Anda di halaman 1dari 29


Lesson 1
Vocabulary Reference
Session 2 - News Review
(here) a device for gathering information
the circular path one object takes around another in space
vehicle used in space
(here) difficult or dangerous
(here) the centre

Session 3 - LingoHack
on such a scale
(here) of a large size
ability to make good decisions
on record
officially measured
people who cut down trees
moving around a planet or star

Session 4 - Treasure Island: 9 uses of 'time'

a long time (A2)
a lot of time
in no time (C1)
very quickly; soon
only a matter of time (C1)
it will definitely happen
at times (C1)
occasionally; sometimes
as time goes by (C1)
as time passes

at one time or another (C2)

at an unspecified time, usually in the past
time after time (C2)
again and again
in no time (C1)
very quickly; soon
time-consuming (C1)
taking a long time to do

Grammar Reference
Relative clauses
Meaning and use
Relative clauses are used to give additional information about a noun, such as a person, place or
thing. Relative pronouns introduce a relative clause. They include who for
people, that and which for things, when for time, and whose to show possession.
Relative clauses belong to one of two categories: defining relative clauses and nondefining relative clauses.
1. Defining relative clauses add essential information to a sentence.
The woman who found my wallet handed it in to reception.
The student whose dog has run away has gone to look for it.
I remember the day when we first met.
These are the earrings that my mother gave me.
These clauses give essential information about the subject of the sentence. They define
the person, time or thing that we are talking about. If we remove the clause, the sentence does not
make sense.
2. Non-defining relative clauses add extra information to a noun or noun phrase.
My friends birthday, which was last weekend, was great fun.
My current girlfriend, who I love very much, calls me every night.
This extra information is not essential. If we remove the clause, the sentence still makes sense. This
type of clause is more common in written English.

Defining relative clauses are made with noun + relative pronoun + rest of clause.
A kangaroo is an animal which lives in Australia.
The man who came for lunch was my uncle.
Winter is a time when it sometimes snows.
Non-defining relative clauses are made in the same way. An important difference, however,
between both types of clause, is the use of punctuation. With non-defining relative clauses, we
separate the clause with commas. We cannot use that in this type of clause.

My favourite food, which used to be Italian, is now Japanese.

Rachel, who we met yesterday, lives in this neighbourhood.
My car, which I bought seven years ago, needs replacing.
This shirt, which I bought last weekend, cost 50.
My best friend, who I met at university, is coming for dinner.

Take note: replacing the relative pronoun

In informal communication, relative pronouns, such as who and when, are commonly replaced
with that in defining relative clauses.
The woman that called last night was very polite.
Do you remember the time that you first met?

Take note: leaving out the relative pronoun

When using defining relative clauses in informal speech and writing, the relative pronoun can
be left out completely if it refers to the object of the relative clause.
This is the shirt that I bought.
This is the shirt I bought.
The girl who I like isnt here yet.
The girl I like isnt here yet.
In non-defining relative clauses, the relative pronoun cannot be left out.

Take note: spoken English

The relative pronoun who is used when referring to people. However, in formal written and spoken
English, if the pronoun refers to the object of the clause, we use whom instead.
My German teacher, whom I really admired, retired last year.
The woman whom I called this morning was my secretary.

Session 5 - Tim's pronunciation workshop

Assimilation of /t/ and /p/
When a word ending in a /t/ sound is followed by a word beginning in a /p/ sound,
sometimes, the two sounds come together - with the /t/ sound changing to /p/. Some
examples of phrases where this might happen include:
A piece of white paper
A split personality
I hate pears

Lesson 2
Vocabulary Reference
Session 2 - News Review
set to
ready to / likely to
to become
is going to become
follow in someone's footsteps
to do something (normally a job) which someone has done before you
take the reins
to take control of something

Session 3 - Lingohack
needs quick action
(here) place where an incident happened
bad health caused by a poor diet
(adjective) named informally by many people

Session 4 - Oliver Twist: 7 uses of 'light'

light (B1)
make something start to burn
light (B1)
shed light on (C2)
give new information to help explain a situation
light (A1)
pale in colour
out like a light (C1)
sleeping deeply
in the light of (C1)
because of certain facts
brings to light (C2)
reveals something previously unknown

Grammar Reference
Will, going to, be likely to and might
Form - will and might
For will and might, the form is subject + will / might + infinitive.
We use the same form for all persons (I, you, he, she, and so on). You can contract will to'll in the
positive form - we normally do this in spoken language.
The new smartphone will have all sorts of special features.
We'll be connected 24/7 when everywhere has free wifi.
I've ordered a new phone for the office. It might arrive today.
This video call will not last long - we only have one thing to discuss.
We won't see much change in keyboard layouts for the next few years.
There might not be any announcements about the new technology room today - don't count
on it!
We can use the contracted form won't for all persons (I, you, he, she, and so on). Sometimes we
contract might not to mightn't, especially in speaking.

Form - going to and be likely to

For going to and likely to, the form is subject + am/are/is + going to/likely to + infinitive. We can
contract I am (I'm), you are/we are/they are (you're/we're/they're) and he is/she is (he's/she's).
They're going to announce a new line of laptops soon.
The line is going to come out in September. It's going to be all over the news.
It's likely to be a major advance in computing technology.
Some people say technology isn't going to change our lives that much.
We aren't going to see the smartring any time soon.
The negative of likely is unlikely.
The new smartwatches are unlikely to be a big revolution in technology.
To form questions with will, going to and likely, it's auxiliary (Will/Am/Is/Are) + subject + verb.
We often use short answers.
Will this new smartwatch change my life? No, it won't.
Are they going to announce the software release today? Yes, they are.
Is it likely to be any better than the previous version? No, it isn't.
We can also make questions with question words.
When will they sort out the computers at work?
Who will win the tech race?

Where are they going to release the new phone first?

It is possible to ask a question with Might + subject + infinitive, but it's more common to form a
question with Do you think + subject + might + infinitive.
Do you think this might change computing as we know it?

Important note: Will and might

Remember that will and might are modal verbs, so we use the infinitive without to after them.
People will to go on holiday to the moon within 50 years.
They might to make a computer that is really small.
People will go on holiday to the moon within 50 years.
They might make a computer that is really small.

Session 5 - Tim's pronunciation workshop

Linking /r/
Words that end with an // sound are often pronounced with an /r/ sound at the end, which links to
the next word if that word begins with a vowel sound. Some examples of phrases where this might
happen include:
Can somebody call for an ambulance?
I haven't read War and Peace.
You've got something in your eye.

Lesson 3

Vocabulary Reference
use the words or ideas of someone else and pretend they are your own
rip off
steal something or copy something
a rip-off
something that is not worth the price OR something which is a copy of something else
bear a striking similarity
to have a very strong similarity

Session 3 - Lingohack
person who applies for a job or a post
very critical
general development in a situation

Session 4 - The Rue Morgue: 8 uses of 'run'

make your blood run cold (C2)
make you feel very scared
run (A1)
move fast by taking steps that are much quicker than walking
running (B2)
run up against (something) (C2)
start to experience a problem
runs through (C2)
thinks about
running through (his head) (C2)
thinking about
run the risk of (C2)
do something that might cause something bad to happen
runs away (B2)
escapes; leaves somewhere quickly and/or secretly
runs after (B1)

Grammar Reference

Uses of the present

Present time
We use the present simple tense for things that we do regularly and for facts, habits, truths and
permanent situations. We often use time expressions like every day, once a week, on Fridays.
I check my email every day. (regular activity)
Yuki works at the bank. (permanent situation)

Future time
We use the present simple to talk about timetabled future events
I'd better hurry, my bus leaves in 5 minutes.
The exam starts at 9

Past time
1) Telling a story
This makes the events more immediate and exciting for the listener.
Last year I was swimming off the coast in NZ when suddenly I see a shark fin heading
towards me
2) Newspaper headlines
Journalists often use the present not the past in newspaper headlines to make newspaper stories
more exciting, fresh and immediate.
Man dies in forest fire.
3) With hear, tell, gather, say
This puts more emphasise on the information we heard rather than the fact you heard it.
I hear you're getting married!
She says she didn't like the present!
4) When telling jokes
This makes the joke more immediate and dramatic for the listener (even if the joke is not very
A man walks into a bar...

Session 5 - Tim's pronunciation workshop

'Twinning' or gemination

When one word ends in a /s/ sound and the next word begins with a /s/ sound, they come together to
make a slightly longer /s/ sound. So, he looks sadbecomes he lookssad. Native speakers of English
often use gemination when they say phrases like these:

She's silly.
He's sitting over there.
Can you come this Saturday?
That's so unfair!

Lesson 4
Vocabulary Reference
Session 2 - News Review
keep something away (for example: insects/water) by being unattractive or unpleasant to it
something/someone repels you
you find something/someone disgusting or unpleasant and want to stay away from it/them
prevent/discourage someone from doing something by making it difficult or unpleasant for them to
do it
a pun
a funny way of using a word so that more than one meaning is suggested
steer clear of
avoid someone or something

Session 3 - Lingohack
breaking through
forcefully opening the way through (a barrier)
failed to be achieved
very large fires
before its expected time

Session 4 - Little Red Riding Hood

cut out (C1)
stop eating

to cut a long story short (C1)

to only talk about the most important or interesting details
cut (someone) short (C2)
stop (someone) from finishing what they are saying or doing
shortcut (B2)
different route or direction that saves time
cut to the chase (C2)
don't waste time, just get to the important bit
cutting down (A2)
making a tree fall to the ground by cutting it near the base
woodcutters (B2)
people whose job is to cut down trees
cut (someone/something) up (B1)
use a sharp tool to separate something into pieces
cutbacks (C2)
reductions in money available to spend
cutting remark (C1)
a cruel comment intended to upset someone

Grammar Reference
Linking words of contrast
We use words and phrases like though, although and even though to link two clauses together. We
call them linking words of contrast. We use despite and in spite of in front of nouns and gerunds.
Marta broke her leg a year ago. Marta ran a marathon last weekend.
Despite breaking her leg a year ago, Marta ran a marathon last weekend.
Binh loves football. Binh has never been to a professional football match.
Though Binh loves football, he's never seen a professional match.

Where to use them

Although, even though and though go in front of a clause. They can go at the beginning or middle
of a sentence.

Although Endang worked hard, she failed her exams.

Endang failed her exams, although she worked hard.
Though it was cold, Katya only wore a t-shirt.
Katya only wore a t-shirt, though it was cold.

Despite and in spite of go in front of nouns or gerunds. They can also go at the beginning or middle
of sentences.
Despite smoking 40 cigarettes a day, my grandfather lived to 100.
My grandfather lived to 100, despite smoking 100 cigarettes a day.

In spite of the terrible weather, they had a nice holiday.

They had a nice holiday, in spite of the terrible weather.
Session 5 - Tim's pronunciation workshop

Elison of /t/
When a /t/ sound comes between two consonant sounds, it is often not pronounced. Fluent English
speakers may not pronounce the /t/ sound in these phrases:
I can't do it
We must go
Are we the first people here?

Lesson 4

Vocabulary Reference

Session 2 - News Review

very dirty
waste water from toilets
teeming with
containing a large number of
not surprised or worried
areas of Brazilian cities where the housing is very poor

Session 3 - Lingohack
(here) expressed doubts about
from a distance

Session 4 - Pride and Prejudice

looking for (A1)
trying to find
has the looks (C2)
appears intelligent and/or handsome
the look of (B2)
the appearance of
looks on (C1)
has a particular opinion
looks like (B1)
looking to (C2)
planning to
looks as if (B2)
appears to be
looks over (C2)
look down on (B2)
believe that someone is less important than you

look up (C1)
look forward to (C2)
be excited and happy about a future event

Grammar Reference
Stative verbs in the continuous form
Verbs with two meanings
Some state verbs can be used in the continuous form to talk about a temporary action or an action
happening in the present. However, some state verbs can be used as action verbs in the present
continuous form with a change of meaning. Here are some examples:
Bernard looks healthy. (his appearance now)
I was looking out the window at the rain. (watching the rain)
Does Maria have a piano? (own)
They are having lunch with their mother today. (eating)
I don't hear the music playing. (hear with my ears)
Our manager will be hearing our presentation today. (will be listening to)
Lola feels that we were rude. (thinks)
How has your father been feeling? (how is his health)
That perfume smells good. (has a good scent)
The boy is smelling the flowers. (sniffing at)
The new baby weighs 3 kg. (her weight is 3 kg)
The woman is weighing the apples. (measuring their weight)
They are good writers. (it's a fact)
Bob is being crazy. (behaving in a crazy way)
What do you see on the wall? (notice with your eyes)
They are seeing their cousins tomorrow. (will visit)

Informal English
In very informal English, the continuous form is sometimes used with state verbs. An example is
the restaurant advertisement that says, Im loving it! You might also hear someone say, Im
hating this movie. The -ing form of the verbs in these examples have a sense of being temporary.
(Right now) Im hating this movie.
(General opinion) I like the move I saw last week.

Session 5 - Tim's pronunciation workshop

Intrusive /r/

In fluent speech, if a word ends in an // sound and the next word begins with an //,
you'll often hear a /r/ sound linking them together, in phrases like these:
Law and order is important.
I ate four or five cakes.
We saw a good film.
It doesn't happen in all accents and some people say it's not the proper way to speak. But it is
something you will hear, although the /r/ sound is often not very strong. You may hear it in
sentences like these:
Can you draw a circle freehand?
We saw a good film last night.

Lesson 6
Vocabulary Reference
Session 2 - News Review
person with a strong belief in a certain cause who takes action to achieve their aims
hunger strike
time during which someone refuses to eat as a protest
period of time when a person chooses not to eat
Here used as an adjective used to describe a person who is mentally and emotionally strong

Session 3 - Lingohack
asking oneself
to log
to make an official record
elegant and fashionable
made public in a ceremony

Session 4 - Robin Hood: 9 uses of 'stand'

stand up for (B2)
give support to; defend
can't stand (B1)

strongly dislike
don't stand a chance (C2)
have little possibility of success
stand for (C2)
represents an idea or priniciple
stand to lose (C2)
be in a situation where you may lose an advantage
won't stand for (C1)
refuse to accept or allow a situation
stand out (B2)
be noticeably better than other people
stands by (B2)
supports someone in a difficult situation
stands (C1)
remains; exists in a place

Grammar Reference
Infinitives of purpose
We use infinitives of purpose to explain why we're doing something:
You're watching this video to get better at speaking English.
We can also use for + somebody to explain that we're doing an action on behalf of someone else:
We make these videos for you to get better at English.
In more formal English, we can use in order to or so as to to express purpose:
The government has raised taxes in order to fund the NHS.
People have taken to the streets so as to protest against the increase in taxes
We can add 'not' to make these negative - so as not to and in order not to:
He paid the fine in order not to go to prison.
I've worked really hard all my life so as not to be poor.
We can use the infinitive of purpose after a noun, pronoun or indefinite pronoun to explain what
we need it for or, what we intend to do with it:
I want a house to live in.
Do you have any more food to cook?
Do you have anything to eat?

Session 5 - Tim's pronunciation workshop

This is the most common sound in English. It's never stressed and appears in all kinds
of word from articles and prepositions to nouns with more than one syllable:
That was a mistake
I had an apple for lunch
I like a cup of tea in the morning

Lesson 7
Vocabulary Reference
Session 2 - News Review
an upset
when someone beats the team or player that was expected to win
pull something off
to succeed in doing something that is difficult
egg somebody on
encourage someone or urge someone to do something (especially something they shouldn't do)
a situation in which there is a lot of noise or craziness because people are excited, angry, or

Session 3 - Lingohack
medal tally
number of medals won
feeds on
eats, consumes (especially for animals)
breaking the rules of a competition

Session 4 - Pygmalion: 8 uses of 'round'

driving him around the bend (C2)
making him very annoyed
comes round (C2)
begins to accept something previously rejected
round and round (B2)
moving in a circular direction

round the clock (C1)

all day and all night
round (A2)
on all sides (of something)
goes round to (A2)
in a roundabout kind of way (C2)
more or less; sort of
round off (B2)
finish; complete (something)

Grammar Reference
Conditionals review
Meaning and use
Conditional sentences express a connection between two actions or states. One thing happens
because of another. These connections can be general, specific, likely, unlikely, real or imagined.
Although there are quite a few different ways of forming conditional sentences there are common
patterns known as zero, first, second and third conditionals.
Zero conditionals
Used to refer to general truths, scientific facts and the predictable results of particular actions. One
thing happens and because of this something else happens. In zero conditionals if and when have
the same meaning.
If you heat water enough, it boils.
When he scores, he celebrates by making a heart shape with his hands.
When its raining, he stays indoors.
First conditionals
Used when we want to talk about something that is likely to happen in the future after a specific set
of circumstances, the condition. If is used is when the condition is possible andwhen is used when
the condition is certain to happen.
If I go to the shops, Ill get some bread. (I might not go to the shops)
When I go to the shops, Ill get some bread. (Im definitely going to the shops)
If youve finished your homework by six, you can go out and play.
When youre having your party, please keep the noise down!
Second conditionals
Refer to an imagined present result of an unlikely or impossible present condition.

If I had the money, Id travel around the world. (I dont have the money)
If I were you, Id think about leaving him. (Im not you)
Third conditionals
Refer to an imagined past result of something that didnt happen in the past.
If I had known you were coming, I wouldnt have prepared the cheese dish.
(I didnt know you were coming. I prepared a cheese dish.)
If I had known then what I know now, I wouldnt have wasted so much time at university.
(I didnt know then what I know now. I did waste a lot of time at university.)

Conditional sentences usually have two parts. There is the if clause (sometimes called
theconditional clause) and the result clause (sometimes called the main clause). The clauses can
come in any order.
If the if clause is first, the two clauses are separated by a comma.
There is no comma if the result clause is first.
Zero conditional
If clause:
if/when + present simple
Result clause:
present simple
When I turn it on, it makes a funny noise.
If you multiply ten by twelve, what do you get?
Milk goes bad if you leave it out too long.
First conditional
If clause:
if/when + present simple
Result clause:
will / 'll + infinitive without to / imperative
If it rains, youll get wet.
If it rains, put your coat on.
If youre leading at half time, Ill let your dad know.
If youve won, give me a call as soon as possible.
Second conditional
If clause:
if + past simple (exception: verb 'to be' takes 'were' in 1st and 2nd person)
Result clause:
would / 'd + infinitive without to
If I knew what was wrong, Id fix it myself.
Id be out on my bike if it werent raining so hard.

Third conditional
If clause:
if + past perfect
Main clause:
would / 'd + have / 've + past participle
If I'd known it'd break, I wouldn't have tried to pick it up.
If you hadn't insisted on changing your shirt we wouldn't've missed the bus.
Take note: modals
Most first, second and third conditional clauses commonly use will or would but it is possible to
use other modal auxiliaries instead. For example:
First conditional
If you go to the shops, can you get some bread, please?
If you go to the shops, could you get some bread, please?
If I go to the beach at the weekend, I might try out my new wet suit.
If I get a phone call this afternoon, it may be good news.
When we go on holiday this year, we should book a nicer hotel.
Second conditional
If I had enough money, I could travel around the world.
If I were elected, I might be able to do some good.
Third conditional
If youd told me earlier, I couldve done something about it.
If we had caught the right bus, we mightve been on time.

Take note: mixed conditionals

Mixed conditionals combine the structure of type 2 and type 3 conditionals when the time (past,
present and future) referred to in the if and result clauses are not the same.
Mixed conditionals can refer to:
something that didnt happen in the past and the result of that condition in the present
If you hadnt left the map at home, we wouldnt be lost.
(You left the map at home in the past. We are lost now.)
something that wont happen in the future and the result of that condition on the past
If I werent going on holiday next week, I could have accepted that offer of work.
(I am going on holiday in the future which is why I didnt accept the offer of work in the past.)

Session 5 - Tim's pronunciation workshop

Linking /w/
When fluent speakers of English say a word that ends with an /u:/ sound, followed by a word
beginning with a vowel sound, they often use a soft /w/ sound to link the two words together. Some
examples of phrases where this might happen include:
The shoe is on the wrong foot.
I can't do it.

You are welcome.

Lesson 8
Vocabulary Reference
Session 2 - News Review
kick off
begin or cause something to begin
pass the baton
give responsibility for something important to another person or group
wrap up
finish something
look carefully or closely

Session 3 - Lingohack
look carefully or closely
thought something was lower than it really was
put (something) down to
(phrasal verb) gave something as a reason for something else

Session 4 - Dr Jekyll & Mr Hyde: 9 uses of 'sound'

sound out (B2)
talk to someone to find out their thoughts and ideas
by the sound of it (C2)
basing your ideas on information you have heard or read
sounds (B2)
doesn't like the sound of [something] (C1)
is unhappy about a situation he has heard about
not a sight or sound of [someone] (C2)
nobody has seen or heard from [someone]
sounds strange (A2)
seems unusual
sound (A2)
something that can be heard
sounds as though (B1)
appears to be true, based on what you have heard
sounds like (B1)
(also) appears to be true, based on what you have heard

Grammar Reference
5 ways you can use past forms to talk about times other than the past
1. When a plan isn't certain
I was thinking of going to that party later.
In this example, the use of the past continuous makes the plan less definite in the speaker's mind
than if she had used a present continuous sentence I am thinking of going to the party later.
2. To be polite
I was wondering if your report was ready.
In this example, the use of the past continous and past simple make the speaker sound more polite
than if he had used present tenses I am wondering if your report is ready. This is because the past
sounds less direct.
3. To sound more urgent
It's time we left.
In this example, the use of the past tense makes the speaker sound more urgent than if she had used
the present tense It's time to leave. By using the past, the speaker gives the idea that we should have
left already.
4. With 'wish' and 'if only'
I wish I had more time.
If only I had more time.
After wish and if only, we have to use the past tense. Present tenses are not correct. However, these
sentences have a hypothetical present of future meaning.
5. With 'suppose' and 'what if'
Suppose we went on holiday to Thailand.
What if we finished before the deadline?
When we use past tenses after suppose and what if, the situation sounds less likely than if we had
used present tenses Suppose we go on holiday to Thailand.

Past simple and past continuous review

Meaning and use
We use the past simple for something that happened and finished in the past. We use it when we say
or know the time when something happened. It is often used in stories, when one thing happened
after another.
Last year, we travelled by jeep across the Sahara.
When the car stopped, we all got out.
We use the past continuous for something that happened in the past but was not finished at a
particular time. This can be an exact time in the past (12 oclock, etc.) or the time when another
thing happened.
It was 12 oclock and we were standing in the midday sun.
Mick was checking the engine when the rescue helicopter arrived.

We also use the past continuous to describe a scene or situation in the past or for an action that
continued for some time.
The stars were beginning to come out.
The dog was barking loudly.

Past simple: positive
For regular verbs, the past simple ends in -ed. Irregular verbs have different forms. The past simple
form is the same for all persons (I, you, he, she, etc).
Suddenly the jeep skidded and stopped.
Jake thought that we had a puncture.
Past continuous: positive
The past continuous is subject + was/were + -ing form. There are no short forms ofwas/were.
Fortunately, we were carrying a toolkit.
Past simple: negative
We make the negative past simple with didnt + infinitive.
We didnt stay inside the jeep because that was even hotter.
Past continuous: negative
We make the negative past continuous with wasnt/werent + -ing form
Despite the heat, Jess and Debs werent wearing hats.
Past simple: question
The past simple question form is did + subject + infinitive for all persons. The short answers
are Yes, I did. / No, I didnt.
Did the helicopter land in the desert? Yes it did.
Past continuous: question
The past continuous question form is was/were + subject + -ing form. The short answers are Yes, I
was. / No, I wasnt.
How were you feeling when it arrived?

Take note: spelling changes

In the past continuous, all verbs end in -ing, but sometimes the spelling changes:

take taking hit hitting die dying

Session 5 - Tim's pronunciation workshop

Assimilation of /n/
When fluent speakers of English say a word that ends in the sound /n/, followed by
a word that begins with a /p/, /b/, /w/ or /m/ sound, the /n/ often changes to an /m/ as the mouth gets
ready to pronounce the next sound.
Some examples of phrases where this might happen include:
Green Park.
I live in Paris.

See you on Wednesday.

Lesson 9
Vocabulary Reference
Session 2 - News Review
to quickly leave a place, normally because it is dangerous or unpleasant
used here as an adverb before a number to mean 'approximately'
a place which is the the centre of a particular activity
short missions
not stable; likely to break

Session 3 - Lingohack
marine reserve
area of ocean protected by the law
moving in a circular path around an object (especially for planets)
sadness because someone has died

Session 4 - Romeo and Juliet: Eight uses of 'break'

breaks the news (C2)
tells someone about something bad
break off (B2)
end a relationship

breaks into (B1)

enters a place by force
break up (B1)
end a relationship
breaks down (B1)
gets upset; starts to cry
break her promise (B2)
not do something she had agreed to do
breaking (A2)
separating into smaller pieces
breaks her heart (B2)
makes her feel extremely sad

Grammar Reference
Verb patterns: gerunds and infinitives
Gerunds are the -ing form of a verb, and infinitives are the to + base form. These words can be
confusing; they combine the meaning of a verb with the grammar of a noun.
My father asked me to phone him. I enjoy talking with my father.
So, how is to phone like a noun? Imagine the first sentence said: My father asked me a question.
You can see how a question and to phone have the same grammatical role. Similarly, you could
replace talking with the noun conversation.
Using gerunds and infinitives correctly with verbs can be difficult because some verbs go with only
the infinitive or only the gerund, and others can go with either one.
I enjoy going to the movies. (enjoy + -ing form only)
Jason wants to visit a museum on Friday. (want + infinitive form only)
Tony likes eating at restaurants. Tony likes to eat at restaurants. (like + either -ing or
infinitive form)
Another difficulty is that sometimes choosing the infinitive or the gerund will change the meaning
of the sentence.
Mary stopped eating at six.
(Mary was eating, and at six oclock, she stopped.)
Mary stopped to eat at six.
(Mary was walking home, and at six oclock she stopped walking and went into a caf to
The best way to learn which verbs take infinitives, gerunds, or both, is to notice them in context
when you read, or to consult grammar references. Here are some of the most common verbs:
Followed by a gerund (-ing form)
admit, advise, consider, discuss, dislike, dread, enjoy, finish, mind, practise, recommend, suggest
Followed by an infinitive
agree, appear, choose, decide, expect, fail, hope, learn, need, refuse, seem, wait, want

Followed by either, usually with no change in meaning

begin, continue, hate, like, love, prefer, start
Followed by either, with a change in meaning
stop, regret, remember, forget, go on, try
When 'stop' is followed by the gerund, the verb in the gerund stops.
I've stopped buying coffee it's too expensive.
I've stopped smoking - it's bad for my health.
When 'stop' is followed by the infinitive, we stop something else in order to do the verb in the
I stopped to buy a coffee on the way into work this morning. (I stopped walking in order to
buy a coffee.)
I stopped to have a cigarette (I stopped working in order to have a cigarette.)
When 'regret' is followed by the gerund you feel sorry about something you did or didn't do - in
the past.
I regret telling you I was going to enter that singing competition!
You'll regret not finishing university.
When 'regret' is followed by the infinitive, you regret something you are about to say. Often used in
formal, written English with verbs 'tell', 'say' and 'inform'.
We regret to inform you that your application has not been successful.
Go on
When 'go on' is followed by the gerund, the activity in the gerund continues.
She went on talking about verbs for hours - she didn't stop! (She continued talking.)
I can't go on living in this tiny house.
When 'go on' is followed by the infinitive, one action finishes and another and another action starts.
This is often the next stage in a process.
After talking about verbs she went on to tell a joke. (She changed activity.)
After finishing his novel, he went on to direct a couple of plays.
When 'remember' or 'forget' are followed by the gerund it means you forget or remember something
you have done.
I still remember being nervous on my first day of school.
I'll never forget seeing his face
When 'remember' or 'forget' is followed by the infinitive, there is something you need to do and you
remember or forget to do it.
I forgot to bring my lunch today.
Remember to call your mother tonight!

Session 5 - Tim's pronunciation workshop

Assimilation of /d/
When the /d/ sound comes between two other consonants, English speakers often
drop the /d/ sound completely.
Some examples of phrases where this might happen include:
I prefer boiled potatoes.
My friend let me borrow his car.
Don't hold back.

Lesson 10
Vocabulary Reference
Session 2 - News Review
(here) thought to be lower than it really is
ways of earning money in order to live
rising quickly
falling quickly and suddenly
very shocking and surprising
bear the brunt of
suffer the worst part or effect of something bad or harmful

Session 3 - Lingohack
sudden occurrences of disease or war
passed away
noticed after looking carefully

Session 4 - Frankenstein: 10 uses of 'make'

makes (A1)
has made a name for himself (C2)
has become well-known for something
makes (B1)
causes something to happen
to makes matters worse (B2)
to cause a bad situation to get even worse
makes for (B2)
moves towards
makes a start (C2)
begins to do something
makes his blood boil (C2)
causes him to be very angry
makes up his mind (B1)
finally decides
make of (C2)
understand the meaning of
makes time (C1)
finds spare time to do something

Grammar Reference
Future continuous
Meaning and use
We use the future continuous to talk about events that will be in progress at a particular time or over
a period of time in the future. These are usually plans or predictions.
This time next year hell be working in Dubai
A taxi will be waiting outside the station when you arrive.
At four o'clock tomorrow Ill be lying here again.
We can also use the future continuous to say that a future action will be in progress at the same time
as another action.
Ill be thinking of you when Im sitting on the beach in the Bahamas.

The future continuous can also be used to talk about a future event that will happen in the normal
course of things. This means the action is certain to happen without any effort or decision being
made by the speaker.
I'll give John his birthday present since Ill be seeing him at work on Monday.
I can give you a lift as Ill be going into town anyway to do the shopping.
Flight attendants will be circulating around the cabin to offer you refreshments.
We can also use the future continuous to politely enquire about a persons plans for the future. This
is used to ask about someone's plans without any pressure.
Will you be coming to dinner tonight?
Will you be wanting dinner?

Future continuous positive
subject + will + be + -ing form of verb
Ill be starting in the south and making my way north by train.
Future continuous negative
subject + wont + be + -ing form of verb
They wont be staying very long as they have to get back.
Future continuous questions are made with:
will / wont + subject + be + -ing form of verb
We can also use question words.
Why will they be arriving so late tonight?