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Luxi Li 1, Yizhou Yao2, Meng Yao1*, Erik D. Goodman3, E. John R. Deller4

School of Info Science and Tech, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China

2

College of Science and Engineering, Central Michigan University, Mt Pleasant, MI, U.S.

3

BEACON Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, U.S.

4

ECE Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, U.S.

*

Corresponding Author, e-mail: myao@ee.ecnu.edu.cn

1

sampling theory is presented - the system obtains each sample

after a random time interval, and it is a part of the Brest

Tumor Microwave Sensor System(BRATUMASS) [1]; It is

designed to refine the data of BRATUMASS. The first part

introduces the system in the following aspects - the

components of the system, how the signal is obtained, and the

algorithm we used to calculate the spectrum of non-uniformly

sampled data. The second part introduces a set of

experimental performances based on random sampling

method to explore the features of random sampling; the

signals used in the experiment are single frequency sinusoidal

waves, mixed sinusoidal waves, and a piece of bass music

waves [2], since the random sampling method is a prototype

and not integrated with BRATUMASS yet. The data from

BRATUMASS is a uniformly sampled data interpolated with

the same mechanism - random time interval interpolation, and

it will be the next step of this study.

Keywords: Compressive Sensing, Microwave Imaging,

Random Sampling

Introduction

could later become worse and convert to breast cancer. Thus

the earlier breast cancer is detected, the more likely to

practice permanent cure. BRATUMASS is developed to

detect breast cancer at an earlier stage, more treatable stage.

Thus, In BRATUMASS, the analysis of the data becomes

significantly important. In BRATUMASS, the frequency

resolution is such important in discriminating different breast

tissue. Here is random sampling comes into the picturerandom sampling is a method of compressive sensing [3]. It

features a signal to information conversion. Due to limited of

information energy in the Nyquist-Shannon theorem, random

sampling reduces the number of samples without much

perceptual loss. This quality is ideal in the developing of a

portable cost-effective device. More importantly, the signal to

information conversion, if successful, would increase the

information to noise ratio while processing BRATUMASSs

This work is to explore the features of random sampling and

to prepare for its implementation in BRATUMASS.

sampling module, FIFO to USB converter, data display and

analysis platform on PC.

A. Sampling Module: This module is based on an Arduino

[4]. Timer, ADC module and random number generator

mentioned below are all integrated in this chip. Timer is set

according to a sequence of random number. ADC module is

triggered by the compare match of the timer and the value of

compare match register is updated in each of the compare

match interrupt routine. Thus the time interval between two

neighbouring sample is controlled by a random number

generated by algorithm. Both ADC data and the random time

interval is send to PC through FIFO to USB module.

B. FIFO to USB Converter: Stores data from the sampling

module before computer reads it and sends message from

computer to sampling module [5].

C. Data display and analysis platform on PC: Sends

instructions to and reads data from the USB port. Display

waveform and stores data for analysis.

Spectrum calculation

possible to represent signal from a relatively small set of data.

In this experiment, each sample is obtained after a random

time interval. Simulation of this method has been done in

previous work [6]. The advantage of this method is that

aliasing can be avoided while sampling at an average rate

below the Nyqvist rate. Besides, lower sampling rate means

more observation time at a limited data amount. In other words,

it takes longer to full a limited storage at a lower sampling rate.

In this case, lower sampling rate makes longer observation

time and thus increases resolution of the spectrum.

The difference of spectrum calculation between random

sampled data and uniformly sampled data is the difference of

time should take into account while doing integration [7].

transform of x(t), sampling interval is T, total number of

sample is N, then NT is the total sampling time. Let x(n) be

the uniformly sampled data, x(tn){n = 1,2,3,,n} be the

randomly sampled data, XD(f) be the Fourier transform of

x(tn). We have:

X c(f ) =

NT

x(t )e j 2ftdt

X c(f ) =

x(n )e

j 2fn

sine wave, then a mix of two sine waves with close frequency,

finally a bass music wave.

=1

X D(f ) =

x(n )e

( j 2ftn )/(tn 1 tn )

=1

this experiment; they are Uniform, Normal and Rayleigh

distribution. These random numbers are interpreted as time

interval between neighbouring samples. For comparison,

Nyqvist style samples (identical time interval between

neighbouring samples) is also taken and analysed. Therefore

we have 4 groups of data for one target signal. HIST of a

typical series of random number is shown in Fig. 1. These

numbers are generated on data acquisition board and then

transmit to PC.

As is shown in Fig. 3, this sampling method is successful

in distinguishing single sine wave. Aliasing is suppressed but

frequencies with small amplitude are appearing where aliasing

frequencies should be. This signal is obtained at an average

sampling rate of 800Hz.

Fig. 3. Spectrum of single sine wave 233Hz and 678Hz in one figure

Fig. 1. HIST of random time interval

experiment shows limits while distinguish signal frequency at

low sampling frequency. During the experiment, while

sampling frequency is lower than the signal frequency, the

spectrum of the signal failed to distinguish signal frequency.

What caused this limit and how to improve this remains to be

explored. However, distinguish of signal frequency lower than

sampling frequency is successful. Experiments and results will

be discussed in this part.

Five groups of signal are selected as target signal in this

experiment. They are 233Hz, 678Hz, (233.5+233.6) Hz,

(678.5+678.6) Hz sine waves and a piece of bass music wave.

As is shown in Fig. 2, first we tried to distinguish a single

In mixed sine wave experiment, a same amount of

samples (16000 samples) is obtained from a mixed sine wave

of 233.5Hz and 233.6Hz. The average rate of random

sampling is 800Hz and the sampling rate of Nyquist sampling

is 2000Hz. Thus the time window for random sampling is 20

seconds, and its frequency resolution should be 1/20=0.05Hz.

While the time window for Nyquist sampling is 8 seconds, so

the frequency resolution should be 1/8=0.125Hz. In other

words, lower sampling rate means longer observation time

window for signal when the data amount is limited. And the

longer the observation time the higher the frequency

resolution. The spectrum of this experiment shows that

random sampling shows better frequency resolution at the

same number of samples, as it is in Fig. 4 that random

while Nyquist fails to distinguish two frequency components.

interpolated with random time interval. The signal is obtained

at 500Hz. It is interpolated at an average rate of 5000Hz. As

is shown in Fig. 6, The samples interpolated between the

original samples follows the linear relationship. Because the

target signal in BRATUMASS is in 0-50Hz, the spectrum

between 0 and 50Hz is compared in the third line of Fig. 6.

Different deviation from 5000Hz in this experiment is to

explore the influence of different while calculating the time

interval of interpolation. The spectrum of signal after

interpolation deviates from the spectrum before interpolation

as the deviation grows. As is shown in Fig. 6 that the

subtraction of the two fluctuates as the deviation grows. The

result might be different while using larger or different mean.

How different distribution of random numbers affect the

signal spectrum is still to be explored.

We also had a bass music wave experiment to explore

how this mechanism fits sound wave with rich frequency

components in it. This bass music wave is a wave(.wav) file

with sampling rate of 44100Hz. Original bass music wave and

its FFT of is showed in the last line in Fig. 5. Most of its

energy is in frequency components within 1000Hz. All the

sampling rate or the average of sampling rate in this bass

music experiment is 800Hz.

The spectrum from random sampled data is no big difference

from the signals fft, except for the aliasing around 700Hz.

The anti-aliasing propriety seems to be weakened when signal

has rich main frequency components, shown in the Fig.5. The

spectrum of Uniform, Normal, Rayleigh and Nyquist is

roughly symmetric at an axis of 400Hz. All spectrum

calculated from random sampled data is aliasing just like the

spectrum calculated from Nyquist style sampled data.

However the anti- aliasing propriety of random sampling is

not totally gone. The amplitude of higher frequency, which is

the aliasing frequency, is slightly lower than that of its

symmetric frequency in Fig. 5.

Conclusion

distinguishes the spectrum of sine wave and bass wave. It

shows advantage in improving the resolution of spectrum and

in the suppressing of aliasing. However, how the distribution

of random numbers affects the signal spectrum and how to

relate the distribution of random interval and the information

energy is still to be explored.

Acknowledge

This work has been performed while Prof. Meng Yao was a

visiting Professor in Beacon Center, Michigan State University,

thanks to a visiting research program from Prof. Erik D.

Goodman. M. Yao would also like to acknowledge the support

of Shanghai Science and Technology Development Foundation

under the project grant numbers 03JC14026 and 08JC1409200,

as well as the support of TI Co. Ltd through TI (China)

Innovation Foundation.

References

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

microwave echo imaging integrity, Ph.D. dissertation,

East China Normal University, Shanghai, China, April

2011.

freesound.org. (2012) double bass est1.[Online]Available:

ttps://www.freesound.org/people/wescwave/sounds/16988

5/

E. J. Candes and M. B. Wakin, An introduction to

compressive sampling, IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING

MAGAZINE, 2008.

A. LLC.(2016)Arduino products.[Online]. Available:

https://www.arduino.cc/en/Main/Products

F. T. D. I. Ltd. (2015) Ft2232 - hi-speed dual usb uart/fifo

ic. [Online]. Available:

http://www.ftdichip.com/Products/ICs/FT2232H.htm

Z. Cai, Non uniform sampling used in breast cancer

detection system, Masters thesis, East China Normal

University, Shanghai, China, April 2015.

A. Wang, Methods of signal frequency measurement and

implementation based on nonuniform sampling, Ph.D.

dissertation, Huazhong University of Science and

Technology, Wuhan, China, April 2004.

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