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# DEFINATION

BAB
1

ITEM
Derived quantity (Kuantiti
terbitan)

Error (Ralat)

Hypothesis (Hipotesis)

Inference (Inferens)

fizik)

Prefix (Imbuhan)

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1

## Scalar quantity (Kuantiti

skalar)
Scientific notation/Standard
form (Bentuk piawai)

Sensitivity (Kepekaan)

## Systematic error (Ralat

sistematik)

Variable (Pembolehubah)

vektor)

## Zero error (Ralat sifar)

Accuracy (Kejituan)

## Base quantity (Kuantiti asas)

Consistency (Kepersisan)

Displacement (Sesaran)

Distance (Jarak)

Efficiency (Kecekapan)

## Elastic potential energy

(Tenaga keupayaan kenyal)

Elasticity (Kekenyalan)

Energy (Tenaga)

## Free fall (Jatuh bebas)

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Gravitational acceleration
(Pecutan graviti)
Gravitational field (Medan
graviti)

DEFINATIONS
A physical quantity derived from combinations of base
quantities through multiplication or division or both
multiplication and division.
The difference between the measured value and the
actual value.
A statement of an expected outcome that usually states the
relationship between two or more variables intended to be
given a direct experimental test.
An initial interpretation or explanation concerning the
observation.
A quantity that can be measured.
A word, letter or value used to simplify the description of the
magnitude of a physical quantity that either very big or very
small.
Error due to mistakes made when making measurement
either through incorrect positioning of the eye or the
instrument when making measurement.
A physical quantity that has magnitude only.
A way to write a numerical magnitude in the form A x 10",
where 1 A < 10 and n is an integer.
The ability of a measuring instrument to detect a small
change in the quantity to be measured.
An error which may be due to the error in the calibration of
an instrument.
A physical quantity that can be varied in an experiment.
There are three types of variables; manipulated variable,
responding variable and fixed variable.
A physical quantity that has magnitude and direction.
be zero
Accuracy of a measurement is how close the measurement
made is to the actual value.
A physical quantity that cannot be defined in terms of other
quantities.
Consistency of an instrument is the ability of the instrument
to measure a quantity with little or no deviation among
measurements.
The length of the straight line connecting the two locations, in
a specified direction.
The total length of the path travelled from one location to
another.
The percentage of the input energy that is transformed into
useful energy.
The energy stored in an object when it is extended or
compressed by a force.
A property of matter that enables an object to return to its
original size and shape when the force that was acting on it is
removed.
The capacity of a system to enable it to do work.
The motion when an object is acted upon by a gravitational
force in the gravitational field.
The acceleration of an object due to the pull of the
gravitational force.
A region in which an object experiences a force due to the
gravitational attraction towards the centre of the Earth.

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2

## Gravitational field strength

(Kekuatan medan graviti)
Gravitational potential
energy (Tenaga keupayaan
graviti)

## Hooke's law (Hukum Hooke)

Impulse (Impuls)
Impulsive force (Daya
impuls)

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Inertia (Inersia)

## The gravitational force acting on a mass of 1 kg placed at a

point in the gravitational field.
The energy of an object due to its higher position in the
gravitational field.
The extension of a spring is directly proportional to the
applied force provided the elastic limit is not exceeded.
The quantity of impulsive force multiplied by time.
The rate of change of momentum.
The inertia of an object is the tendency of the object to
remain at rest or, if moving, to continue its uniform motion in
a straight line.

## Kinetic energy (Tenaga

kinetik)
Mass (Jisim)

Momentum (Momentum)

Non-renewable energy
resource

## Renewable energy resource

Speed (Laju)

Velocity (Halaju)

Weight (Berat)

Work (Kerja)

Acceleration (Pecutan)

## Pascal's principle (Prinsip

Pascal)

Pressure (Tekanan)

Archimedes)

## Pressure applied to an enclosed liquid is transmitted

uniformly to every part of the liquid and to the walls of the
container of the liquid.
The magnitude of the force acting perpendicular to a surface
per unit area of the surface.
For a body wholly or partially immersed in a fluid, the upward
buoyant force acting on the body is equal to the weight of the
fluid it displaces.
The pressure exerted by the atmosphere on the surface of
the Earth as well as all objects on the Earth.
Where the speed of a fluid is high, the pressure is low, and
where the speed is low, the pressure is high.
An upward force, resulting from an object being wholly or
partially immersed in a fluid.
The amount of heat that must be supplied to a body to
increase its temperature by 1C.
The heat absorbed or the heat released at constant
temperature during a change of phase.
The temperature at which a substance changes its state from
a solid to a liquid.
For a fixed mass of gas, the pressure of the gas is directly
proportional to its absolute temperature when its volume is
kept constant.
The amount of heat that must be supplied to increase the
temperature by 1C for a mass of 1 kg of the substance.
The amount of heat required to change 1 kg of a substance
from the solid to liquid phase without a change in
temperature.

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Atmospheric pressure
(Tekanan atmosfera)
Bernoulli's principle (Prinsip
Bernoulli)

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## Specific heat capacity (Muatan

haba tentu)
Specific latent heat of fusion
(Haba pendam tentu
pelakuran)

## The energy of an object due to its motion.

The amount of matter in an object.
The momentum of an object is defined as the product of its
mass and its velocity.
An energy resource that cannot be replaced once it has been
used.
An energy resource that is continually replaced and will not
run out.
A single force that represents the combined effect of two or
more forces by taking into account both the magnitude and
the direction of the forces.
The distance travelled per unit time. It is also defined as the
rate of change of distance.
The speed in specified direction. The rate of change of
displacement.
The force of gravity acting on an object.
The product of an applied force and displacement of an object
in the direction of the applied force.

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4

## Specific latent heat of

vaporisation (Haba pendam
tentu pengewapan)
Temperature (Suhu)
Thermal equilibrium
(Keseimbangan terma)

Thermometer (Termometer)

## Focal point (Titik folcus)

Interference of waves
(Interferens gelombang)

Longitudinal wave
(Gelombang membujur)

Period (Tempoh)

## Real image (Imej nyata)

Refraction of light (Pembiasan
cahaya)

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Resonance (Resonans)

## Total internal reflection

(Pantulan dalam penuh)

melintang)

## Angle of incidence (Sudut tuju)

Angle of reflection (Sudut
pantulan)
Apparent depth (Dalam
ketara)

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## Diffraction of waves (Belauan

gelombang)
Electromagnetic spectrum
(Spektrum elektromagnet)

## The amount of heat required to change 1 kg of a substance

from the liquid to gaseous phase without a change in
temperature.
The measure of the degree of hotness of an object.
A condition where two objects in thermal contact have no net
transfer of heat energy between each other.
An instrument that measures temperature or the degree of
hotness.
The temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid
to a gaseous state, where the change occurs throughout the
liquid.
For a fixed mass of gas, the pressure of the gas is inversely
proportional to its volume when the temperature is kept
constant.
For a fixed mass of gas, the volume of the gas is directly
proportional to its absolute temperature when its pressure is
kept constant.
The distance between the centre of a lens to its focal point.
A common point on a principle axis at which beams of light
parallel to the axis converge after passing through a convex
lens or appear to diverge from it after passing through a
concave lens.
The result of the combination of two separate sets of waves
with the same frequency.
A wave in which the particles of the medium oscillate in the
direction parallel to the direction in which the wave moves.
The period of an oscillation is the time taken to complete one
oscillation.
The distance of the real object, 0 from the surface of the
water or medium.
An image that can be displayed on a screen.
The bending of a light ray at the boundary as it travels from
one medium to another.
An oscillating system is said to be at resonance when it is
driven at its natural frequency by a periodic force. Maximum
energy transfer to the system occurs and it oscillates at large
amplitude.
The condition where the angle of incidence, i is increased
further so that it is greater than the critical angle, c. The light
is no longer refracted but is internally reflected.
A wave in which the particles of the medium oscillate in the
direction perpendicular to the direction in which the wave
moves.
An image that can be seen by the observer but not be
displayed on a screen.
The angle between the incident ray and the normal.
The angle between the reflected ray and the normal.
The distance of the virtual image, I from the surface of the
water.
A lens that is thinnest at its centre. It causes parallel rays of
light to diverge after passing through this lens.
A lens that is thickest at its centre. It causes parallel rays of
light to converge after passing through this lens.
The angle of incidence in the denser medium when the angle
of refraction in the less dense medium is equal to 90.
A phenomenon that refers to the spreading out of waves
when they move through a gap or round an obstacle.
A group of waves with similar natures. The members of the
electromagnetic spectrum arranged in increasing frequencies

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Frequency (Frekuensi)

Node (Nod)

Principle of superposition
(Prinsip superposisi)

## Reflection of waves (Pantualan

gelombang)

Refraction of waves
(Pembiasan gelombang)

Wave (Gelombang)

## Wavefront (Muka gelombang)

Wavelength (Panjang
gelombang)

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6

Amplitude (Amplitud)
Angle of refraction (Sudut
pembiasan)
Antinode (Antinod)
Coherent waves (Gelombang
koheren)

Damping (Pelembapan)

elektrik)

elektrik)

elektrik)

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## Electromotive force (Daya

gerak elektrik)
Internal resistance
(Rintangan dalam)

## National Grid Network

(Rangkaian Grid Nasional)

## Potential difference (Beza

keupayaan)
Power (Kuasa)

Resistance (Rintangan)

songsang)

## (decreasing wavelengths) are radio waves, microwaves,

infrared rays, visible light, ultraviolet rays, X-rays and gamma
rays.
The frequency of an oscillation is the number of complete
A point where a destructive interference occurs.
Principle of superposition states that at any time, the
combined wave form of two or more interfering waves is
given by the sum of displacement of the individual wave at
each point of the medium.
Reflection of waves occurs when all or part of the waves are
deflected after they encounter an obstacle or reflector.
Refraction of waves occurs when there is change of direction
of the propagation of waves travelling from a medium to
another medium due to a change of speed.
A travelling disturbance from a vibrating or oscillating source
and carries energy along with it in the direction of its
propagation.
An imaginary line that joins all identical points on a wave.
The horizontal distance between two successive equivalent
points on a wave.
The amplitude of an oscillation is the maximum displacement
from the mean position.
The angle between the refracted ray and the normal.
A point where a constructive interference occurs.
Waves having the same wavefront in which the coherent
sources of waves maintain a constant phase difference.
Damping in an oscillating system occurs when the system
loses energy to the surrounding, usually in the form of heat
energy.
The rate of charge flow in a circuit.
A region in which an electric charge experiences an electric
force.
The rate of electrical energy dissipated or transferred.
The energy carried by electrical charges which can be
transformed to other forms of energy by the operation of an
electrical device or appliance.
The work done by a source in driving a unit charge around a
complete circuit.
The resistance against the moving charge due to the
electrolyte in the cell.
A network system of cables which connects all the power
stations and substations in the country to the consumers in a
closed network to transmit electricity.
A circuit where all the electrical components are connected
side by side and their corresponding ends are joined together
to a cell to form separate and parallel paths for a current to
flow.
The work done in moving one coulomb of charge from one
point to another.
The rate at which work is done.
The ratio of a potential difference to a current flowing through
a conductor.
A state when a diode does not allow current to flow
A circuit where all the electrical components are connected
one end after the other to a cell to form a single pathway for
a current to flow.

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## Alternating current (Arus

ulangalik)

Electromagnet
(Elektromagnet)

Electromagnetic induction
(Aruhan electromagnet)

## Magnetic force (Daya

magnet)

Transformer (Transformer)

Diode (Diod)

## Direct current (Arus terus)

Doping (Pengedopan)

pengeluar)

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## Forward biased (Pincang

Full-wave rectification
(Rektfikasi gelombang penuh)
Half-wave rectification
(Rektifikasi gelombang
separuh)

## Maltese Cross tube (Tiub

palang Maltese)

Rectification (Rekfifikasi)

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Semiconductor
(Semikonduktor)
Thermionic emission (Pancaran
termionik)

Transistor (Transistor)

## Base current (Arus tapak)

Capacitor (Kapasitor)

pengumpul)

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gama)

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10

## A current which flows to and fro in two opposite directions in

a circuit. It changes its direction periodically.
A magnet made by winding a coil of insulated wire round a
soft iron core, so that a magnetic field is produced when a
current is passed through the coil.
The setting up of an electromotive force in a conductor due to
a change in magnetic flux caused by the relative motion of
the conductor and a magnetic field.
The magnitude of the induced e.m.f, is directly proportional to
the rate of change of the magnetic flux or the rate of cutting
of the magnetic flux.
The direction of the induced current is such that the change
producing it will be opposed.
A force produced as a result of the combination of the
magnetic field due to a current and another magnetic field
produced by a permanent magnet.
A device which steps up or steps down alternating current
voltages.
A device that allows current to flow in one direction only.
A current which flows steadily in one direction only in a
circuit.
A process of adding a certain amount of specific impurities
called dopants to semiconductors to increase their
conductivity.
The current that flows through the emitter terminal of a
transistor. It is equal to the sum of the base current and the
collector current.
A state when a diode allows current to flow.
A process where both halves of every cycle of an alternating
current is made to flow in the same direction.
A process where only one half of every cycle of an alternating
current is made to flow in one direction only.
Switching circuit that is applied in computers and other
electronic devices.
A special cathode ray tube with a Maltese Cross in it which is
used to investigate the properties of cathode rays.
A process to convert an alternating current into a direct
current by using a diode or diodes.
A material which can conduct electricity better than insulator,
but not as well as conductor.
The emission of electrons from the surface of a heated metal.
An electronic device which has three terminals labelled as
base, collector and emitter.
The current that flows through the base terminal of a
transistor.
A device used for storing charges and to smooth out output
current in a rectifier circuit.
The current that flows through the collector terminal of a
transistor. It will only flow when a suitable base current flows
through the circuit.
A radioactive decay which emits a gamma ray photon.
Electromagnetic waves with very high frequency and short
wavelength.
The effect of radiation that appears in the future generations
of the exposed person as a result of radiation damage to
reproductive cells.
The time taken for the number of undecayed nuclei to be
reduced to half of its original number.

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Isotopes (Isotop)
Nuclear energy (Tenaga
nuklear)
Nuclear fission (Pembelahan
nukleus)
Nuclear fusion (Pelakuran
nukleus)
Nucleon (Nukleon)
Nucleon number (Nombor
nukleon)

10

Nucleus (Nukleus)

10

proton)

## Atoms of an element which have the same proton number but

different nucleon numbers.
Energy released by a nuclear reaction as a result of a mass
defect.
The splitting of a heavy nucleus into two lighter nuclei.
The combining of two lighter nuclei to form a heavier nucleus.
A subatomic particle found in the nucleus.
The total number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus.

## A very small core of an atom which contains most

of the mass and all of the positive charge of the
atom.
The total number of protons in a nucleus.
The spontaneous disintegration of an unstable nucleus
accompanied by the emission of energetic particles or
photons.
Unstable isotopes which decay and give out radioactive
emissions.
The effect of radiation that appears in a person exposed to

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## High energy electron emitted by an unstable nucleus.

A beam of negatively charged electrons that move at high
speeds.
An instrument that converts electronic and electrical signals
to a visual display.
A self-sustaining reaction in which the products of a reaction
can initiate another similar reaction.

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10

## Cathode ray oscilloscope

(Osiloskop sinar katod)
Chain reaction (Tindak balas
berantai)

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