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Prctica #1 Equations of motion

Alejandro Morales Calvo


06/09/2016, Laboratorio de Dinmica de Vuelo, Facultad de Ingeniera Mecnica y Elctrica, Universidad Autnoma de Nuevo Len

This practice have an analysis on how a simple pendulum acts upon a force. For this is given a problem in which it is
necessary to obtain the rotational motion of the pendulum, as well as a simulation that shows up the behavior that the body
have when a force is applied on it. This simulation is able with Matlab, showing then the behavior of the rotational motion
equations that will be gotten.


So for this practice it is given a simple pendulum. For this

type of body, we must consider a mass suspended from a light
inextensible string of length l. This mass i sable to swing freely
from side to side in the horizontal/vertical plane, as shown in
figure 1.

trigonometry to this force of mass, we can see how it acts on the

body. We can say that this mass passes a distance from
the pivot point, so this torque will be found with .
Since this force is acting downwards we will have then that the
torque created by the motion of the pendulum will be gotten
and by combining the equations we previously have, we will get
this angular equation of motion:

Figure 1. Simple Pendulum.

In this pendulum as we can see, we have an angle

between the string and the vertical. The equilibrium point of this
pendilum will be when this angle equals to zero. So for this
simple pendulum we have an angular equation of motion:
where I is the moment of inertia of the mass, is the torque
acting on the system. So for these case as shown in the figure,
we have a distance l from the axis rotation, having then our
angular equation of motion as:

So we have the task to analyze the following problem

with the following assumptions. Using Newtons second law of
motion, we can write the equation of motion in the tangential
direction as:

Obtain the state variables of the pendulum equation

considering ! = and ! = .
Obtain the system performance in Matlab/simulink for
k=0, m=0.25 kg, = 9.81 / ! and l=0.15 m.

= !
So as shown in the figure we have two forces acting
on the pendulum, which is the mass, and the tension of the
string. This tension doesnt affect since there is attached to a
pivot, which will allow the pendulum to move freely. So applying

Figure 2. Problem Pendulum.

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First of all we must isolate the variable with more derivates in

the equation, so we will isolate :

So, we will have then:


Knowing that:

Figure 4. Pendulum behavior.

! =
! = ! =
We will have then:

Finally we must apply a matrix form to this previous equation.

For this we must establish two conditions:
! = !

Figure 5. Pendulum Behavior

! = 1

This simulation appears to represent the motion of the
pendulum, since it is hanging on a pivot, and its motion will be
as a senoidal wave, such as Figure 4 or 5. With the use of
Matlab we can understand the behavior of this type of bodys, by
turning the behavior we get on a simple equation, into a more
visual understanding such as the graphs offered by Simulink.

So to analyze this system in matlab, first we must put as much

integers as the highest derivative in our equation, so thats why
we have two. After this we connect those integers to their
respective values and connect them into an scope to simulate
the equation we previously got. Since we dont have an external
force, we apply a discrete impulse tu simulate that missing

With the given data we were able to analyze this simple

pendulum, with the help of Matlab, we can be able to simulate
maby cases on which the given data can change, giving a
different behavior and a different visual graphs. Matlab allows us
to inmediately change data for another study, making it faster,
and making an easier understanding.
Its important to know that this behavior is specifically for
the given data. When these data change, the behavior will also
change, but it will still show the same type of behavior.

[1] The simple pendulum. (n.d.). Retrieved September 04,
2016, from

Figure 3. Simulink Diagram

[2] Pendulum Lab. (2016). Retrieved September 04, 2016,


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