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Antennas

for
automotive applications
M. Martinez, A. Winkelmann, R. Baggen

15 April 2010, Artic, Barcelona

Overview
 Today & Future services
 New developments
 Requirement profile
 Car integration
 Todays solutions
 Future trends
 Conclusions

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Data rates only increase


Datenrate  Mobiltt

ty
rsi ues
e
v
Di hniq
c
Te

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MIM

D
T e iv e
ch rsi
n i ty
qu
es

e
tiv n
ap atio
Ad dul
o
M

WCDMA
HHSDPA,
SD
HSUPA
P

MO
MI

WLAN
OFDM

todays limit

UWB

Services of Today
GSM/UMTS services
WLAN (3.5 GHz)
Satellite radio
DVB-S (Ku-band)
Navigation

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Services of Tomorrow
WiMax/LTE (3.4-3.6 GHz/ Band1 or 7):
High data rates, hence:
 Large absolute bandwidth
 MiMo capability

MiMo capable antenna


concepts
Diversity capability
required

(Dedicated Short Range Communication, C2I)

DSRC/ITS (5.8 GHz): (Intelligent Transport System, C2C)


Originates from the RFID-area
Medium data rates

UWB (3-10 GHz), 60 GHz:


High-to-extremely high data rates
with multimedia content
Dedicated for in-car communication
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Pseudo omni-directional
radiators

Pseudo omni-directional
radiators
Directive radiators

Upcoming Satellite services


Astra (Ku-band):
Possible bi-directional links in
future, extension services into
the Ka-band

Steerable antenna
frontends
Tracking capability
Line-of-Sight

INMARSAT/Thuraya (L-band):
Bi-directional links

Steerable antenna
frontends
Tracking capability
Line-of-Sight

SDARS/Ondas/World Space Radio:


Satellite radio

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Pseudo omnidirectional radiators


partially diversity
capability

New developments
High data rates

MiMo/Diversity
 Distributed antennas
 Global coverage replacing pseudo omnidirectional coverage of a single antenna

Digitalisation/One chip solutions


 New antenna positions possible through new more cost-effective
connections within the car infrastructure
 Digital signal processing
Standarised technologies

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Digital Beam Forming (DBF)


Compact cost-effective
steerable antenna frontends for
satellite reception

Requirement profile
 Multi-band capability
 Compact design
 Fits into the overall picture of the car body
 Good spatial coverage
 High flexibility with a minimum number of antenna modules
 Diversity- and MIMO-capability
 Extremely cost effective
 Low in-Car SAR exposure

NB: Only antennas for communication/multimedia systems are considered here, no radar applications
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Integration into car


 Only
Only little
little space
space
available
available despite
despite the
the
size
size of
of the
the car!
car!
6

9
8
7

8
7 5
4 1

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1. FM-radio &
terrestrial television
2. FM-radio &
terrestrial television
3. Multiband modules
& satellite terminals
4. Satellite terminals
5. Shark fin multiband
antenna module
6. Multiband modules
for diversity/MIMO
7. Supporting
antennas for
diversity/MIMO
8. Supporting
antennas for
diversity/MIMO
9. Supporting
antennas for
diversity/MIMO

Todays solutions


 GPSPatch
GPSPatchantenna
antenna

 GSM
GSM800/900/1800/1900
800/900/1800/1900

 Optional
OptionalDAB
DABantenna
antenna

 GSMGSM-and
andDAB-antenna
DAB-antennaare
aremostly
mostly
located
locatedon
onthe
thevertical
verticalPCB
PCB
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Future trends

 Multiband
Multibandantenna
antennasystems
systems

 MIMO/Diversity
MIMO/Diversity

 Electronical
Electronical beam
beam forming
forming

- Trend
goes
reconfigurable antenna systems IMST GmbH
- All rightstowards
reserved

04/10

Reconfigurable antenna systems


Complete
Completesystem
systemisiscomposed
composedof
ofconnected
connectedmulti-band
multi-bandantenna
antenna
modules
modulesthat
thatare
arespatialy
spatialydistributed
distributedthrough
throughthe
thecars
cars
infrastructure
infrastructure
Module 1: rooftop fin
Module 2: external back mirror

Th
e

Fu
tu
r

Module 3: external back mirror


*In cooperation with BMW Forschung und Technik, Munich - Germany
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Concept: Connected Car


Module 1
Central
Antenna steering

Wireless Router

Module 2
Module 3

Data Logging Device


Sensors

Requirements
Requirementsfor
forcombination
combinationof
ofantenna
antennamodules
modules1,2
1,2&&33
ItItshould
shouldbe
bepossible
possibletotoseparate
separatethe
thefrequency
frequencyranges
rangesofofall
allservices
services
The
Theisolation
isolationbetween
betweenthe
thedifferent
differentservices
servicesshould
shouldbe
beadequate
adequate
ItItshould
shouldbe
bepossible
possibletotorealise
realisethe
thedesired
desiredantenna
antennacharacteristic
characteristicfor
foraasingle
singleservice
service
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Example: interconnected multi-band modules


700 MHz (UMTS 700 for USA) till 2600 MHz (UMTS Japan)
WiFi- und WiMax- 2400, 3600 and 5800 MHz
GPS
Satellite radio (ONDARS, etc..)
6
b

5
1

Frequenzweiche
Mux

Pre-Processing

GSM/UMTS
MiMo

Funktionsaufbau Antennenzentralmodul
11.= Mehrbandantenne
Multiband antenna 0.80.8-5,9
GHz-5.9GHz
GHz
22,3.
und
3 = Mehrband
Multiband
antenna GSM/UMTS
GSM/UMTS
Multiband
Antenna WiFi/WiMAX
WiFi/WiMAX
44,5und
5 = Mehrband
6.
Combined
GPS/ONDAS
antennao.SDARS
6 = Kombiantenne GPS/ Ondas
A = GSM/UMTS array
aB== WiFi/WiMAX
GSM/UMTS Array
b = WiFi/WiMAX Array

Frequenzweiche
Mux

Pre-Processing
WiFi (2.4/5.8)
MiMo

Frequenzweiche
Mux

Frequenzweiche
Mux

Pre-Processing

WiMAX
MiMo

GPS

Daten / Kommunikationsbus
+ bus
Steuerbefehle
Pre-Processing
Data/Communication
& Pre-processing

CPU (MiMo)

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ONDAS o.
SDARS

Multiband module shark fin (add-on)


Multiband Antenna (MbA)

Multiband Antenna (WbA)

Frequencies/GHz
Services

Solution A (WiMax-MIMO)

MbA

WbA: 2.4 GHz - 6 GHz


MbA: 0.8 GHz - 6 GHz

WbA
Frequencies/GHz

Solution B (LTE-MIMO)
WbA: 1.7 GHz - 6 GHz
MbA: 0.8 GHz - 6 GHz
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Services

MbA
WbA

Shark fin prototype

> 900 MHz


> 1700 MHz






Material:
Material:Rogers
Rogers4003,
4003,d=813
d=813m,
m,top/bottom
top/bottomcopper
copperlayer
layerddcucu=17
=17m
m
3
3
Dimensions:
Dimensions:33x34x0.8
33x34x0.8mm
mm3, ,small
smallpatch;
patch;55x60x0.8
55x60x0.8mm
mm3, ,large
largepatch
patch


 Good
Goodimpedance
impedancematching:
matching:-10
-10dB
dB@
@f f==1.7GHz-5.8GHz
1.7GHz-5.8GHzfor
forthe
thesmall
small
patch;
-10
dB
@
f
=
1.1GHz-6GHz)
for
the
large
patch
patch; -10 dB @ f = 1.1GHz-6GHz) for the large patch

 High
Highreproducibility
reproducibility

 Easy
Easyintegration
integrationinto
intothe
theshark
sharkfin
fincasing
casing
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Integrated antenna in rear external mirror

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Example interconnecting network


13

Problem
Problem
WiMax
WiMaxBoard
Boardhas
has22antenna
antennaports
ports
available,
available,44antennas
antennashave
havehowever
howeverto
to
be
beconnected.
connected.

14
90


by
byusing
usingthe
thephase
phasedifferences
differencesinin
the
theButler
Butlermatrix,
matrix,various
variousantenna
antenna
patterns
patternscan
canbe
begenerated
generated
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90

90

0
2
50

Butlermatrix:
Butlermatrix:

effective
effectivedistribution
distributionof
ofall
allsignals
signals

Solution
Solution

16

15

90
3

0
4
50

New tuning concepts


The
Thecar
carbecomes
becomesmore
more&&more
moreaamobile
mobilephone
phoneon
onwheels
wheels
Mobile
Mobilephone
phonetechnologies
technologies&&concepts
conceptstransfered
transferedto
toautomotive
automotive
antennas
antennas

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Innovative satellite terminals in L-band


Requirements
Requirements
 Transmit:
Transmit:EIRP=40dBm2dB
EIRP=40dBm2dB
 Receive:
Receive:G/T=-17
G/T=-17dB/K
dB/K
 Circular
Circularpolarisation
polarisation
 Low
Lowprofile
profileand
andlow
lowcost
cost
 Full
Fullhemispherical
hemisphericalcoverage
coverage
elevation
elevation15
15

Prototype
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Artist impression

Innovative satellite terminals in Ku-band


GEO-satellite

NATALIA

20 cm

Dedicated antenna
with low gain

Small size

Attractive for the


automotive
industry
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Dedicated
receiver
designed for
very low S/N
using specialised
services

Dedicated
satellite services
based on
interference
scenarios

 Memory
caching
 Repeatability

Conclusions
 Services
Services&&Requirements
Requirementsfor
forautomotive
automotiveapplications
applicationshave
havebeen
been
presented
presented
 Nowadays
Nowadayssolutions
solutionspossess
possessall
allmultiband
multibandcapability
capability
 In
Innear
nearfuture
futureMIMO/diversity
MIMO/diversity&&beam
beamforming
formingwill
willbecome
becomemore
more&&
more
moreimportant
importantdue
dueto
tobandwidth
bandwidthhungry
hungrymultimedia
multimediaapplications
applications
 Solutions
Solutionsfor
forthis
thiswill
willnot
notbe
befound
foundinindesigning
designingonly
onlyone
onemultiband
multiband
antenna
antennabut
butinincreating
creatingaacomplete
completesystems
systemsof
ofconnected
connectedantenna
antenna
modules
modulesgoverned
governedby
byaacentral
centralprocessing
processingmodule
module
 Technologies
Technologies&&Concepts
Conceptsused
usedininthe
thepast
pastfor
formobile
mobilephone
phone
applications
applicationscan
canbe
betransferred
transferredto
tothe
theautomotive
automotiveplatform
platform

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