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E4

1. The solutions classified as strong are: 1.00 M HCl, 1.00 M NaOH, 1.00 NaCl, 1.00
M CH3COON, 2.00 M NH3+2.00 M HCl and 2.00 M NH3 + 2.00 M CH3COOH. The
weak solutions are:
2. sa degree of ionization------- HCL is greater in ionization and a stronger acid than CH3COOH and a
stronger electrolyte same as to NaOH and NH3--- (NaOH is stronger base than NH3)---- strong acids and
bases are stronger electrolytes

HCL is completely (or nearly 100%) ionized because it is a strong acid whereas the CH3COOH is
partially ionized as it is a weak acid.
3. NH3+CH3COOH = CH3COONH4 + H2O -------- weak acid and weak base = a strong salt and so a
stronger electrolyte
4. Acetic acid - like many organic acids do not ionise completely in strong solutions. Glacial Acetic acid is
+ 90 % concentrated. As one go on diluting it with water, it produces more ions. ions are responsible for
carrying the charge - conductivity. That is why - on dilution conductance of the solution increases,and
produce more bright indication.

E1
1.
2. 1) To avoid splashing.
(2) To keep the solid zinc pieces from touching (as much as possible). This increases the surface area of
the zinc in contact with the Copper (II) sulfate solution.
(3) The heat generated by the reaction can be substantial. By adding the zinc slowly, you avoid heating
the solution getting too warm.
3. Although the presence of copper(II) ions in solution is usually visible (blue color), as the concentration
drops, they may not be obvious. A test with concentrated NH3 solution will show up as either Cu(OH)2
solid suspended in solution, or as much darker blue [Cu(NH3)4]2+ ions. The test reveals any copper ions
which have not been converted to copper metal.
4.

This was done to cleanse the copper of any remaining particles of zinc.

5. It's a problem if you want to keep it copper metal and not convert it to copper (II) oxide. Hot Cu will
react with the oxygen in the air to make CuO.

2Cu(s) + O2 --> 2CuO(s)