those obtained by Garcia-Cuerva and Gatto [1] and also extend those by
Sihwaningrum et al. [5].
Key words: Fractional integral operators, generalized nonhomogeneous Morrey spaces, doubling condition, Chebyshev inequality.
11

Introduction

Let be a positive Borel measure on Rd. We say that the space (Rd, ) is nonhomogeneous if satisfies the growth condition of order n with 0 n d, that is, there
exists a constant C > 0 such that

(B(a, r)) C rn
for any ball B(a, r) centered at a Rd with radius r > 0. When 0 < n d, we define the fractional integral operator
I, for 0 < < n, by

I f(x) =

Rd

x y|n

d
for any suitable function f on
d R .
the Lebesgue measure on R , I is
introduced
by
Hardy
and

f(y)

d(y), x Rd,

Note that when n = d and = m being


the classical fractional integral operator
Littlewood [3] and Sobolev [6].

One of the important results about the classical fractional integral op-erator I is the
Hardy-Littlewood-Sobolev inequality, which amounts to the
boundedness of I from Lp(Rd) to Lq(Rd) for 1 < p < d and 1q

= p1 d .

Meanwhile, for p = 1, we have a weak type inequality for I: if


then there exists a constant C > 0 such that

1
q

=1

({
})
(fL1(Rd) )q
m x Rd : |If(x)| > C

for every > 0 (see [7]).


Next, for 1 p < , we define the non-homogeneous Lebesgue space
p
p d
L () = L (R , ) to be the set of all measurable functions f such that
(
)1/p
p
|
fLp() =
d(y) < .
f(y)
Rd
|
satisfies the so-called doubling
int
In [1], Garcia-Cuerva and
Gatto proved a weak type er
pol
inequality for I on these
1
r
whenever 2 s 2. One
spaces, as in the following ati
may observe that for any
on
theorem.
Note
function that satisfies the
th
that, if doubling condition, we have
n
Theorem 1.1 [1] If 1 p < eo
(r) =
1
1

n/p
1
and q = p n , then there re
r ,
exists a constant C > 0 such m,
then we
that
one mayget
obtain the boundedness of C
p,
1 L
() for every j Z and r > 0
and
p
({
= L (). (see [2]).
d
x R : |I
In this
A generalization of
paper,
Now,
for
1 Theorem
for every > 0.
1.1 on generalized
sider the generalized non-homogeneous
Morrey
space
we
shall non-homogeneous Morrey
Note that, by using Theorem which consists
always spaces
is given in the
of all functions
assum following theorem.
1.1 and Marcinkiewicz
e that
condition, that is, there exists a constant C > 0 such that

(r)
(s)

(2

j+1

r)

(t)

Theorem 1.2 [5] Suppose that

some [0, n ) we have rt

If

1
q

= 1

n ,
1,

function f L

C(r) for every r > 0 and for

dt

(t)dt Cr

+n

, r > 0.

then there exists a constant C > 0 such that for any


d

() and any ball B(a, r) R we have


f L1,()

{x B(a, r) : |If(x)| > } Cr (r)

(1.2)

for every > 0.

Note that, if (r) = r

and = 0, then this result reduces to the

previous inequality (1.1) for p = 1.

In this paper, we will prove weak type inequalities for I on generalized

non-homogeneous Morrey spaces which extend (1.2). We shall


use some inequality
involving the modified Hardy-Littlewood
n
maximal operator M , which is given by
1
n
M f (x) = sup

r>0 r

|f (y)| d (y) .

B(x,r)

In addition, we shall also invoke the Chebyshev inequality,


which is presented in the following theorem.
d

Theorem 1.3 [4] Let dbe a positive Borel measure on R and E be a


measurable subset of R . If f is an integrable function on E, then for every
> 0 we have

({x E : |f(x)| > })

|f(x)| d(x). E

Throughout the paper, C denotes a positive constant which is


indepen-dent of the function f and the variable x, and may have
dierent values from line to line.

2 Main Results
In the proof of Theorem 1.1, Garcia-Cuerva and Gatto [1] use the following
inequality which will also be useful for us here.

Lemma 2.1 [1] For any ball B(x, R) R , we have


1

B(x,R) |x y|n

d(y) C R.

(2.1)
In addition, to prove weak type inequalities for I, we also need the
following lemmas.
Lemma 2.2 Let 1 p < . If satisfies

(t)p

dt C(r)p

1r
for every r > 0, then for any function
d
B(a, r) R
we have

fL

p,

() and any ball

|f(y)| M B(a,r)(y)d(y) C r (r) ||f


R

p
Lp,().

(2.2)

Proof. The proof is adapted from [5]. Since satisfies the growth condition,
n
n
jn
we have M B(a,r)(y) C for y B(a, 2r) and M B(a,r)(y) C2 for y
j+1
j
B(a, 2 r)\B(a, 2 r) where j N. By using the definition of fLp,()
p

and the doubling condition of , we have

|f(y)| M B(a,r)(y)d(y)
R

B(a,2r)

+
j=1 B(a,2j+ 1r)\B(a,2j r)

|f(y)|pMn

(y)d(y)

|f(y)| M B(a,r)(y)d(y)

B (a,r)

C (

|f(y)| d(y) +
B(a,2r)

j =1

B(a ,2

j+1 r)\B(a,2j

C (2r)n(2r)pfLp,() +

(2

p,()
=0

C rn f p
L

p,

()

j= 0

C r fL
n

C r (r)

r
p
f Lp,(),

p,()

(t)

2j+1r

j+1 p

(2

r)

d(y) )

p
L

p,
()

2jn

j+1 p

r)

2j+1r (t)p

=1

C r fL

2jn

f(y)

|
r)

dt

dt
4

which is the desired inequality.


Lemma 2.3 Let B(y, R) be da ball centered at y R
then for any ball B(a, r) R we have
(x)
a,r)

with radius R > 0,

B(

|x y|
d(x) C R M B(a,r)(y).
n
Proof. By using the definition of the maximal operator M , we get
B(y,R)

B(y,R)

B (

|x y |n

a,r

d(x) =

(x)

j=

(a,r

(x)

B(y,2j+1R)\B(y,2j R)

1
j=

(2 R)

|x y |n

d(x)

3C

n
R M B B(a,r)(x) d(x)
j+1

(a,r)

22
n n
R M B(a,r)

B(y,2

(y)
for
every
> 0.

With Theorem 1.3 and


Lemmas 2.12.3, we are now
ready to prove weak type
Proof.
inequalities for I on
generalized nonFor
homogeneous Morrey spaces.

every
p < q x<
B(a,
Theorem 2.4 Let 1
(t)
r),
p
write

If(x)
p
r
t dt C (r)
for every r > 0, then for any = I1(x)
p,
function f L () and any + I2(x)
d
ball B(a, r) R we have where

({x B(a, r) : |
If(x)| > }) C
(fLp,() )q
rn(r)p
,

R)

j=

(y),
as desired.

(2.3)

fy

fy
()

I (x) =
1

B(x,R)

|x y|

()

d(y) and I2 (x) =

Rd\B(x,R)

|x y|

d(y).

By using Holders inequality and the definition of fLp,(), we get

|I (x)|
2

fy

Rd\B(x,R)

| ( )|

B(x,2j+1R)\B(x,2j R)

j=0

= 2n

j= 0

( )|

d(y)

y n

|
B(x,2j+1R) |f(y)|d(y)

B(x,2j+1R)

j=0

|f(y)|d(y)

(2j+1R)

(2 j+1 R) n

(2 j R)n

j=0

d(y)
f y

|x y|n

B(x,2j+1R)

|f(y)|pd(y)

j+1R)
(2
j+1n

(2

1/p

C fLp,()

(B(x, 2j+1R))

R)

(2j+1R)(2j+1R).

j=0

Since t t (t) satisfies the doubling condition, we have

t1(t) dt

2j+1R

|I (x)| Cf

L p,() j=0

2 R

= C fLp,()

1
(t)dt
R t

C fLp,()(R)p/q.
q/p

Let =
such that

. By our assumptions on , we can find R > 0

2Cf

Lp,()

, we obtain

For this

|I2(x)| C fLp,()

p/q

= 2.

Define E = {x B(a, r) : |If(x)| > }. Since |If(x)| |I1(x)| + |I2(x)|,

we have

}) .

({

(E ) x
2
B(a,
r) : |I1(x)|
> we get
By using Holders inequality and
the
inequality
(2.1),
f(y)
|I1(x)|

B(x,R)

p
|

d(y)

)(

p
B(x,R)

d(y)

1 p

C R(1

(
p )

B(x,R)

yp

( )|
y

|
6

d(y)) .

1
p

By using the last inequality, the Chebyshev inequality, the inequalities

(2.2) and (2.3), together with the condition r (r) C(r)

p/q

, we get

|f(y)|
(E )

B(a, r) :

({

p(1 p

2R

(p
R

1)

B(y,R)

a,r)

(x)

|x y|n d(x)d(y)
2

|f(y)| M B(a,r)(y)d(y)

p p
q

B(a,r)(x)d(y)d(x)

B(

Rp

(R)

d(y)d(x)

|x y|

C p

|x y|

fy

|f(y)|

2C R(1 p1 )

| ( )|

B(a,r) B(x,R)

B(x,R)

fy

| ( )|

Rd

d(y) >

Rd

R(p1)

=C

B(x,R)

) })

r (r) fL

p n

r (r) fL
f p,
L

C rn(r)p

p,()
q

()

p,()

This completes the proof.

Remark 2.5

(a) Note that (r) = r np and q = p n satisfy the hypotheses in Theorem


p,
p
2.4. Here L () = L (), and so we obtain

({x B (a, r) : |If(x)| > }) C

L ()

d
for every > 0. This inequality holds for any ball B(a, r) R , and so we
f p
have
q
L ()

({

})

x R : |If(x)| >
C
),

for every > 0, which is the inequality in Theorem 1.1.


1

1/q
(b) By substituting q = 1 n for some [0, n) to r (r) C(r) ,
we have
for every r > 0. Hence,

(r) Cr

(t)dt C r

+n

for every r > 0, which is

one of the hypotheses in Theorem 1.2.


7

(c) In [5], the weak type inequality for I on generalized non-homogeneous


Morrey space is
obtained as a consequence of the weak type inequality for Mn on generalized nonhomogeneous Morrey spaces and a Hedberg type inequality for I. In this paper, we use
Chebyshev inequality and a mild

condition on , namelyr>0inf (r) = 0, in addition to the doubling condition.

Acknowledgement. This research is supported by ITB Research and Innovation Program 2013.

References
[1] J. Garcia-Cuerva and A.E. Gatto (2004), Boundedness properties of
fractional integrals associated to non-doubling measures, Studia
Math. 162(3), 245261.
[2] H. Gunawan (2003), A note on the generalized fractional integral operators, J. Indonesian Math. Soc. 9(1), 3943.
[3] G.H. Hardy and J.E. Littlewood (1927), Some properties of fractional
integrals. I, Math. Zeit. 27, 565606.
[4] H.L. Royden and P.M. Fitzpatrick (2010), Real Analysis (Fourth Edition), Pearson, London.
[5] I. Sihwaningrum, S. Maryani, H. Gunawan (2012), Weak type
inequal-ities for fractional integral operators on generalized nonhomogeneous Morrey spaces, Anal. Theory Appl. 28(1), 6572.
[6] S.L. Sobolev (1938), On a theorem in functional analysis (Russian), Mat.
Sob. 46, 471497 [English translation in Amer. Math. Soc. Transl. ser.
2 34(1963), 3968].

[7]

E.M. Stein (1970), Singular Integrals and Dierentiability Properties of Functions,


Princeton University Press, New Jersey.