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Demo Assignment July-Dec 2016

MS-01

Course Code

MS - 01

Course Title

Management Functions and Behaviour

Assignment Code

MS-01/TMA/SEM -II/2016

Assignment Coverage

All Blocks

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1. Planning and controlling go hand in hand. There can be no control without a plan and plans cannot be
successfully implemented in the absence of controls. Controls provide a means of checking the progress of the
plans and correcting any deviations that may occur along the way.
Elaborate this statement and discuss the underlying concept referring to the experience you have in
organizations you have worked in or familiar with. Briefly describe the organization, you are referring to.
Planning is the basic function of every enterprise as in planning we decide what is to be done, how it is to be done, when it is to be
done and by whom it must be done. Planning bridges the gap between where we are standing today and where we want to reach.
Controlling means keeping a check that everything is in accordance with plan and if there is any deviation, taking preventive
measures to stop that deviation. The meaning of controlling makes it clear that controlling function is undertaken for right and
timely implementation of plans.
Planning and controlling are interdependent and interlinked:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The base for comparison or the yardstick to check is given by planning to controlling function.
On the other hand, the planning function is also dependent on controlling function as plans are not made only on papers but these
have to be followed and implemented in the organisation.
The controlling function makes sure that everyone follows the plan strictly. Continuous monitoring and check in controlling
function make it possible that everyone follows the plan.
So both the functions are interlinked and interdependent as for successful execution of both the functions planning and controlling
must support each other. For example-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Planning is the most basic and pervasive process involved in managing. It means deciding in advance what actions to take and
when and how to take them. Planning is needed, firstly for committing and allocating the organisation's limited resources towards
achieving its objectives in the best possible manner and, secondly for anticipating the future opportunities and problems.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Planning and controlling go hand in hand. There can be no control without a plan and plans cannot be successfully
implemented in the absence of controls. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. As each worker enters the factory premises in the morning, his time of arrival
is electronically (or manually) punched on his card and every evening his departure time is similarly recorded.

Planning and control is concerned -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- of formality and detail may vary. This chapter introduces and
provides an overview of some of the principles and methods of planning and control.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The type of control required will vary according to the factors that are to be controlled, and the critical importance of the factors to
the organisation's success. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- devise elaborate and sophisticated financial controls.

A control is meaningful only when there is clear cut responsibility for activities and results. It is meaningless to have a control
process which simply points out deviations but cannot pinpoint the area in which they occurred and who is responsible for taking
the corrective measures.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Interdependence between Planning and Controlling


There is a deep relationship between the --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- controlling and controlling is blind without
planning. Both the aspects of the interdependence of planning and control have been detailed below:
(i) Planning is ----------------------------------------------- Controlling:
In the first part of interdependence between ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ only in the
presence of controlling. It means that if the control is not present it is useless to have planning.
If the process of controlling is taken away ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ to work according to
the plans and consequently, the plans will fail.
(ii) Controlling is ---------------------------- Planning:
Under the system of -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- for control, and the standards are determined under planning.
It is, therefore, said that control is blind without planning or it is without any base.

Example- (Planning & Operations control at Air France}


In many ways a major airline can be viewed as one large planning problem which is usually approached as many independent,
smaller (but still difficult) planning problems. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, but all are interrelated.


Air France has eighty flight planners working 24-hour shifts in their flight planning office at Roissy, Charles de Gaulle. Their job ---

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Planning Air Frances schedule is a massive job. Just some of the considerations which need to be taken into account include the
following.
Frequency --------------------------------------------------------------------------- the airline provide?
-------------------------------------------------------------------- should be used on each leg of a flight?
Banks at any airline ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ of several planes which arrive close together, pause to --------------------------------------------------------------together. So, how many banks should there be and when should they occur?
Block times a ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. The longer the allowed block time the more ----------------------------------------------------------------------minor delays. However, longer block times also mean fewer flights can be scheduled.
--------------------------------------------------------- must allow time for planes to have time at a maintenance base.
Crew planning pilot and cabin ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- and to keep
within maximum on duty times for all staff.
Gate plotting if many planes ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- them simultaneously.
Recovery many things can cause deviations --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- allow for recovery.

For flights within and between Air Frances ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------say and, when satisfied,


co-signs the flight plan together with the planning officer.

2. What are various models of Decision making? Briefly discuss. Referring to your prior experience, discuss
what model has been prevalent in the organization/s you have worked for or familiar with. Briefly describe the
organizations you are referring to.
Decision making is one of the most ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- a problem, evaluating alternatives, and selecting one alternative.
In the widest sense all situations --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- solutions to achieve goals. It is about the analysis of decisions into possible options and their
possible consequences.
There are numerous process definitions in the realm of the decision sciences. On the light end there is a simple but powerful and
regularly --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, choosing from alternatives, and executing the solution.
As pointed out by descriptive models of decision making, most decisions mean searching for alternatives and iteratively -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- as well as for public sector
political decisions. Options (thus alternatives) are debated and modified, values raised and questioned.

There are several models of decision-making:


1. The economic rationality model - This --------------------------------------------------------------------------- maker is perfectly and
completely rational in every way. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ to come up with a
fact-based decision.. In this, following conditions are assumed.
a. The decision ------------------------------------------------------------------- ends sense.
b. There -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- among alternatives.
c. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- alternatives.
d. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- mysterious.
e. There are no -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- alternatives.
2. The social model: - At the ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, emotions and instincts, with their behavior guided by their
unconscious desires. These processes have even an impact in the international arena as they provide some basic rules of protocol.

3. Simons bounded rationality model: - -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------making behaviour could be described as follows-

a. In choosing --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- or good enough. Examples of satisfying criteria would be adequate profit or share or the market and fair price.
b. They -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- the
simplification because they believe the real world is mostly empty anyway.
c. Because --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- possible behaviour
alternatives and without ascertaining that these are all the alternatives.
d. The ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- techniques do not make
impossible demands upon their capacity for thought.

Examples of decisions under complete uncertainty are as difficult to cite as example of decisions under absolute certainty. Given
even limited experience and the ability to -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Nevertheless, there are undoubtedly times when managers feel
they are dealing with complete uncertainty.
Selection of a new advertising programme from among several alternatives might be one such example. The number of factors to
be considered and the large --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- is a career decision that incorporates a great deal of
uncertainty. The number of factors to be weighed and evaluated, often without comparable standards, can be overwhelming.

Example- (Rational Decision making model in Intestinal Distress Tacos fast food restaurant)
Violet Jones is a manager at the Intestinal Distress Tacos fast food restaurant. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, Violet must follow these six steps:
----------------------------------------- problem.
Identify the ---------------------------------------Allocate ------------------------------------ criteria.
Develop ------------------------------------------------.
-------------------------------------------- alternatives.
Select --------------------------------- alternative.
Let's take a look at the process ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- profits for her store.
----------------- Problem - Violet first needs to define the problem. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- to find the best
solution to increase profits. The next step facing Violet is to determine what criteria she will use to make her decision.
Identify the Decision Criteria- The next step in ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------any employees to save money. She will only cut costs in other ways, such as
finding cheaper vendors, shortening store hours, changing menu options, etc. Her criteria will be:

How will employees be affected?


How will changes affect customers?

How will changes affect quality?

Allocate Weights to Criteria- Violet's next ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The next step starts to consider solutions.


Develop the Alternatives -The next ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- step, just a generated list of
alternatives. Violet has brainstormed a short list of alternative solutions:

Select a ---------------------------------------------------------------------- cost less money.


Shorten --------------------------------------------------------------------- overhead costs.
Lay off ------------------------------------------------------------------------ salaries.
Increase ------------------------------------------------------------ and sales,

Now Violet needs to consider the alternative list she developed.


Evaluate the alternatives- Violet spent ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ yet solve her financial dilemma.
Select the best alternative- After much consideration ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ to the well being of restaurant.

Other Decision Making ExamplesIndia offers many interesting examples of differentiated generic decisions. For example, large Indian business groups
such as Future, Bharti, Tata and Reliance groups took a ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------under two brand and retailing formats (Pantaloons and Big Bazar). Bharti decided to benefit from the retailing and supply chain
skills of WalMart through a joint venture under an Indian brand name. Tata decided to focus on electronics and household
necessities through Croma and StarBazaar respectively, also drawing on retailing expertise of an overseas retailing major,
Tesco. Reliance, on the other hand, created ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- have to be strategic thinkers, besides
being functional specialists, to enable differentiated decisions and outcomes even under common generic umbrella.

Indian industry has many examples of contextual decision making that served to revitalize the earlier decisions at current risk.
Two striking examples are relevant. Tata Motors had its most prestigious Nano micro car planned at Singur in ---------------------

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Reliance Anil Ambani group which faced an adverse ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- groups unlock greater value from
current and future businesses. Decision making needs to be value-centric rather than ego-centric.

The remarkable growth of many Indian companies in the highly competitive global environment is directly related to the flow of
creative ideas and decisions from the laboratory benches, drawing boards or machining centers. Glenmark, ------------------------

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, Safari, Indica, Indigo, Ace and Nano successively. Employees need to be developed and empowered not only for execution but
for decision making as a cultural embodiment of forward looking organization.

3. Discuss some of the syndromes of organizational maladjustment. Relate them with the experience you have
had in the organizations you have worked for or familiar with. Briefly describe the organizations you are
referring to.
Change Management (CM) refers to any approach to transitioning individuals, teams, and organizations using methods intended
to re-direct the use of resources, business process, budget allocations, or other modes of operation that significantly reshape a
company or organization.
The -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------these demands are constantly changing, organisations must also change.


What are some of the changes --------------------------------------------------------------------------- in the past few. decades? A short list
is given here, but you can lengthen it from your own observation of events:
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- are fast becoming obsolete
Basic ---------------------------------------------------------------------- more expensive
Competition has --------------------------------------------------------- Communication ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- to make decisions
Environmental ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ influential
The -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- momentum
The economic ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- apparent.
These and scores of other ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, the attributes of the organisations are changing.
What happens when organisations fail to -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Here is a list of some such syndromes whose halfserious names are trying to conceal the malady of maladjustment:

Some Syndromes of Organisational Maladjustment

Amoeba: Lack of strong ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- trap,


i.e. doing things without knowing where one is heading to.

Anarchy: A -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- and resources are in dispute.

Buggy whip: ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- for sustaining livelihood.

Deadlock: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- leading to toxic


antagonistic relations between the factions.

Mom & Pop: Small ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- the awkward stage.

Myopia: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Live day to day, week to week.

Rat-race: Toxic --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, slave-driving policy.

Remote Control: Too ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- making


autonomy is seriously impaired.

Rigor Mortis: ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- is structure and order.

This illustrative list of syndromes of --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- and skills of


managing change to a long way to prevent such disasters. This unit is designed to achieve such purposes.
The organization I am referring here is Tata Steel. Tata Steel Limited (formerly Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited
(TISCO)) is an Indian multinational steel-making company ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Causes of Maladjustment in the Workplace at Tata Steel


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- from low morale and perform
tasks too slowly or improperly. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ as their
relationships with colleagues and supervisors. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.
------------------------- Every company, even a smaller one, has its own culture. Some workers may have difficulty
adjusting to a company's culture, ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- of communication or simply how employees treat or
interact with one --------------------------------------------------------------------------- disenchanted with the company.
Inadequate ------------- Employees who receive inadequate initial training may never feel completely comfortable with
their job and the company. Poor ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- and stress, as well as a negative attitude toward coworkers and supervisors. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- can make it
difficult for them to adjust to organizational change.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ work long hours to meet the
demands, which can create high levels of stress and eventually lead to burnout, as well as negatively impact their family
lives. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------,
they feel the colleagues are receiving preferential treatment from management.

especially

if

Poor Job Match- Some employees may -------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------become frustrated, and may


fail to adequately adjust without proper mentoring.
STRATEGIC INITIATIVES TO DEAL WITH MALADJUSTMENT IN TATA STEEL-

Make
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------knick knacks, toys, statues, rugs, artwork, crystals, etc.

Clear out ------------------------------------------------------------------- to their productivity when they try this.

Bring yourself back to nature by -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------the environment much more.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- a little cooler, or maybe


youd like a bit of air circulation. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- you want it to
be.

Simply
stating
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------morale among employees.

Offer bonuses, ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- employees a goal to work


towards and can create enthusiasm which is often contagious among employees.

Open the lines of ---------------------------------------------------------------------- or programs would get them


motivated. This will ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- factor of the company.

Understand that the ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- can cause depression and a lack of


motivation. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, and tasteful artwork

Encourage communication ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------to feel comfortable to voice their -------------------------------------------------------------- conditions and work.

Revise the company mission -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- employee


feels as though they are an integral part of the companys future.

Make sure the ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- employees


in the work force want to work for a company they can trust and believe in.

Find ways to ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------from home schedules,


gym memberships, etc.

Provide personal -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- problems.

4. What are the characteristics of effective work groups and role of a manager in managing group
productivity?
Substantiate the response with your organizational experience or the ones you are aware of. Briefly describe
the organization you are referring to.

Characteristics of Effective work GroupsWork groups are the building blocks of organizations. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- suite to the factory floor. Some are incredibly
successful, while others are dismal failures. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- group leaders and members can identify actions that
will enhance their effectiveness.
Effective work group creates its ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- into place helps the group obtain productive results. In order to
create a productive team, ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- of effective teamwork.
In managing the organisation--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, cohesion and leadership. Let us see how each one of
them ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- of the organisation.
i) Group norms
When the group functions --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------his behaviour in various groups. You will


see the different kinds of behaviour of the same individual in different groups.
You may also notice that sometimes the norm is formal and is accepted by the group that way. For example all --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. All of them would do so by accepting this
norm. On the other hand, a norm can be informal arising out of interactions and feelings of the people. All the members of a task
group decide to keep their output high by regulating their pace of work. For example, ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. So they do it.
It is also possible that another group may like to keep its -------------------------------------------------------------------------

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------in course of
doing a work. So we can say that one of the characteristics of norms is they develop behaviour that is significant for the group.
We also find another characteristic of norms: some norms are applicable to some people only and not to all. For example, a
manager of a group behaves differently, from other members of the group. His or her behaviour is what is expected of him or her
in a given position by others. When a new member joins the group, he or she is expected to follow the norms more closely than
the senior members.
Some norms have central importance and are accepted by everyone of the group while others have less importance. Schein (1974)
talks of pivotal and relevant group norms--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. A relevant group norm is one which is neither central nor absolutely
essential to follow but is worthwhile and desirable. So any norm may be pivotal in group, but may be irrelevant to another.
Some of us conform to all the norms of the group, --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. It is therefore
advisable that the individual exercises his or her choice of acceptance of the norm quite discreetly.
ii) Group cohesiveness

This means the degree to which group members are motivated to remain within the group and consequently behave in similar
ways. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Cohesiveness develops
out of the activities, ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- acts as one man to attain its goal.
What are the factors which influence the cohesiveness?
Size of the group: With very few people in a group, you may fall short of skilled hand: to do a good job. With a large number
of people you may find it --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------in a large group. Hence group cohesiveness


will suffer.
Proximity or geography of the group: Nearness -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- to attain its goals.
Outside pressure: This binds together all the members against a common enemy and thus makes its members forget their
differences. You might have observed -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- the supervisor who closely supervises
the work or (iv) lack of trust between the manager and his group or (v) even mistrust between two groups.
Accomplishing group goals
As the group becomes more cohesive the ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ways.
Accomplishing group goals increases the cohesion of the group. Failing to accomplish the group goals reduces the group
cohesiveness.
It is necessary to remember that it is not always desirable to have group cohesiveness, which may result in going against the
objectives of the work group. For example, --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------a realistic manner. In


governmental administration many significant decisions are made on the basis of group think principles which have been quite
unfortunate for a large number of people.
Group leadership
Leadership is the ability to influence the behaviour of others. Any effective work group wanting to accomplish its task gaining
some sort of social satisfaction and having some sense of contribution and growth should like to look up to a leader to help reach
these goals. Informal leaders often emerge from the activities, interactions, sentiments of the ongoing group. They may help the
group to accomplish its task or fulfil its social goals. You will always notice that formal task instruction comes from the
supervisor, but informal help comes from the informal leader.
Informal leader may be lower in --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------needs satisfied.
Unified Commitment to a Goal
A Work group is created to complete the -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------when the team is presented with a goal, they can come together and work as a single
unit to complete the task.

Participation
In order for a Work group to act as a ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- is essential to the group's success, and when the group is
given a task, each member knows what their job is and sets out to put in their fair share of the effort.
Open Communication
A Work group is able to communicate effectively and there is a feeling of open communication between all members of the group.
Issues within a Work group are ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- direct and open communication on all issues.
Decision-Making
A Work group has a hierarchy and a ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------in group leadership.


Efficient Use of Ideas
Brainstorming is one way that groups come up with the solution to a problem. An effective team is able to gather information
from each member and formulate that information into a response. The Work group becomes adept at dismissing ideas that will
not work, and including effective ideas into what would become the team's solution to an issue.

Role of a manager in managing group productivityIn your role as a manager ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- manage your group of people towards attaining the goal.
i) Content
While having a meeting with your group members try to understand the subject matter of the task to be performed by the
committee. This will help you to see the problem clearly and solve it to:

Decide about ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- in the committee to solve your problem

Distribute the --------------------------------------------------------------------------- the members

Specify --------------------------------------------------------------------------

Encourage persons to ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- to a problem.


Allow them to think of various alternative solutions

Periodically summaries the ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- authority/advise the higher authority.


ii) Process
This involves how the content is --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- the content is handled is by group task activities. You may
initiate, orient the group to its goals, coordinate, give and seek information about the problem.
Another way may be through the group building activities like encouraging members to cooperate with each other. In the work,
encourage people to participate, share jokes or ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- to establish better group relationship.
Still another way the group members --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- are only serving their own
purpose or interest rather than helping the group to achieve its goal.
You must try to understand the difference between -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- are disruptive. They reduce the ability of the group to attain its objectives.

Many times we overlook the fact that -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------disrupting the informal organisation.

ExampleHCL Foundation (HCLF), established in 2011, as a not-for-profit organization, seeks to engage with various stakeholders to
bring about developmental changes in a --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------sustainable agenda of the company. HCL Foundation has committed Rs. 1 billion
towards CSR initiatives over the next five years.
The mission of the Work Group in HCL ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- and capacity building. The Work
Groups in HCL Foundation have developed widely used capabilities for community-based participatory research and for building
capacity for community work, including through the Community Tool Box.
The work group of HCL Foundation is ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------client and end users. An analysis of the data collected from this team indicated that they
showed the attributes needed for successful teamwork.

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