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Sub Code/Name: CE 6451/Fluid Mechanics & Machineries

Year/Sem : II/ III


PART-B ( 16 Marks)

1. a) What are the different types fluids? Explain each type.

b) Discuss the thermodynamic properties of fluids


2. a) One litre of crude oil weighs 9.6 N. Calculate its Specific weight, density and
specific volume.

b) The Velocity Distribution for flow over a flat plate is given by u=(2/3)y-y ,
Where u is the point velocity in metre per second at a distance y metre above
the plate. Determine the shear stress at y=0 and y=15 cm. Assume dynamic
viscosity as 8.63 poises

3. a) A plate, 0.025 mm distant from a fixed plate, moves at 50 cm/s and requires a
force of 1.471 N/ m to maintain this speed. Determine the fluid viscosity
between plates in the poise.
b) Determine the intensity of shear of an oil having viscosity =1.2 poise
and is
used for lubrication in the clearance between a 10 cm diameter
shaft and its
journal bearing. The clearance is 1.0 mm and Shaft rotates at 200 r.p.m
4. a) Two plates are placed at a distance of 0.15mm
apart. The lower plate is fixed
while the upper plate having surface area 1.0 m is pulled at 0.3 nm/s. Find the
force and power required to maintain this speed, if the fluid separating them is
having viscosity 1.5 poise.

b) An oil film of thickness 1.5 mm is used for lubrication between a square plate of
size 0.9m *0.9m and an inclined plane having an angle of inclination 20 . The
weight of square plate is 392.4 N and its slides down the plane with a uniform
velocity of 0.2 m/s. find the dynamic viscosity of the oil.

5.a) Assuming the bulk modulus of elasticity of water is 2.07 x10 kN/m at standard
atmospheric condition determine the increase of pressure necessary to produce
one percent reduction in volume at the same temperature.

b) Calculate the capillary rise in glass tube of 3mm diameter when

immersed in
mercury, take the surface tension and angle of contact of mercury as 0.52 N/m and
130 respectively. Also determine the minimum size of the glass tube, if it is
immersed in water, given that the surface tension of water is 0.0725 N/m and
Capillary rise in tube is not exceed 0.5mm.

6.a) Calculate the pressure exerted by 5kg of nitrogen gas at a temperature of 10 CWhen
the volume is 0.4 m .Also find the volume when the pressure is 3*10 N/
m and the temp is 10 C. Assume the ideal law is applicable.

b) Calculate the capillary effect in glass tube 5mm diameter, when immersed in (1)
water and (2) mercury. The surface tension of water and mercury in contact with
air are 0.0725 N/m and 0.51 N/m respectively . The angle of contact of mercury
of mercury is 130
7. a) Explain all three Simple manometers with neat sketch.
b) Explain Differential manometer With Neat sketch.


8. A U-tube differential manometer is connected two pressure pipes A and B. Pipe A

contains Carbon tetrachloride having a specific gravity 1.594 under a
pressure of 11.772 N/ Cm and pipe B contain oil of specific gravity 0.8 under
pressure 11.72 N/ Cm . The pipe A lies 2.5 m above pipe B. Find the difference
of pressure measured by mercury as a fluid filling U-tube


1. a) Derive an expression for the velocity distribution for viscous flow through
a circular pipe.
b) A main pipe divides into two parallel pipes, which again forms one pipe. The
length and diameter for the first parallel pipe are 2000m and 1m respectively,
while the length and diameter of second parallel pipe are 2000 and 0.8 m
respectively. Find the rate of flow in each parallel pipe, if total flow in the main is
3 m/s. The coefficient of friction for each parallel pipe is same and equal to
0.005. (8)
2. a) Two pipes of 15 cm and 30 cm diameters are laid in parallel to pass a total
discharge of 100 liters/ second. Each pipe is 250 m long. Determine discharge
through each pipe. Now these pipes are connected in series to connect two tanks
500 m apart, to carry same total discharge. Determine water level difference
between the tanks. Neglect minor losses in both cases, f=0.02 fn both pipes. (8)
b) A pipe line carrying oil of specific gravity 0.85, changes in diameter from 350
mm at position 1 to 550 mm diameter to a position 2, which is at 6 m at a higher
level. If the pressure at position 1 and 2 are taken as 20 N/cm and 15 N/ cm
respectively and discharge through the pipe is 0.2 m/s. determine the loss of head.



Obtain an expression for Hagen- Poisulle flow. Deduce the condition of

maximum velocity.


A flat plate 1.5 m X 1.5 m moves at 50 km / h in a stationary air density 1.15 kg/
m. If the coefficient of drag and lift are 0.15 and 0.75 respectively, determine
(i) the lift force (ii) the drag force (iii) the resultant force and (iv) the power
required to set the plate in motion.

5. a). The rate of flow of water through a horizontal pipe is 0.3 m/s. The diameter of
the pipe is suddenly enlarged from 25 cm to 50 cm. The pressure intensity in the
smaller pipe is 14N/m. Determine (i) Loss of head due to sudden enlargement.
(ii)Pressure intensity in the large pipe and iii)Power lost due to enlargement. (8)
b) Water is flowing through a tapering pipe of length 200 m having diameters 500
mm at the upper end and 250 mm at the lower end, the pipe has a slope of 1 in
40. The rate of flow through the pipe is 250 lit/ sec. the pressure at the lower end
and the upper end are 20 N/cm and 10 N/cm respectively. Find the loss of head
and direction of flow

A horizontal pipe of 400 mm diameter is suddenly contracted to a diameter of

200 mm. The pressure intensities in the large and small pipe is given as 15
N/cm and 10 N/cm respectively. Find the loss of head due to contraction, if
Cc=0.62, determine also the rate of flow of water.

7. Determine the length of an equivalent pipe of diameter 20 cm and friction factor 0.02
for a given pipe system discharging 0.1m/s. The pipe system consists of the
(i) A 10 m line of 20 cm dia with f=0.03
(ii) Three 90 bend, k=0.5 for each
(iii) Two sudden expansion of diameter 20 to 30 cm
(iv) A 15 m line of 30 cm diameter with f=0.025 and
(v) A global valve, fully open, k=10.
PART-B ( 16 Marks)
1. a) Explain types of fluid flow.


b) Explain all dimensional number.


2. Derive continuity equation o f differential form. Discuss whether the equation is

valid for a steady or unsteady flow, viscous or in viscid flow, compressible or
incompressible flow.
3. State the Bernoullis theorem for steady flow of an
an expression for Bernoullis equation.

incompressible fluid. Derive


4. Water is flowing through a pipe having diameter 300 mm and 200 mm at the bottom end
is 24.525 N/cm and the pressure at the upper end is 9.81 N/Cm Determine the
difference in datum head if the rate of flow through pipe is 40 lit/s.

5. A pipe line carrying oil of specific gravity 0.87, changes in diameter from 200 mm
diameter at a position A to 500 mm diameter at a position B which is 4 meters at a
higher level. If the pressure at A and B which is 4 m at a higher level. If the
pressures at A and B are 9.81 N/Cm and 5.886 N/Cm2 respectively and the
discharge is 20 litres/s determine the loss of head and direction of flow.
6. The frictional torque T of a disc diameter D rotating at a speed N in a fluid of
5 2

Viscosity and density in a turbulent flow is given by T=D N

Prove this Buckinghams theorem.

(/D N).


7. A liquid of specific gravity 0.85 is flowing through in an inclined venturimeter of

250mm x 115mm size. the difference of pressures between the main and throat is
measured by a liquid of specific gravity 0.65 contained in an inverted U-tube which
gives a reading of 275mm. If the loss of head between the main and throat is 0.3
times the Kinetic head of the pipe, determine the rate of flow of

1. Obtain en expression for the work done per second by water on the runner of a pelton wheel.
Hence derive an expression for maximum efficiency of the pelton wheel giving the relationship
between the jet speed and bucket speed. (16)

2. a) A pelton wheel is having a mean bucket diameter of 1 m and is running at 1000

rpm. The net head on the pelton wheel is 700 m. If the side clearance angle is 15
and discharge through nozzle is 0.1 m/s, find (1) power available at nozzle
and (2) hydraulic efficiency of the turbine. Take Cv=1
b) A turbine is to operate under a head of 25 m at 200 rpm. The discharge is 9 m/s.
If the efficiency is 90% determine, Specific speed of the machine power
generated and type of turbine.
3. A pelton turbine is required to develop 9000 KW when working under a head of
300 m the impeller may rotate at 500 rpm. Assuming a jet ratio of 10 And an
overall efficiency of 85% calculate (1) Quantity of water required. (2) Diameter of
the wheel (3) Number of jets (4) Number and size of the bucket vanes on the
4. An Outward flow reaction turbine has internal and external diameters of the runner
as 0.5 m and 1.0 m respectively. The turbine is running at 250 rpm and rate
of flow of water through the turbine is 8 m/s. The width of the runner is constant at
inlet and out let and is equal to 30 cm. The head on the turbine is 10 m and
discharge at outlet6 is radial, determine (1) Vane angle at inlet and outlet. (2)
Velocity of flow at inlet and outlet.
5. The Nozzle of a pelton Wheel gives a jet of 9 cm diameter and velocity 75 m/s.
Coefficient of velocity is 0.978. The pitch circle diameter is 1.5 m and the
deflection angle of the bucket is 170. The wheel velocity is 0.46 times the jet
velocity. Estimate the speed of the pelton wheel turbine in rpm, theoretical power
developed and also the efficiency of the turbine.
6. a)A turbine is to operate a head of a 25 m at 200 rpm; the available discharge is
9m/s assuming an efficiency of 90%. Determine (1) Specific speed (2) Power
generated (3) Performance under a head of 20 m (4) The type of turbine
b) A vertical reaction turbine under 6m head at 400 rpm the area and diameter of
runner at inlet are 0.7 m and 1m respective the absolute and relative velocities of
fluid entering are 15and 60 to the tangential direction. Calculate hydraulic
7. A Francis turbine has an inlet diameter of 2.0 m and an outlet diameter of 1.2m. The
width of the blades is constant at 0.2 m. The runner rotates at a speed of 250 rpm
with a discharge of 8 m/s .The vanes are radial at the inlet and the discharge is
radially outwards at the outlet. Calculate the angle of guide vane at
inlet and blade angle at the outlet.
8. A Kaplan turbine develops 20000KW at a head of 35 m and at rotational speed of
420 rpm. The outer diameter of the blades is 2.5 m and the hub diameter is 0.85m.
If the overall efficiency is 85% and the hydraulic efficiency is 88%. Calculate the
discharge, the inlet flow angle and the blade angle at the inlet. (16)

1. Write short notes on the following (1) Cavitations in hydraulic machines their
causes, effects and remedies. (2) Type of rotary pumps.
2 . Draw a neat sketch of centrifugal pump and explain the working principle of
the centrifugal pump.
3. Draw a neat sketch of Reciprocating pump and explain the
single acing and double acting Reciprocating pump.

working principle of

4. A radial flow impeller has a diameter 25 cm and width 7.5 cm at exit. It delivers 120
liters of water per second against a head of 24 m at 1440 rpm. Assuming the
vanes block the flow area by 5% and hydraulic efficiency of 0.8, estimate the vane
angle at exit. Also calculate the torque exerted on the driving shaft if the
mechanical efficiency is 95%.
5. Find the power required to drive a centrifugal pump which to drive a centrifugal
3 /
pump which delivers 0.04 m s of water to a height of 20 m through a 15 cm
diameter pipe and 100 m long. The over all efficiency of the pump is 70% and
coefficient of friction is 0.15 in the formula hf=4flv /2gd.
6. A Centrifugal pump having outer diameter equal to 2 times the inner diameter and
running at 1200 rpm works against a total head of 75 m. The Velocity of flow
through the impeller is constant and equal to 3 m/s. The vanes are set back at an
angle of 30 at out let. If the outer diameter of impeller is 600 mm and width at
outlet is 50 mm. Determine (i) Vane angle at inlet (ii) Work done per second on
impeller (iii) Manometric efficiency.
7. The diameter and stroke of a single acting reciprocating pump are 200 mm and 400
mm respectively, the pump runs at 60 rpm and lifts 12 liters of water per
second through a height of 25 m. The delivery pipe is 20m long and 150mm
in diameter. Find (i) Theoretical power
required to run the pump. (ii)
Percentage of slip. (iii) Acceleration head at the beginning and middle of the
delivery stroke.