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TRANSFORMATION OF SENTENCES:

Sentences can be classified into affirmative, negative, imperative, interrogative, assertive(declarative) and exclamatory sentences. These sentences
can be transformed into different form without changing the meaning of the sentence. This process is known as transformation of sentences. The
various types of transformation can be:1. Affirmative Sentence

Affirmative sentence means the sentences which are used to describe any general action, event, speech, or expression.
Examples:Every student is present today.
He was always punctual.

2. Assertive or Declarative Sentence

A sentence that makes a statement or assertion is called an assertive or declarative sentence. Assertive sentence ends with a period.
Examples
He goes to school
He likes to play chess.
They are singing a song.

3. Interrogative Sentence

A sentence that asks a question is called an interrogative sentence. Interrogative sentence ends with question mark.

Examples.
Where are you going?
Do you use your laptop?

4. Imperative Sentence

A sentence that expresses a request, command or advice is called an imperative sentence.


Examples
Open the door. (an order)
Please help me. (a request)

5. Exclamatory Sentence

A sentence that expresses strong feelings or emotions is called an exclamatory sentence. These sentences express surprise, joy, sorrow, appreciation,
love excitement, frustration, anger etc. An exclamatory sentence ends with exclamation mark.
Examples
What a beautiful flower it is!
How nicely she is singing!
That is fantastic!
Hurrah! We won the match!

AFFIRMATIVE TO NEGATIVE SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION RULES

Sr.no

Affirmative
Sentence structure
Subject +always +
verb + ext.
OR

Subject + verb + as +
adjective + as +
noun/ pronoun.

Rule

Example

Subject + never
opposite verb + ext.

Affirmative:-He was
If there is always in an affirmative sentence, never will be used for always punctual.
OR
ever/always in negative sentence and verb /adjective/adverb will be
Subject + auxiliary
opposite meaning.
verb + always + verb/
Negative:- He was
Subject + auxiliary verb
adjective/ adverb +
never late.
+ never + opposite verb/
ext.
adjective/ adverb + ext.

Subject + verb + too


+ adjective + to +
verb + ext.

Negative Sentence
structure

Subject + auxiliary
verb + verb/
adjective/ adverb +
ext.
Subject + verb + ext.

Subject + verb + so +
adjective + that +
subject + can/ could +
not + verb + ext.

Subject + auxiliary verb


+ not + verb + less +
adjective + than + noun/
pronoun.

Affirmative:-He is
too weak to walk.
If there is present tense before too, can will be used after that
and if there is past tense before too, could will be used after that.
Again when there is for + noun/ pronoun after too+ adjective, the Negative:- He is so
noun/ pronoun after for will be the subject after that.
weak that he cannot
walk.
Affirmative:-He is as
wise as his brother.
In negative sentence as -as is replaced by not less-than.

Negative:- He is not
less wise than his
brother.

Subject + auxiliary verb


+ not + opposite verb /
adjective / adverb + ext.

Affirmative:- I shall
In order to change an affirmative sentence having an auxiliary verb
remember you.
with a verb/ adjective/ adverb into a negative sentence, we should
add not after the auxiliary verb and use the opposite meaning of
Negative:-I shall not
verb/ adjective/ adverb in negative sentence.
forget you.

Subject + auxiliary verb


to do + not + opposite

If there is no auxiliary verb in an affirmative sentence, to do verb


will be used as auxiliary verb to make it a negative sentence. After

Affirmative:-She

verb + ext.

Subject + must +
verb + ext.

Subject + cannot but +


verb + ext.
Subject + cannot help +
verb-ing + ext

Every + noun/ body/


one + verb + ext.

As soon as + subject
+ verb (past), subject
+ verb(past) + ext.

There is no + noun/
body/ one + but + verb
+ ext

to do verb not will be added and the opposite meaning of verb will
used there. This to do verb will be according to the tense of the
verb of affirmative sentence.

remembered me.
Negative:-She did not
forget me
Affirmative:- We
must read attentively.

For making a negative sentence from an affirmative sentence


having must, we have to use cannot but/cannot help for must. In
this case, basic form of verb will be used after cannot but and
present participle (verb-ing) will be used after cannot help.

Negative:-We cannot
but read attentively.
We cannot help
reading attentively.

To change an affirmative sentence having every + noun/ body/ one


into a negative sentence, we can use there is no for every, then we
have to put the word after every and next we should use but before
verb+ ext.

No sooner had + subject


To change an affirmative sentence having as soon as with two
+ verb(past participle) +
clauses, no sooner had will be used for as soon as in negative
than + subject +
sentence. than must be used between the two clauses.
verb(past) + ext.

Affirmative:Everybody hates a
liar.
Negative:-There is no
body but hates a liar.
Affirmative:-As soon
as he came, the rain
started.
Negative:- No sooner
had he come than the
rain started.
Affirmative:- Only
Allah can help us.

Only + subject + verb


+ ext.
None but + subject +
verb + ext.

Here only is used before a person, but alone is used after the person
word and auxiliary verb. For changing an affirmative sentence into Negative:- None but
Allah can help us.
a negative sentence where only is before a person or alone is after
the person and auxiliary verb, we have to start the negative
sentence with none but for only/alone.

10

Subject + auxiliary
verb + alone + ext.

None but + subject +


auxiliary verb + ext.

Only + subject + verb


Nothing but + subject +
+ ext.
verb + ext.
OR
11

OR

Subject + verb + only


Subject + verb +
+ object + ext.
nothing but + object +
ext.

12

Subject + verb + only


Subject + verb + not
+ number/age + ext.
more / less than +
number/age + ext.

It will be applied when the subjective word is a person word i.e he/
she/ I/ you/ they/ we/ any proper noun.

when only is used before an object/thing, nothing but will be put


there to make a negative sentence from an affirmative sentence .
nothing but is used in negative sentence for only when there is an
object/thing after only in affirmative sentence.

when only is used before number/ age ,not more / less than will be
used in negative sentence for only in affirmative sentence.

Affirmative:- He was
alone alive in the
house.
Negative:- None but
he was alive in the
house.
Affirmative:- Only
the monsoon causes
rain in our country.

Negative:- Nothing
but the monsoon
causes rain in our
country.
Affirmative:- I am
only 20.
Negative:- I am not
more/less than 20.

ASSERTIVE TO INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION RULES

Assertive
Sr.no Sentence
structure

Interrogative
Sentence structure

Subject + auxiliary auxiliary verb + n't


verb + ext.
+ subject + ext.?

Subject + auxiliary
verb + not + ext.
2

Subject + verb +
ext.

Subject + never +
verb + ext.

subject + auxiliary
verb + verb +
nothing + ext.

everybody/

Rule

If there is an auxiliary verb in the assertive sentence, n't added with the
auxiliary verb and be placed before the subject in the interrogative
sentence

Example
Assertive:- We shall
play.
Interrogative:-Shan't
we play?

auxiliary verb +
subject + ext?

Assertive:- We can
If the assertive sentence is a negative sentence, the negative word will be not study attentively.
deleted in interrogative sentence and then it will be started with only
auxiliary verb.
Interrogative:-Can't
we study attentively?

to do + n't + subject
+ verb + ext?

Assertive:- He reads a
if there is no auxiliary verb in the assertive sentence/affirmative
book.
sentence, to make it an interrogative sentence to do verb will be used as
an auxiliary verb there and n't will have to add after the to do verb and to Interrogative:do with n't will be placed before the subject in the interrogative sentence. Doesn't he read a
book?

Assertive:- I never
If there is never used in the assertive sentence, to make an interrogative drink tea.
to do verb + subject
sentence to do verb will be used as Question word and never is
+ ever + verb + ext.?
replaced by ever.
Interrogative:-Do I
ever drink tea?
Assertive:- There was
nothing to do.

auxiliary verb +
subject + verb +
anything + ext.?

If there is nothing used in the assertive sentence, to make it


interrogative sentence, sentence starts with auxiliary verb and nothing
is replaced by anything

Who + to do verb +

If there is everybody/all/everyone used in the assertive sentence, to make Assertive:- Everybody

Interrogative:-Was
there anything to do?

all/everyone +
verb + ext.

n't + verb + ext.?

it interrogative sentence, everybody/all/everyone is replaced by who +


to do verb and nt will have to add after the to do verb.

hates a liar.
Interrogative:-Who
doesn't hate a liar?

Nobody +
auxiliary verb
+verb+ ext.

Who + auxiliary
verb+ verb + ext.?

Assertive:- Nobody
can hit accurately.
Interrogative:-Who
can hit accurately?

auxiliary verb +
anybody + verb+
ext.?

none/no one +
auxiliary verb+
verb + ext.

If there is Nobody used in the assertive sentence, to make it


interrogative sentence, Nobody is replaced by Who

who + auxiliary
verb+ verb + ext.?

auxiliary verb +
anyone + ext.?

If there is Nobody used in the assertive sentence, to make it


interrogative sentence, sentence starts with auxiliary verb and nobody
is replaced by anybody
If there is none/no one used in the assertive sentence, to make it
interrogative sentence, none/ no one is replaced by who.

If there is none/no one used in the assertive sentence, to make it


interrogative sentence, sentence starts with auxiliary verb and none/no
one is replaced by anyone

Can anybody hit


accurately?
Assertive:- None/No
one can do this.
Interrogative:-Who
can do this? Can any
one do this?

ASSERTIVE TO IMPERATIVE SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION RULES

Sr.no

Assertive Sentence
structure
You + auxiliary verb +
verb + ext.

Imperative
Sentence structure

Rule

Verb + ext.

If the assertive sentence consist auxiliary verb and no negative


word then to make it imperative remove subject and auxiliary verb
from sentence

you +auxiliary verb + not + Do + not + verb +


verb + ext.
ext.

you + should + never +


verb + ext.

I/We/He/She/Noun + verb
+ ext.

Never + verb + ext.

Let + me/ us/ him/


her/ them/ noun +
verb + ext.

If the assertive sentence consist auxiliary verb and negative word


not then to make it imperative remove subject and auxiliary verb
from sentence and start sentence with Do Not

If the assertive sentence consist auxiliary verb should and


negative word never then to make it imperative remove subject
and auxiliary verb from sentence and start sentence with Never

If the assertive sentence consist of subject other then you and no


auxiliary verb then to make it imperative use object form of
pronoun if subject is pronoun and start sentence with Let

I/we/he/she/they/ +
auxiliary verb + not + verb
+ ext.

If the assertive sentence consist of pronoun as subject other then


Let me/ us/ him/ her/
you and auxiliary verb and also negative word not then to
them + not + verb +
make it imperative use object form of pronoun and start sentence
ext.
with Let and place not after subject.

Noun + auxiliary verb +

Let not + noun +

If the assertive sentence consist of noun as subject and auxiliary

Example
Assertive:- You
should do the sum.
Imperative:-Do the
sum.
Assertive:-You do
not waste your
time.
Imperative:-Do
not waste your
time.
Assertive:-You
should never tell a
lie.
Imperative:-Never
tell a lie.
Assertive:-She
sings a song.
Imperative:-Let
her sing a song.
Assertive:-We do
not do it.
Imperative:-Let us
not do it
Assertive:-John

not + verb + ext.

verb + ext.

verb and also negative word not then to make it imperative start
sentence with Let not.

does not go there.


Imperative:- Let
not John go there.

ASSERTIVE TO EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION RULES

Sr.no

Assertive Sentence
structure

Exclamatory Sentence
structure

Rule

Subject + verb + a + very


+ adjective/ adverb + ext.

What + a/ an + adjective/
adverb + ext. + subject +
verb!

in exclamatory sentence, a very is replaced by what


+a/an and these are used after verb and before
adjective/ adverb.

Subject + verb + very +


adjective/ adverb + ext.

Subject + wish + subject


+ verb + ext.

Subject + wish + subject


+ could + verb + ext.

how + adjective/ adverb +


ext. + subject + verb!

If + subject + verb + ext.!

would that + subject + could


+ verb + ext!

in exclamatory sentence , very is replaced by how


and it is used after verb.

For subject + wish, if is used in exclamatory


sentence.

For subject + wish + could, if /would that is used in


exclamatory sentence

Example
Assertive:- It is a very nice
story.
Exclamatory:-What a nice
story it is!
Assertive:-The scenery
looks very nice.
Exclamatory:-How nice
the scenery looks!
Assertive:-I wish I had the
wings of a bird.
Exclamatory:-If I had the
wings of a bird!
Assertive:-We wish we
could shift there.
Exclamatory:-Would that
we could shift there!

EXCLAMATORY TO ASSERTIVE SENTENCE TRANSFORMATION RULES

Sr.no

Exclamatory Sentence
structure

what + a/an + adjective/


adverb + subject + verb!

How + adjective/ adverb +


subject + verb!

Hurrah! Subject + verb +


ext.

Alas! Subject + verb + ext.


4

If + subject +
were/verb(past) + ext.!

Were/Had + subject + ext.!


6

Assertive Sentence
structure

Rule

Subject + verb + a +
very + adjective/ adverb.

in assertive sentence, what +a/an is replaced by a


very and these are used after verb and before
adjective/ adverb.

Subject + verb + very +


adjective/ adverb.

It is a matter of joy that


+ subject + verb + ext.

It is a matter of sorrow
that + subject + verb +
ext.

in assertive sentence ,how is replaced by very and it


is used after verb.

Example
Exclamatory:- What a nice
baby you are!
Assertive:- You are a very
nice baby.
Exclamatory:-How
beautifully you sings!
Assertive:-You sings very
beautifully.
Exclamatory:- Hurrah! we
have won.

Hurrah is replaced by it is a matter of joy


Assertive:- It is a matter of
joy that we have won.
Exclamatory:-Alas! I am
undone.
Alas is replaced by it is a matter of sorrow.
Assertive:-It is a matter of
sorrow that I am undone.

Subject + wish + subject


+ were/ verb(past) + ext.

For If were/verb(past) , subject + wish +


were/verb(past) is used in assertive sentence.

Subject + wish + subject


+ were/had + ext.

For Were/ Had, subject + wish + were/had is used


in assertive sentence.

Exclamatory:-If I sang a
song!
Assertive:-I wish I sang a
song.
Exclamatory:-Were I a
child again!
Assertive:-I wish I were a

child again.

Would that + subject +


could + verb + ext.!

Subject + wish + subject


+ could + verb + ext.

For if /would that subject + wish is used in assertive


sentence.

Exclamatory:-Would that
we could play cricket!
Assertive:-We wish we
could play cricket.