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CORROSION ALLOWANCE

Corrosion allowance dalam suatu desain dimaksudkan untuk mengantisipasi tingkat


safety suatu equipment agar tetap reliable saat beroperasi. Intinya tanpa diberi corrosion
allowance pun suatu equipment tetap safe dipakai karena gaya atau beban yang bekerja
masih di bawah nilai yield stress material yang digunakan namun dengan kondisi tidak
terjadi aliran fluida yang erosif.
Kalau kondisi operasinya melibatkan kondisi fluida yang erosif maka tidak mungkin
CA=0, terlepas dari apakah fluidanya bersifat asam atau basa.
Dalam suatu desain peralatan yang melibatkan aliran fluida e.g. pipe or tube, nilai
corrosion allowance selalu diikutsertakan tanpa melihat apakah fluida yang terlibat
dalam proses akan menyebabkan terjadinya jenis korosi lain seperti localized corrosion
(e.g pitting), SCC, HIC, dan lain sebagainya. Hal ini dimaksudkan untuk memudahkan
estimasi life time peralatan tersebut.
Apabila suatu pipa/tube nilai CAnya sudah habis, maka pipa/ tube itu masih bisa
beroperasi secara aman. Hal ini merujuk pada perhitungan berdasarkan ASME/API,
karena biasanya tebal pipa/tube dibulatkan lebih tinggi dari tebal minimum berdasarkan
nilai allowable stress-nya (dengan catatan, kegagalan hanya disebabkan akibat penipisan
dan bukan oleh jenis lain seperti SCC, galvanik, creep, dsb). Namun biasanya untuk
langkah aman yaitu bila nilai CAnya sudah habis, maka pipe/tube tersebut diganti.

http://blogmamet.blogspot.co.id/2011/01/corrosion-allowance.html

What is Corrosion Allowance?


By knowing the expected general corrosion rate and the anticipated plant or service
life of a part, the designer can calculate the extra thickness required for corrosion
resistance of the process equipment being designed.
After determining a wall thickness that meets mechanical requirements, such as
pressure, temperature and weight of equipment, an extra thickness called "corrosion
allowance" is added to the wall thickness to comensate for the metal expected to be
lost over the life of the equipment. Then, because the penetration depth cab very, a
corrosion allowance is assigned a safety factor of two.

Example:
A tank wall required a 5 mm wall thickness for mechanical considerations. The
designer has determined that the corrosion rate will be 0.4 mm/yr and the expected
life of the tank will be 10yr. The total corrosion allowance is the corrosion rate per
year (0.4 mm x 10 yr = 4 mm).
The corrosion allowance is doubled to 8 mm as a safety consideration.

Calculation of Corrosion Allowance


Corrosion allowance is not only determined by the designer, but also and especially
by a state or local agency. The latter often have years of experience with local
conditions and especially the weather conditions in a relevant area.

Humidity, temperature, rain, wind, impurities and metal wet times have an effect on
the corrosion rate. Corrosion occurs when the relative humidity of the air is 70 to
80%. Corrosion reaction is possible generally when the temperature is above 0C
and the relative humidity is over 80% (the surface is wet). Air impurities that
dissolve in condensed water or rain water may accelerate corrosion. Settling of dust
and dirt on the metal surface accelerates atmospheric corrosion.

Corrosion rates are expressed in terms of mm per year of surface wastage and are
used to provide a corrosion allowance in the design thickness of equipment such as
vessels and pipework.
Operators will often use data based on historical experience from plant operations to
aid them in determining appropriate corrosion allowances. Alternatively corrosion
charts are widely available that give corrosion rates for many combinations of
materials of construction and process fluids and normally a range of values will be
provided for various process temperatures.
In some instances, particularly where there is a mixture of chemicals present,
appropriate data may not exist and corrosion tests may be necessary in order to
determine the suitability of equipment. Operators should be able to demonstrate the
use of corrosion allowances in equipment specification and design. The sources of
data used should be traceable.
As far as I know, there is no corrosion allowance exactly specified in ASME B31.3.
Corrosion allowances are normally established by the end user and are somewhat
based on personal preferences and industry tradition. 1.5 mm for piping is a
common standard, but you are free to set a corrosion allowances you wish, unless a
state or local agency has adopted and superceded B31.3. To specify the pipe, add
the corrosion allowance to the minimum design thickness and select a pipe schedule
that is equal to or greater than the minimum + corrosion allowance.

Below are two tables with guidelines for corrosion


allowance
Corrosion allowance for steel pipes
Superheated steam
Saturated steam
Steam coils in cargo tanks and liquid fuel tanks
Feed water for boilers in open circuit systems
Feed water for boilers in closed circuit systems
Blow-down systems for boilers
Compressed air
Hydraulic oil
Lubricating oil
Fuel oil
Thermal oil
Fresh water
Sea water

mm
0.3
0.8
2.0
1.5
0.5
1.5
1.0
0.3
0.3
1.0
1.0
0.8
3.0

Refrigerants referred to in Section 13


Cargo systems for oil tankers
Cargo systems for ships carrying liquefied gases

0.3
2.0
0.3

Notes:

For pipes passing through tanks, an additional corrosion allowance is to be considered


in order to account for the external corrosion.

Note 2: The corrosion allowance of pipes efficiently protected against corrosion may
be reduced by no more than 50%.

Note 3: When the corrosion resistance of alloy steels is adequately demonstrated, the
corrosion allowance may be disregarded.

Corrosion allowance for non-ferrous metal pipes


Copper
Brass
Copper-tin alloys
Copper-nickel alloys with less than 10% of Ni
Copper-nickel alloys with at least 10% of Ni
Aluminium and aluminium alloys

mm
0,8
0,8
0,8
0,8
0,5
0,5

Notes:

The corrosion allowance for other materials will be specially considered by the Society.
Where their resistance to corrosion is adequately demonstrated, the corrosion
allowance may be disregarded.

Note 2: In cases of media with high corrosive action, a higher corrosion allowance
may be required by the Society.

Interesting articles
Design and lay-out for corrosion prevention.
Use of the corrosion allowance has more likely lead to more problems than it has solved.

Corrosion Allowance general


The corrosion allowance is a measure which is used in the maintenance applications.
A corrosion allowance of 3.0 mm means that e.g. a wall thickness without any
problem may be decrease with 3.0 mm.

Mind you, that does not mean than the minimum wall thickness is achieved and the
object has reached its end of life.
Example: a piece of equipment has a wall thickness of 10 mm with a corrosion
allowance of 3.0 mm. With a wall thickness of 7.0 mm action is required because the
specified corrosion allowance is completely consumed.
Some attention points when the corrosion allowance almost of completely is
consumed.

What is the corrosion rate. Is it linear or progressive occurred.

What was the wall thickness during construction.

Are there baseline measurements are available.

Are the process conditions changed.

Is there erosion occurred in combination with corrosion.

Can we get the next inspection period.

What is the structural wall thickness that is needed.

Should we make a recalculation.

Wall thickness monitoring during process (Preventive control).

Must the equipment to be replaced at the next shut-down.

Must be the same material used for eventual replacement.

The wall thickness measurements are reliable.


Paint-and temperature can affect the measurement results.

Is the decline occurred internal or external, or a combination of both.

Can equipement remain in use or should it be taken out of service.

Remark(s) of the Author...

My opinion about Corrosion Allowance

A gentleman named Allen Hazen, a brilliant chemistry student at MIT in


1888, says:
"It is my feeling that it will not generally pay to increase the thickness of
steel plates very greatly because of this consideration (viz., that
thickening the plates will not cure the trouble but will merely prolong the
life of the metal), but that the money will be better spent in better
coating and in more careful inspection of the steel plates, or, in other
words, by preventing the pitting instead of trying to make the plate thick
enough so that the pitting will not go through it."
This statement of Mr. Hazen is to think about corrosion allowance...or
not?

Only after years life testing, I think it is possible to approach the reality.
Calculations depend on hundreds of factors, in my opinion gives no
assurance that proper corrosion allowance will be applied.
I have worked on a process plant with a minimum life-time of 15-20
years.
After 7 years (probably earlier) were the first seriously corrosion
problems identified, while one of the largest and most experienced
engineering companies the plant has been designed.
Ok, engineering companies are highly experienced and will be carry out
the best surface treatment, but...If the correct paint specification is
found, there are unfortunately many other problems that still cause
corrosion occurs.

How a engineering company can guarantee, that during the construction


of a new plant, all field-welds get the proper surface treatment? No
Guarantee !

How a engineering company can guarantee that after the completion of a


new plant, all insulation is waterproof? No Guarantee !

How a engineering company can guarantee that...etc. etc..

We humans can be much, but are powerless against Mother Nature.

http://www.wermac.org/materials/corrosion_allowance.html