Anda di halaman 1dari 104


Researching is a skill, a course and a discipline. We owe almost everything
from it. In fact, from the simplest problem-solving at home to the industry efficiency
are formulated, and implemented based on the principles of researching. Lets face
it, researching is unavoidable. As part of an academic institution, both students and
faculty members are obliged to do researching. Carlos P. Romulo once said, A state
university is a citadel of truthIts mission is to constantly search for knowledge
Scholarship is its indispensable arm and failing light. It believes in research above
all things human freedom without which there can be no creative ingenuity that can
make of knowledge a blessing to society.
The fundamentality of research is referred to be as essential as our origin for
it gives us freedom to nourish the gifts around us as we develop and make
innovations out of the raw intellects and ideas for the prosperity of both education
and industry. In this context, this book was written.
This book caters the research principles that will help you to contextualize
and materialize a SMART research (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic and
Time-Bound). It contains methodologies and practical tips to execute simple yet
substantial researching. It discusses intensively the formulation of research
essentials to come up with productive results and viable implementation of the
theories it presents. It also stretches the functions of each research chapter and
their functions and interconnections.
Each presentation will expect you to achieve the tasks for you to use the full
extent of your research abilities. These basic yet comprehensive exercises will let
you to realize that researching is very easy and fun.
Our research journey will start in committing yourself that you as the new
researcher will be conducting research not only for the school requirement but also
of passion in innovation and development. With the help of your research adviser,
you will understand that researching will stop in conclusions or recommendations
for it has to be presented, validated, used, and implemented.

Unit I
Let me start it by defining what a research is. According to Merriam-Webster
Dictionary (2015), Research is a studious inquiry or examination; especially: or
experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of
accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such
new or revised theories or laws. On the other words, research is a process of
gathering information for the drive of answering problems to initiate, change,
innovate, create and uncover.
There are many genres where research may be originated and formulated.
There are various tenacities in which the research is principally based on and
defined upon. Subsequently, Research is composed of different methodological
paces to establish, confirm or reaffirm findings to purposely build concrete
foundation of truth through clear and valid procedures for application resolutions.
Purposes of research may be contextual and normative but to give you a
comprehensive and general rationalization here some of them. The world and the
industry have great benefits from researchers who are born and grown in the
academe. Our contributions to these arena are acknowledged and necessarily be
applied in the real world. As students, you are in a university to contribute and to
bring your researchers to actuality.
Researches are gained because of the following general reasons:
1. to explain real world phenomena such mechanics, ecology, gravity
(Shuttleworth, 2008)
2. to improve and innovate the quality of life for sustainability
3. to prove theories and create novel facts
4. to unlearn and debunk applied theories for enhancement of technology,
sciences, and the arts
5. to fulfill historical, cultural, environmental, humanitarian and societal
Moreover, to achieve a high-quality research, a researcher needs to know
different purposes to serve different audiences with different needs according to
different criteria. (Patton, 2015)
6. to understand how the world works
7. to understand a problem and the nature of the problem
8. to determine if an intervention is working
9. to improve an intervention aimed at solving a problem. rapidly solve an immediate problem







A good research should employ the following characteristics:

Empirical. An empirical research should address real-world situations and
problems that will answer practicality based on the experiences and
observations of the researcher. This will lead to attainability and relevance of
the findings which eventually be used by the desire benefactors of the study.
Logical. A research is systematic. It follows valid steps that will help you finish
your paper. These principles contain orderly and sequential procedure which
will contribute to the validity of results and reliability of method.
Analytical. Analysis is the meat your study. There are many ways to analyze
which varies on the nature, type and purpose of research. It uses critical
understanding and in-depth view of what is happening with the realm of the
topic and the subject.
Original. All work should be your own. Research writing is a mere declaration
of honesty. Your work will stand out if it tackles something new or something
old from an innovation of raw or recycled ideas given that there is proper
referencing and acknowledgment.
Reproducibility. It is the ability of your research to be adapted by the future
researcher for the purpose of validity of the instrument, verification of the
results and rectification of procedure and other technical elements of your
paper. This is also known as replicability. According to Chan et al. (2008),
The higher the replicability, the more valid and conclusive the results would
Cyclical. Using hourglass model, from your observation, you will be
formulating a problem and eventually be answered by a more detailed
questioning through your research instrument and it will be interpreted and
analyzed. A cyclical research should start and end with a problem and this
will cause the future researchers to answer your recommendations.
Objective and Fair. Your ability as researcher is limited with your
interpretation and analysis. Hence, you should be seeing your result solely
based on the methodology and gathered data.
Accuracy. Research has no room for errors. Moreover, you should be
responsible with the exactness of each datum, completeness of parts and
essentials, appropriateness of method, and comprehensiveness of other
research elements.

To achieve these characteristics of your paper, you should bear in mind that
there is no perfect research neither a perfect you. Therefore, you just need to be
empathize and follow these features that a real researcher is doing: (qtd. Chan Et al.
2008, Paler-Calmorin and Calmorin 1995)
1. You should be intellectually curious. The satisfaction of a researcher should
not stop in gathering of data. You should be thirsty of discovering new facts
taking all sides of process to ensure the holistic context of study. Austin
(2014) says that the intellectually curious person has a deep and persistent
desire to know.

2. You should be careful. As a beginner, you know that your resources to sustain
and finish the research process is very limited. A prudent research should
engage himself efficiently in identifying and utilizing these resources which
include financial, intellectual, and institutional support.
3. You should be a critique of your own creation. Even how honest you are in the
methodology, critical and intensive conducting of result is a must.
4. You should be intellectually honest. Documentation and referencing are
required. Honesty is not only a policy it is also the basis of your success in
your study.
Now, your problem probably is the sources where you can get your
motivation, topic, and subject. Epistemology is branch of philosophy that deals with
the sources of knowledge. It is concerned with possibilities, nature, sources and
methods of knowing. It also deals with the studies, grounds and modes of
knowledge acquisition.
According to Hussain (n.d.), there are nine (9) common sources of knowledge
1. Intuition: It is based on emotion rather than hard cold facts.
2. Belief: It is based on personal conviction.
3. Tenacity: It is the verification and stability over the test of time.
4. Tradition: It is practiced through generations.
5. Personal Experience: It is practical and manifested and the most available.
6. Authority: It is the word of experts.
7. Divine and Supernatural Powers: These are interventions and revelations
of God.
8. Reason and Logic: It is the intellect that can capture truth and knowledge
9. Scientific Methods: It is the knowledge that is derived through empirical
There is only one accepted source of new knowledge and that is empiricism.
The others, which include, authority, rational induction and intuition are accepted as
useful sources of hypotheses. Hussain breaks these sources into four methods.
Method of Intuition
According to this method, human hold firmly to the truth because they
have always known it to be true. Frequent repetition of such truths seems to
enhance their validity.
Modern version of this method is cognitive
consistency and human desire to avoid cognitive dissonance. Intuition is
knowledge that is gained through a feeling or thought that might turn out to
be true.
Method of Authority.
This is the method of established belief. This method is superior to the
method of intuition as this method is widely used to disseminate facts and

information on the basis of authority. Life could not go on without the method
of authority. Authority is gained from your parents, or a book that tells you
that this is the way things are.
Method of Reasoning
You come to accept certain ideas to be true as they appear to be selfevident and tend to agree with reason. You accept certain knowledge claims
as true because they stand to reason. Rational induction is a source of
knowledge by reasoning and proofs. This type of knowledge comes about by
supposing one thing and then giving a proof of it, or any other way you want
to do a proof.
Method of Science:
The method must be such that the ultimate conclusion of every man
shall be the same. Such is the method of science. Its fundamental this: there are real things, whose characters are entirely
independent of our opinions about them. Empiricism is knowledge gained
through careful observation, through the scientific method.
1. Interest. Choose and consider research topic that is in your interest and
drive. It is easier to pursue a subject that can be used as your motivation.
Yes, a topic that can motivate you.
2. Magnitude. A narrow and achievable research problem is an ideal one.
3. Level of Expertise. You should be familiar with at least the basic principles
and guidelines dedicated to your field of specialization.
4. Time needed to complete. The completion of your paper should be your
primary aim. Time of researching in university is very limited given that
research is not your only task.
5. Theoretical or Cognitive Significance. You should also cogitate its
implication and actuality of your research to the existing body of
6. Usefulness and Social Relevance. How useful and relevant your topic is?
The problem with most of academic researchers in our country is our
inability to implement the results of their findings. A good research topic is
the one that contributes and helps.
7. Feasibility. Library shelves are not the final destination of your paper.
Choose a topic that will offer practicability.
8. Ability to Given Method. There are topics that choose appropriate method
and vice versa.
Moreover, Good (1972) suggests additional criteria.
9. Novelty and Avoidance of Unnecessary Duplication. Propose a topic that is
new. To formulate an original topic does not need to ignore the old ones
but to enhance and handle these in an original way.

10.Availability of Data. The rules of proximity and availability are keys for you
to gather efficiently the data and for it to have an easy verifiability.
11.Costs and returns. Researches are very expensive. The only reward that
you can get is prestige in earning the degree and the satisfaction of
solving and discovering.

Chan et al. (2008) categorized the types of research according to following


Basic Research
Applied Research


Types of Research

Qualitative Research


Case Study
Document or Content Analysis
Naturalistic Observation
Focused Interviews
Phenomenological Studies
Grounded Theory
Historical Research

Quantitative Research

Experimental Research
Non-experimental Research


1. Pure Research
2. Applied Research
3. Action Research


1. Ex Post Facto Research

2. Correlational Research
3. Survey Research

1. Analytical
2. Argumentative
3. Exploratory


Field Research
Library Research

1. Descriptive Method
2. Experimental Method
3. Laboratory Research

Laboratory Research
Types of Research According to Importance
1. Basic Research. It (also called pure research or fundamental research) is a
study meant to increase our scientific knowledge base. This type of
research is often purely theoretical with the intent of increasing our
understanding of certain phenomena or behavior but does not seek to
solve or treat these problems. Examples are the following: an
investigation looking at what whether stress levels influence how often
students engage in academic cheating; a study looking at how caffeine
consumption impacts the brain; and a study assessing whether men or
women are more likely to suffer from depression (Cherry, 2015).
2. Applied Research. Applied research refers to scientific study and research
that seeks to solve practical problems. Applied research is used to find
solutions to everyday problems, cure illness, and develop innovative
factors or
industrial/organizational fields often do this type of research. Examples
are the following: Investigating which treatment approach is the most

effective for reducing anxiety; researching which strategies work best to

motivate workers; studying different keyboard designs to determine which
is the most efficient and ergonomic; and analyzing what type of prompts
will inspire people to volunteer their time to charities (Cherry, 2015).
Types of Research According to Method
Qualitative Research
It focuses on gathering of mainly verbal data rather than measurements.
Gathered information is then analyzed in an interpretative manner,
subjective, impressionistic or even diagnostic. The primary aim of a
qualitative research is to provide a complete, detailed description of the
research topic. It is usually more exploratory in nature. (,
1. Ethnography
Ethnographic research usually involves observing target users in
their natural, real-world setting, rather than in the artificial
environment of a lab or focus group. The aim is to gather insight into
how people live; what they do; how they use things; or what they
need in their everyday or professional lives. (, n.d.)
It involves intensive data collection on many variables over an
extended period of time, in a naturalistic setting. It may be
nonparticipant, participant, or both. It represents multi-instrument
research and it may use of data collection strategies in conjunction
with observation.
2. Case Study
Case studies are in-depth investigations of a single person, group,
event or community. The case study method often involves simply
observing what happens to, or reconstructing the case history of a
single participant or group of individuals. It allows a researcher to
investigate a topic in far more details than might be possible if they
were trying to deal with a large number of research participants with
the aim of averaging.
Researchers select methods of data collection and analysis that will
generate material suitable for case studies such as qualitative
techniques (unstructured interviews, participant observation,
diaries), personal notes (e.g. letters, photographs, notes) or official
document (e.g. case notes, clinical notes, appraisal reports).
(McLeod, 2008)
3. Document or Content Analysis.
It is a form of qualitative research in which documents are
interpreted by the researcher to give voice and meaning around an
assessment topic. Analyzing documents incorporates coding content

into themes. A rubric can also be used to grade or score a

document. There are three primary types of documents: (a) Public
Records: The official, ongoing records of an organizations activities.
Examples include student transcripts, mission statements, annual
reports, policy manuals, student handbooks, strategic plans, and
syllabi. (b) Personal Documents: First-person accounts of an
individuals actions, experiences, and beliefs. Examples include
calendars, e-mails, scrapbooks, blogs, Facebook posts, duty logs,
incident reports, reflections/journals, and newspapers. (c) Physical
Evidence: Physical objects found within the study setting (often
called artifacts). Examples include flyers, posters, agendas,
handbooks, and training materials. (Administration Methods, 2010)
4. Naturalistic Observation
Naturalistic observation is a useful tool for expanding knowledge
about a specific phenomenon or species. In fields such as
anthropology, behavioral biology and ecology, watching a person or
organism in a natural environment is essential.
Most naturalistic observation is unobtrusive, such as a researcher
setting up a camera to film the behavior of a badger underground.
Most nature documentaries are examples of naturalistic
observational study, where days, weeks or even years of film are
analyzed and edited, to give an overview of the life cycle of the
Obtrusive naturalistic observational study is often used in
anthropology, where a researcher lives with a remote tribe for a
period of time and records their behavior. By living there, she is
influencing their social interactions and habits, but can still make
some excellent observations. (Shuttleworth, 2015)
5. Focused Interviews
The focused interview is designed to determine the responses of
persons exposed to a situation previously analyzed by investigator.
Its chief functions are to discover: (a) the significant aspects of the
total situation to which response has occurred; (b) discrepancies
between anticipated and actual effects; (3) responses of deviant
subgroups in the in the population; and (d) the processes involved in
experimentally induced effects. Procedures for satisfying the criteria
of specificity, and depth in the interview are described. (Merton, and
Kendall, 1946)

6. Phenomenological Studies

Phenomenology refers to a person's perception of the meaning of an

event, as opposed to the event as it exists externally to (outside of)
that person. The focus of phenomenological inquiry is what people
experience in regard to some phenomenon or other and how they
interpret those experiences. A phenomenological research study is a
study that attempts to understand people's perceptions,
perspectives and understandings of a particular situation (or
phenomenon). In other words, a phenomenological research study
tries to answer the question 'What is it like to experience such and
such?' By looking at multiple perspectives of the same situation, a
researcher can start to make some generalizations of what
something is like as an experience from the 'insider's' perspective.
A phenomenological study often involves the four steps of:
(a) bracketing, (b) intuiting, (c) analyzing, and (d) describing. Small
samples (probably no more than 10 participants) are most suitable
for this type of research. Large samples can become unwieldy. The
data collection tools that are most often used are interviews or
speeches, diaries or written documents, drawings or non-verbal
materials, and observation or visual tools.
(Van, 1990)
7. Grounded Theory
The self-defined purpose of grounded theory is to develop theory
about phenomena of interest. But this is not just abstract theorizing
they're talking about. Instead the theory needs to be grounded or
complex iterative process. The research begins with the raising
of generative questions which help to guide the research but are not
intended to be either static or confining. As the researcher begins to
data, core
concepts are
Tentative linkages are developed between the theoretical core
concepts and the data. This early phase of the research tends to be
very open and can take months. Later on the researcher is more
engaged in verification and summary. The effort tends to evolve
toward one core category that is central. (Trochim, 2006)
There are several key analytic strategies (Trochim):
(a) Coding is a process for both categorizing qualitative data and
for describing the implications and details of these
categories. Initially one does open coding, considering the
data in minute detail while developing some initial
categories. Later, one moves to more selective coding where
one systematically codes with respect to a core concept.
(b) Memoing is a process for recording the thoughts and ideas of
the researcher as they evolve throughout the study. You
might think of memoing as extensive marginal notes and
comments. Again, early in the process these memos tend to
be very open while later on they tend to increasingly focus in
on the core concept.

(c) Integrative diagrams and sessions are used to pull all of the
detail together, to help make sense of the data with respect
to the emerging theory. The diagrams can be any form of
graphic that is useful at that point in theory development.
They might be concept maps or directed graphs or even
simple cartoons that can act as summarizing devices. This
integrative work is best done in group sessions where
different members of the research team are able to interact
and share ideas to increase insight.
8. Historical Research
It is a supplementary procedure to observation in which the
researcher seeks to test the authenticity of the reports or
observations made by others. It is employed to establish facts in
order to arrive at conclusions concerning past events or predict
future events. Its primary sources of information of information are
original documents, relics, remains, and artifacts. It may include
textbooks, encyclopedias, newspapers, periodicals, and review of
research and other references as secondary sources. These source
should be authentic. (Key, 1997)
Quantitative Research
It focuses more in counting and classifying features and constructing
statistical models and figures to explain what is observed. (,
It is a systematic and scientific approach to research in which
the researcher manipulates one or more variables, and controls and
measures any change in other variables. (Blakstad, 2008)
On the hand, in a non-experimental research, the research does
not have complete control over the conditions of the study.
1. Ex Post Facto Research
Ex post facto study or after-the-fact research is a category of
research design in which the investigation starts after the fact
has occurred without interference from the researcher.
Despite studying facts that have already occurred, ex post
facto research shares with experimental research design some

of its basic logic of inquiry. Ex post facto research design does

not include any form of manipulation or measurement before
the fact occurs, as is the case in true experimental
designs. (Silva, 2013)
2. Correlational Research
A correlational study determines whether or not two variables
are correlated. This means to study whether an increase or
decrease in one variable corresponds to an increase or
decrease in the other variable. It is very important to note
that correlation doesn't imply causation. (Kalla, 2015)
3. Survey Research
Survey research involves the collection of information from a
sample of individuals through their responses to questions. It
is considered versatile and efficient Researchers have used
survey methods to investigate areas of education as diverse
as school desegregation, academic achievement, teaching
practice, and leadership. Although a survey is not the ideal
method for learning about every educational process, a welldesigned survey can enhance our understanding of just about
any educational issue. Surveys are efficient in that many
variables can be measured without substantially increasing
the time or cost. Survey data can be collected from many
people at relatively low cost and, depending on the survey
design, relatively quickly. Survey methods lend themselves to
probability sampling from large populations. (Research
Design and Data Collection, n.d.)
To differentiate and summarize the researches according to method, here is the
tabular representation of (2012).

Types of Research According to Process

1. Pure Research
Pure or Basic research is research carried out for the advancement of
knowledge, without working for long-term economic or social benefits and
with no positive efforts being made to apply the results to practical problems
or to transfer the results to sectors responsible for its application. (Statistical
Term, 2001)
2. Applied Research
Applied research refers to scientific study and research that seeks to solve
practical problems. Applied research is used to find solutions to everyday
problems, cure illness, and develop innovative technologies. (Cherry, 2015)
3. Action Research
Similar to applied research, action research aims to solve an abrupt problem
on a specific field to improve or address issues and solve problem. According
to Hidden Curriculum (2014) action research refers to a wide variety of
evaluative, investigative, and analytical research methods designed to

diagnose problems or weaknesseswhether organizational, academic, or

instructionaland help educators develop practical solutions to address them
quickly and efficiently. Action research may also be applied to programs or
educational techniques that are not necessarily experiencing any problems,
but that educators simply want to learn more about and improve. The general
goal is to create a simple, practical, repeatable process of iterative learning,
evaluation, and improvement that leads to increasingly better results for
schools, teachers, or programs.
Types of Research According to Purpose
1. Analytical
It involves critical thinking skills and the evaluation of facts and information
relative to the research being conducted. It enables researchers to examine
complex relationships between variables. There are three basic types of
analytical techniques: Regression Analysis. It assumes that the dependent, or
outcome, variable is directly affected by one or more independent variables.
Grouping Methods. There are techniques for classifying observations into
meaningful categories. Multiple Equation Models. Multiple equation modeling,
which is an extension of regression, is used to examine the causal pathways
from independent variables to the dependent variable. (Research
Connections, 2013)
2. Argumentative
Based on ESC Online Writing Center (2015), an argumentative research
paper needs to support your stand on an issue. An argumentative research
paper is analytical, but it uses information as evidence to support its point.
An important goal of the argumentative research paper is persuasion, which
means the topic chosen should be debatable or controversial. (Baker and
Brizee, 2011)
3. Exploratory (2015) defines exploratory research as an
investigation into a problem or situation which provides insights to the
researcher. The research is meant to provide details where a small amount of
information exists. It may use a variety of methods such as trial studies,
interviews, group discussions, experiments, or other tactics for the purpose of
gaining information. Likewise, Davies (2013) adds that exploratory research is
a methodological approach that is primarily concerned with discovery and
with generating or building theory. In a pure sense, all research is exploratory.
Types of Research According to Locale
1. Library Research.

It is a systematic type of research which the main source of content and

majority of its components is done and found in the library and
information science. The collection of data is based on the secondary
source. These data are evaluated according to design used or
2. Laboratory Research
Laboratory research uses basic or pure research method. As its name
implies, it is conceptualized, conducted and finished in a laboratory
specialized in particular field or discipline.
3. Field Research
It is any research activities done outside a laboratory aimed at collecting
primary (original or otherwise unavailable) data, using methods such as
face-to-face interviewing, telephone and postal surveys, and direct
observation. (, 2015)
There are two types of field research according to Chan et al. (2008).
a. Descriptive Method
The descriptive method of research, according to Zikmund (2003), is to
describe characteristics of a problem of a population or phenomenon.
It seeks to determine the answers to who, what, when, where, and how
b. Experimental Method
The use of experimentation allows investigation of changes in one
variable, such as productivity, while manipulating one or two other
variables. An experiment controls conditions so that one or more
variables can be manipulated in order to test a hypothesis. (Zikmund,
Unit II
Academic Research Paper Preliminaries
House Style is the standard for writing directed by the style guide of a
particular institution. Likewise, school has style guide that has to be followed by
students, teaching and non-teaching staff.
The Chapters 1 to 5 of a research is just the body of your paper, from the
Introduction to the Recommendation. The rest of the parts are also vital for
documentation, referencing, guiding, summarization, proofs, clarification, support
and technical presentation.
The Seventh edition of Modern Language Association and American
Psychological Association of Online Writing Lab at Purdue University is used as the
general guide of the parts to be presented. The Online Writing Lab houses writing

resources and instructional material that provide students, members of the

community, and researchers worldwide with information to assist with many writing
projects. This manual is the most comprehensive, updated, and accessible.
To prepare your manuscript with the standard formatting, you may use these
useful instructions that are applicable to the given house style of your institution.
The Preliminaries include
1. Flyleaf,
2. Cover Page,
3. Copyright Page,
4. Title Page,
5. Certification-and-Approval Sheet,
6. Acknowledgment,
7. Certification of Originality,
8. Abstract,
9. Table of Contents,
10.List of Tables, and
11.List of Figures.
The documentation includes Work Cited, Bibliography, and Appendices. This
will be discussed in Units IV and V of the book.

The Flyleaf. It is blank page at the front or back of a manuscript.

The Cover Page. It includes the title, name of the college or department,
name of the institution, name to the researcher, degree, and year.



College of Education
Polytechnic University of the Philippines


Master of Arts in English Language Teaching


Research Title

Name of
College and

Name of
and Degree


The Copyright Page. It includes the country and year of copyright, name of
the researcher and the institution who registered the partnership ownership
of the copyright.

Philippine Copyright 2014

By John Hayrold C. Malonzo
And the
College of Education
Polytechnic University of the Philippines

All right reserved. Portions of this manuscript may be reproduced with proper
referencing and due acknowledgment of the author.

The Title Page. It is composed of the research title, the type of academic
research paper,
university, city or municipality, purpose, degree or
course, researcher and date.



A Thesis
Presented to
The Faculty of the College of Education Graduate Studies
Polytechnic University of the Philippines
Sta. Mesa, Manila

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree

Master of Arts in English Language Teaching

Research Title

Type of Academic
Research Paper,
University, City
or Municipality

Purpose, and
Degree or

May 2014

Name or
Researcher and

The Certification-and-Approval Sheet. The Certification Sheet states that

the research is evaluated and ready for oral presentation and final defense.
The Approval Sheet indicates that the panel on oral examination approved
the full paper and has passed the final defense. This includes the grade,
signatures of the adviser, evaluation committee, panelists signatures and the

MALONZO in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF
recommended for Oral Examination.
Evaluation Committee
Approved by the Panel on Oral Examination on 10 February 2014 with the
grade of 1.0.







Accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of

Arts in English Language Teaching.
Date of Passing the Comprehensive Examinations: 25 February 2013


Acknowledgment. This is the researchers expression of gratitude to the

salient contribution of the significant persons, and institutions to the
processes involved in your research.

With sincerest gratitude, the researcher wishes to recognize the most
cherished assistance given by the various people who helped shape and put this
humble paper into its existence. This study is the result of the inspiration,
sustenance, and work of many people, more than can be listed here.
The following, who have been contributory to the accomplishment of the
study, deserve the most profound and special recognition:










encouragement, and expertise;

The Panel on Oral Examination, Dr. Segundo C. Dizon, Dr. Milagros F.
Caares, and Professor Pacelli S. Eugenio, for their strict and intensive refinement
for this study;
The statistician, Allen D. Carreon, and the PUP Institute of Data and
Statistical Analysis, for sharing their precise statistical analysis and immeasurable
proficiency and assistance;
His parents, Marites and Amando Malonzo, Jr., for their selfless love,
abundant care, and endless guidance;
His friends and fellow teachers , Rudolf, Kalel, Mae Love, Frescian, Raquel,
Aida, Jee, Soki, Echo, who serve as his siblings and best friends in his professional
and personal life;

The Messiah Mission International Ministry Cubao family, for their spiritual
guidance and support; and
Finally, to the Source of wisdom, to the All-knowing, All-powerful, and
Almighty God, the only Savior of mankind, Lord Jesus Christ. For all these, His
Name alone may forever be glorified.

Certification of Originality. The researcher certifies and declares that

research work is original.
This is to certify that the research work presented in this thesis titled
SOPHOMORES for the degree Master of Arts in English Language
Teaching at the Polytechnic University of the Philippines embodies the
result of original and scholarly work carried out by the undersigned. This
thesis does not contain words or ideas taken from published sources or
written works that have been accepted as basis for the award of a degree
from any higher education institution, except where proper referencing and
acknowledgment were made.

John Hayrold C. Malonzo

12 May 2014

Abstract. It is the executive summary of the research which includes the

research title, researchers name, degree or course, institution, year, and the
adviser. It states briefly in paragraph form the rationale, objective, and
problems, research methodology findings, conclusion and recommendation.






John Hayrold C. Malonzo


Master of Arts in English Language Teaching


Polytechnic University of the Philippines




Dr. Mely M. Padilla

The Problem
The PUP Institute of Technology envisions to foster student learning for
immediate jobs through high-quality, application-oriented courses that integrate
technology, communication-skills development, and management, which will produce
skilled globalized workforce that can meet international standards.
Subsequently, the main objective of this study was to determine the
relationship between the English proficiency levels and the academic performance of
sophomores of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines Institute of Technology.

Research Methodology
Descriptive-correlation research method was used in this research that
utilized an English Proficiency Test adapted from Labastidas thesis.
The respondents were 200 PUP Institute of Technology sophomores, who
were given the English Proficiency Test.

Ninety-four (47%) of the students had a Level 3 or an intermediate English
proficiency level, and 149 (74.5%) had an overall freshman grade-point average of
2.0-2.25 (good).
With p-values of less than the 0.05 level of significance, there was a perfect
negative correlation for all five areas of the proficiency test: grammar, combining
sentences, answering questions, word sequencing, and academic reading; overall, the
test had a -0.679 significance of relationship, so the null hypothesis is rejected.

The majority of the students had a Level 3 or an intermediate proficiency
level and an overall grade-point average of 2.0-2.25 (good).
There was a significant relationship between the students English proficiency
levels and their academic performance.
The Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) should formulate
programs and policies for technical programs or courses and materials with English
proficiency integration. The PUP administration should evaluate the programs and
policies in enhancing English proficiency in content-area or major subjects considering
the available materials and resources. The PUP Institute of Technology (Itech) should
revise the policy on the English proficiency program and its integration into subjects
and into the on-campus rules and regulations. The PUP Itech faculty members should
be made aware of the importance of English proficiency in their field, and they should
be trained for English proficiency in seminars and workshops

Table of Contents. It presents the content of the paper from the Title
Page to the Appendices. It
also shows the pagination.
LIST OF FIGURES ................... xii
Chapter 1

Chapter 2


Introduction ...... 1
Background of the Study .......... 2
Theoretical Framework .. 4
Conceptual Framework .. 6
Statement of the Problem ...7
Hypothesis .... 7
Scope and Limitations of the Study.......... 8
Significance of the Study ... 8
Definition of Terms .. 10
Foreign Literature 12
Local Literature 17
Foreign Studies 22
Local Studies 27
Synthesis and Relevance of the Reviewed
Literature and Studies ....31

Chapter 3

Method of Research 34
Population, Sample Size, and Sampling Technique . 35
Description of Respondents .. 36
Research Instrument .. 37
Data-Gathering Procedure . 39
Statistical Treatment of Data . 39

Chapter 4


Students English Proficiency Levels................................................... 41
Students Academic Performance.................... 45
Relationship Between the Respondents
English Proficiency Levels and Academic Performance47

Chapter 5


Summary ... 49
Findings.. 49
Conclusions .. 50
Recommendations ...50

Appendix A: Letter of Request for Proposal Defense. 59

List of Tables. It enlists the tables presented in the paper. It includes the
table number, table
number and the page number.


Distribution of Respondents per Diploma Course


English Proficiency Levels...


Frequency and Percent Distribution of

Students English Proficiency Levels..... 41

Frequency and Percent Distribution of

Students Academic Performance... 45

Test for Significant Relationship Between

the Respondents English Proficiency
and Academic Performance. 47

List of Figures. It includes all graphs, pictures, drawings or illustrations

used and presented in the
paper. It also enlists the figure number, figure name
and page number.


Cummins Iceberg Model of
Language Interdependence.. 6

Research Paradigm.... 7

The Problem and Its Background
The Chapter 1: The Problem and Its Background is the comprehensive
presentation of the overview of the research problem. It also contains the rationale
and the justification of the research objectives. It determines the coverage of the
study and it tells how important your study is. Furthermore, it clarifies the
terminologies used in the entire paper.
This book will also teach you the appropriate level of language, point of view
and desirable writing mechanics.
Based on the logical sequence of the presentation this chapter considers the
following parts: Introduction; Background of the Study; Theoretical Framework;
Conceptual Framework; Statement of the Problem; Hypotheses and Assumptions;
Scope and Limitations of the Study; Significance of the Study; and Definition of
Terms. These parts vary according to methods, types of research, and house style of
the institution.
All chapters should have an introductory paragraph except for Chapter 1
because it has its own subchapter introduction.
Introduction is the presentation of the problem, its importance, reason and
purpose into a broad context. It is an attempt to rationalize the root cause of the
objectives. According to Shuttleworth (2015), A good introduction explains how
mean to solve the research problem, and creates leads to make the reader want to
delve further into your work. Nevertheless, it doesnt need to be attractive but
directness and conciseness are its primordial characteristics. It is the first thing
people see, hear, or experience about your paper so let them know the immediate
substance of your motivation and discovery.
Ideally, it should be the last thing to do to make sure that you introduce what
you are actually doing. Here are some helpful ways to develop an introduction:
1. Deductive approach is advisable to arrange the ideas from general point of
discussion to specific details.
2. Start with a couple of sentences that introduce your topic to your reader. You
do not have to give too much detailed information; save that for the body of
your paper. Make these sentences as interesting as you can. (Samuels, 2012)
3. You may use a broader definition or statement, a quotation from an
international perspective or research findings, and a rhetorical question.
4. The supporting details could be arranged through the different methods of
paragraph development like classification, comparison and contrast,
description, classification, and exemplification.
5. Rambling introduction, based on Ketchum and Media (2015), will quickly lose
your readers interest and give the impression that you have not organized
your thoughts [so coherence is a must].
6. Then state your thesis statement, which may be done in one or more
sentences. This is your clinching or transitional sentences to Background of
the Study.

7. The length of your introduction depends on the length and complexity of your

Sample Introduction

Chapter 1
In 2013, the results of Education First English Proficiency
Index (EF EPI) showing the poor performance of top 54 countries
have served as a wake-up call for countries falling behind their
neighboring countries. This report shows that poor English is
linked with less trade, less innovation, and lower income. EF EPI
has also revealed the wide gaps among the BRIC (Brazil, Russia,
India, and China) countries, the developing nations competing to
be future economic superpowers. Brazil is ranked only 46th, much
lower than China at 36th, Russia at 29th, or India - where English is
an official language - at 14th. The Philippines, another developing
country, needs to meet global standards, and its citizens
proficiency in the English language is a key to its development
and competitiveness.
Based on a recently conducted study of the Global English
Corporation, the Philippines is named the worlds best country in
business English proficiency, even beating the United States.
One way to uphold this good result is the schools being
persistent and consistent in their implementation of the Bilingual
Education Policy (DECS Order No. 52, s. 1987). Based on this
policy, Filipino is the medium of instruction at schools in all
subjects except in the natural sciences and in mathematics in
which English is used.
At the higher education institutions and universities,
however, instructors are free to choose their medium of
instruction although the majority of classes use English or at
least a code-switching variety of English and Filipino (Gonzales
qtd. in Villafuerte 23).
On the other hand, even if the Technical Education and
Skills Development Authority (TESDA) does not have any policy
on the use of English at technical-vocational institutions, it uses
materials, which are written in English, for its technology
programs (Technical Education and Skills Development Authority
At the Polytechnic University of the Philippines Institute of
Technology, where English is used as medium of instruction by
some teachers, students academic performance is becoming a
problem of both content-area-subject and English-subject

Local Perspective

Narrower Setting

Discussion of the context

in formulating the thesis
and transitional sentence
to the Background of the

Clinching Sentence


The Background of the Study is the discussion of the locale and the rationale
of the topic. According to Allyne and Media (2015), it also includes a review of the
area being researched, current information surrounding the issue, previous studies
on the issue, and relevant history on the issue. Ideally, the study should effectively
set forth the history and background information on your thesis problem. The
purpose of a background study is to help you to prove the relevance of your thesis
question and to further develop your thesis.
Allyne and Media also suggest a step-by-step on how to do a Background of
the Study:
1. Conduct preliminary research in the beginning stages of formulating a thesis,
when many issues are unclear and thoughts need to be solidified. Conducting
preliminary research on your area of study and specific topic will help you to
formulate a research question or thesis statement that will lead to more
specific and relevant research. Visit your library, the internet and electronic
databases to find preliminary sources, such as books and scholarly journals,
for your background of the study.
2. Write a thesis statement or research question. Think about what you've read
and look for issues, problems or solutions that others have found and
determine your own opinion or stance on the issue. Write out your opinion as
an authoritative statement on the issue, problem or solution. At this point,
you can do more detailed research and find sources that are more relevant to
your thesis or research question.
3. Complete your background of the study using your thesis statement and
research question as your guide. You will find relevant sources that will
provide insight into your specific thesis issue or problem. Make sure that your
sources provide details on the history and past research related to your
research question.
4. Create relevant sections as you write the background of the study. As you
evaluate your research and begin to write create sections that cover the key
issues, major findings, and controversies surrounding your thesis, as well as
sections that provide an evaluation and conclusion.
5. Conclude by identifying any further study that needs to be done in that area,
or provide possible solutions to the issue that haven't been considered
6. Revise and edit your background study. Complete several drafts of your work,
revising and filling in information as you go. Each time that you read over
your work, try to leave it better than it was before. It's also a great idea to
have someone else look it over as well.
Baac (2010) states the background of the study also describes how the
present study to be conducted will attempt to bridge knowledge gaps earlier
identified; and where or how further progress in the academic can be mad thru the
study. Baac also suggests that
This also usually requires a reference to some reports of previous research in
the field and related areas, both academic and non-academic, theoretical
discussions, official statistics, newspaper articles or reports, and, perhaps

even personal accounts or experiences

phenomenon(a) being investigated.






On the given example below the researcher uses the locales vision, mission
and objective as the justification of the study. He also uses his observation and the
rule of proximity as the rationalization.

Sample Background of the Study

Background of the Study

The Polytechnic University of the Philippines (PUP) is a
government, non-sectarian, non-profit institution of higher
learning and operates year-round with two semesters and a
summer. The University employs 1,483 full-time and part-time
faculty members with a few of the former holding administrative
positions. There are 707 regular and casual administrative
employees who provide support services to the University
population (
With more than twenty campuses serving more than
70,000 students, the PUP is the largest university in Asia in terms
of student population. The main campus is located in Sta. Mesa,
Manila. It has (15) fifteen colleges, and one of which is the
Institute of Technology (
The Institute of Technology (Itech) offers six diploma
courses: Computer Engineering Technology (DCET), Electrical
Engineering Technology (DEET), Electronics Communications
Engineering Technology (DECET), Information Communication
Technology (DICT), and Mechanical Engineering Technology
(DMET), and Office Management Technology (DOMT).
The researcher has chosen PUP Institute of Technology as
the focus of the study because he is a faculty member of the
College of Arts and Letters, servicing the institute with English
subjects, such as English Grammar and Composition, Study and
Thinking Skills, Speech and Oral Communication, and Technical
Report Writing.
The justification of this research is rooted in the
assessment of the vision, mission, and goals of the PUP Institute
of Technology. It envisions to be a leading institution that
provides skilled globalized workforce in a technologically-driven
culture. It aims to produce competent graduates who are
communicatively capable. To achieve this goal, both students
and faculty members should be proficient in English.
The institutes mission is to foster student learning for
immediate jobs through high-quality, application-oriented
courses that integrate technology, communication skills
development and management. Hence, to be highly employable,
graduates should be proficient in English and have the ability to
engage in pre-employment requirements and English- or
communication-related evaluations of employers, like job
interviews, simulations, and written examinations.
One of the goals of Itech is to ensure teaching-learning
efficiency and effectiveness by means of highly qualified and
committed faculty members. However, the Institute of
Technology has only four (4) English teachers. Two of them are
vertically aligned in the subject, which is English language

Brief description of the


Rule of Proximity

Justification using the

vision, mission and

The theoretical framework presents and reviews the theory or theories
directly related to the area of subject or study is based on. It provides a context for
examining a theoretical rationalization of the study. This also serves as a guide to
systematically identify logical, precisely defined relationships among variables.
Theories are used to explain, predict and master phenomena. It also makes
generalizations about observations and consists of an interrelated, coherent set of
ideas and models.
Mehta (2013) enlists purposes of theoretical framework:
1. It helps the research see clearly the variables of the study;
2. It can provide him with a general framework for data analysis; and
3. It is essential in preparing a research proposal using descriptive and
experimental methods.
According to Chan (2008), the following should be included in presenting the
1. Name of the theory;
2. Etymology or history, if applicable;
3. Proponent;
4. Discussion of theory; and
5. Diagram or model that represents the theory.
If there is no model, the researcher should be able to have a graphical
representation on how the flow of the variables are presented.
Sample Theoretical Framework

Theoretical Framework
Jim Cummins language learning theory expounds two kinds of
language proficiency: BICS and CALP. Cognitive Academic Language
Proficiency (CALP) provides the fundamental anchor of this research. The
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) includes the "surface
skills of listening and speaking, which are typically acquired quickly by
many students, particularly by those from language backgrounds similar
to English who spend a lot of their school time interacting within native
speakers (qtd. in Shoebottom). BICS are the language skills needed in
social situations. They are used in the day-to-day language needed to
interact socially with other people. The language skills are not very
demanding cognitively; the language required is not specialized.
The other kind of language proficiency is Cognitive Academic
Language Proficiency (CALP), which is the basis for a child's ability to cope
with the academic demands placed upon him in various subjects (qtd. in
Shoebottom). This level of proficiency includes listening, speaking,
reading, and writing about subject area content material; it involves skills,
such as comparing, classifying, synthesizing, evaluating, and inferring-essential for students to succeed in schools (Haynes). The learner gives
the abstraction of the taught concepts. The language becomes more
cognitively demanding as the learner gets older because of new ideas and
Jim Cummins also proposes the theory that there is a common
Sample Theory

Figure 1
of Language Interdependence
Sample Theory 2

The Conceptual Framework is a theoretical structure of assumptions,
principles, and rules that holds together the ideas comprising a broad concept
(businessdictionary, n.d.). Further, these are concepts that are places within a
logical a sequential design. It represents the applied theory of research to explain
the theorys operationalization.
Nalzaro (2012) has given purposes of conceptual framework:
1. To clarify concepts and propose relationships among the concepts;
2. To provide a context for interpreting the studying findings;
3. To explain observations; and
4. To encourage theory development that is useful to practice.
Concepts are basic components of scientific investigation. These abstract
ideas are generalized to create, expressed and invented new concepts. The success
of research is devised on (1) how clearly we conceptualize, and (2) how well others
understand the concepts we use (qtd. in Baac, 2010).
Sample Conceptual Framework

Conceptual Framework
Figure 2 below shows two frames: the independentvariable frame, which contains the respondents English
proficiency levels, and the dependent-variable frame, which
has the respondents academic performance. A line
connects the two frames to signify the possibility of a direct
significant positive or negative relationship between the
two variables.

Sample Conceptual Framework using the Sample Theory 2

Figure 2
Conceptual model in the Assessment of Information and Communication
Technology Competency Level of Polytechnic University of the Philippines
Institute of Technology Diploma in ICT Sophomores


The statement of the problem presents the general purpose and the specific
objectives of the study. The general purpose, the main problem, is the emphasis the
research. This should include the discussion of variables to be tested, measured,
described, answered, interpreted and analyzed to bridge the gaps in knowledge.
Moreover, it contains the existence of the problem through brief discussion of the
pertinent rationale. It also gives the research constraints.
Baac provides the characteristics of a good research problem.
1. SPECIFIC. A research problem should possess important components, if
possible, like the research topic, respondents or subject, venue and time.
This will ensure that the study has direction and can be attained through
limiting the areas of the discipline.
2. MEASURABLE. A research problem is measurable if it has appropriate and
available instruments, or instruments that can be possibly be made.
3. ACHIEVABLE. A researcher can achieve his objective if he cogitates the
scope of the study, the proximity of respondents or topic, the length of
gathering, difficulty of composition and interpretation, and availability of
materials and resources,
4. REALISTIC and RELEVANT. Realistic means the real results of the study are
not manipulated. Relevant means the results answers definite, and timely
problems of the community or the area of specialization.
5. TIME-BOUND. The main aim in doing your research is to finish it. Time
frame is vital for you to achieve a very sensible, attainable, precise and
practicable research.
The number of research question depends of the complexity of the research
problem and the variables involved in the study. The first set of questions are
profiling. The demographic items to be included in the questions should viable and
contributory to the substance of the analysis like age, gender, socio-economic
status, and course. Not all types of research can use profile.
The second set of research questions should identify the variables that will
answer the general objectives. Commonly, the last set refers of the variable to be
tested in the hypothesis of the study.
Sample Statement of the Problem

Statement of the Problem

The main objective of this study was to assess the
Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
Literacy Level of Polytechnic University of the Philippines
Institute of Technology (PUP-ITech) Diploma in ICT
Second Year students.
Specifically, this current study aimed to answer the
following questions:
1. What is the demographic profile of the
respondents in terms of the following:
a. Section;
b. Age; and
c. Gender.
2. What is the ICT Competency level of the
respondents with respect to the following
a. ICT Basics;
b. Word Processing;
c. Spreadsheet;
d. Presentation;
e. Information and Technology; and
f. Computer Ethics and Security


3. Is there any significant relationship in the level

of literacy of the respondents on the different
applications of ICT when grouped according to
their section and age?


Statement of the Problem

This study was conducted to determine the
relationship between the English proficiency levels and
the academic performance of the Polytechnic University
of the Philippines Institute of Technology sophomores.
Specifically, it sought to answer the following
1. What are the English proficiency levels of the
students as shown by their scores in the English
proficiency test?
2. What is the academic performance of the students
based on their freshman overall grade-point

General objective
of the study


Question for

Question to be
tested in

The hypothesis is the educated guess or the proposed explanation created by
researchers to speculate upon the outcome of the research or experiment.
According to (2015), hypothesis is a propositions or set of
propositions, set forth as an explanation for the occurrence of some specified group
of phenomena, either asserted merely as a provisional conjecture to guide
investigation or accepted as highly probable in the light of established facts
proposition. It consists of dependent and independent variables. Dependent variable
is the response that is manipulated and independent variable is the variable that is
varied or manipulated by the researcher. Dependent variable is the presumed
effect, whereas independent variable is the presumed cause. If there is no variable
to be tested, assumption is formulated.
There are two types of hypothesis. Null hypothesis is (H o) is denial of an
existence of an attribute, a relationship or a difference of an effect. It is always
stated in negative form. Contrastingly, the alternative hypothesis (Hi) is the
opposite extreme of the null hypothesis because it is always stated in a positive
form (Baac, 2010).

There is no significant relationship between
the students English proficiency levels and their
academic performance.

Assumption is the self-evident truth to predict the outcome of the research. It
is considered true based on logic or reasons without proof or verification.
Assumption is necessary if there is no variable to be tested. Assumption and
hypothesis are based on the statement of the problem.
Sample Statement of the Problem and Assumption
Statement of the Problem
1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in
terms of the following?
a. Age
b. Gender
c. Educational Attainment
The age, gender, and educational attainment of
the respondents vary.


The Scope and Limitations of the Study sets the parameters that prevent
researchers from pursuing further unnecessary factors significant to attain
achievability, measurability and certainty of the research process. Scope identifies
the coverage to be included like the number respondents, variables to be studied,
and areas to be tested by the instruments. Limitations are boundaries that are not
to be included.
Baac mentions that putting scope and limitations of the study is good for the
researcher as it protects him/her against the improper use or application of the
studys findings.
Sample Scope and Limitations of the Study

Scope and Limitations of the Study

This study focused on the determination of any
significant relationship between the English proficiency
levels and the academic performance of sophomores of
the PUP Institute of Technology.
The respondents of this study were two hundred
(200) sophomore students: 48 Computer Engineering
Engineering Management Technology students, 23
Electronics Communications Engineering Management
Technology students, 34 Information Communication
Management Technology students, 9 Mechanical
Engineering Management Technology students, 69 Legal
Office Management Technology students, and 6 Medical
Office Management Technology students.
Freshman and junior students were not included in
the study; neither were the administration, teaching and
nonteaching staff, and employees.



The significance of the study presents the individual, organizational and
institutional importance of the research. It enumerates the beneficiaries of the
Sample Significance of the Study
Significance of the Study
This study will be beneficial to the following:
Commission on Higher Education (CHED). This study will help CHED
to strategize programs that will help teachers in tertiary levels to enhance their
skills in English language teaching and in teaching the content subjects using
specialized language.
Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET). This will enrich
the policy and programs of TVET in integrating English proficiency into technicalvocational trainings.
PUP Administration. This study can be used by the administration to
evaluate students English proficiency to augment the curriculum and language
policy of the university.
PUP Institute of Technology. The institute can use this study to
integrate an English proficiency program into the teaching of technical subjects.
The results will also help Itech to predict the students success in academic
performance and eventually to achieve the vision, mission, and goals of the
PUP Institute of Technology Faculty Members. This will make the
faculty realize the importance of using the English language in teaching.
English Language Teachers. This research will give the English
teachers insight into their role and the role of English in the academic success of
students. They can also use the language proficiency test as sample in preparing
PUP Itech Students. The students can be evaluated according to the
given matrix of proficiency. The findings of this study will make them realize the

The definition of terms enumerates terms to be operationally or contextually
defined. You can only define terms that are used and manipulated in the study.
Definition should how these terms are utilized. Definition of terms is not a glossary.
You may only include conceptual definition if you convert these terms into concrete,
situation-specific terms. Conceptual definition is defined by dictionaries and
Defining consists of three parts- the term, class, and differentia. The term is the
word itself to be define. The class is the category. The differentia makes the term
different from the class where it belongs.

Sample Definition of Term

Definition of Terms
For the readers to understand this work better, the
definitions of terms as the terms are used in this study are
given below.
Above Proficient. This refers to Level 5 of English
proficiency. A student in this level communicates effectively in
English, with few if any errors across a wide range of gradelevel-appropriate language demands in the school/academic
context. The student commands a high degree of productive
and receptive control of lexical, syntactic, phonological, and
discourse features when addressing new and familiar topics
(ESL Danbury Connecticut).
Academic Language Proficiency. It is the ability of a
student to participate effectively in a course of study delivered
in English and to achieve expected learning outcomes without
requiring significant English language support, and to gain entry
to the labor market or a further course of study.
Academic Literacy. It is the application or practice of
the language in an area or context.
Beginning. This is Level 1 of English proficiency. A
student in this level is beginning to develop receptive and
productive uses of English in the school context, although
comprehension may be demonstrated nonverbally or through
the native language, rather than in English (ESL Danbury
Content-Area Subjects. These are subjects with
English terms and materials.
Diploma Course. This is a three-year nondegree
program at PUP Itech.
Early Intermediate. This is Level 2 of English
proficiency. A student in this level is developing the ability to
communicate in English within the school context. Errors
impede basic communication and comprehension. Lexical,
syntactic, phonological, and discourse features of English are
emerging (ESL Danbury Connecticut).

Unit IV
Review of Related Literature and Studies
This chapter presents the review of related literature and studies which are
the scholarly sources or studies or authoritative databases that have a significant
bearing to your own studies. Curtis (2011) points that your literature review will be
the mechanism by which your research is viewed as a cumulative process. That
makes it an integral component of the scientific process. According to him, the
purpose of the literature review remains the same regardless of the research
method you use. It tests your research question against what already is known
about your subject.
Through the literature review you will discover whether your research
question already has been answered by someone else. If it has, you must change or
modify your question.
A similar work like the Literature Reviews (2015), defines literature review as
a survey of scholarly articles, books and other sources such as dissertations,
conference proceedings that are relevant to a particular issue, area of research, of
theory, providing a description, summary, and critical evaluation of each work. The
purpose is to offer an overview of significant literature published on a topic.
Also, your work must include development of the literature review which
requires four stages which include problem formulation- which topic or field is being
examined and what are its component issues; literature search- finding materials
relevant to the subject being explored; data evaluation- determining which
literature makes a significant contribution to the understanding of the topic; and
analysis and interpretation- discussing the findings and conclusions of pertinent
literature, (Literature Reviews 2015).
In your formulation of this part of your research, it is always essential to
document every vital information that you gathered from each relevant source.
Keep in mind also to pick out the best information from primary and secondary
sources. It is also essential to consider elements that comprise your reviews such
as: an overview of the subject, issue or theory under consideration, along with the
objectives of the literature review; division of works under review into categories
(those in support of a particular position, those against, and those offering
alternative theses entirely); explanation of how each work is similar to and how it
varies from the others; conclusions as to which pieces are best considered in their
argument, are most convincing of their opinions, and make the greatest
contribution to the understanding and development of their area of research,
(Literature Reviews 2015).
Looking for the perfect materials that will help you in your research will never
be that easy. You need to include a number of sources that contain pertinent
information and documented facts from an array of materials like books,

encyclopedias, published or unpublished theses and dissertations, journals, web

sites and even interviews. Intensive readings and comprehensive documentation
will also be considered and most importantly, acknowledging these sources in your
entry of the bibliography.
Types of Sources
There are two types of sources that you will deal with as you go through the
process. These sources are classified as primary and secondary. Your knowledge in
identifying them is essential especially in your entry of the bibliography.
Primary Sources
The primary sources are materials which include the basic sources of
accounts by eyewitnesses or participants whose experience may have been
recorded or still have a clear vision of what has happened. This includes personal
interviews, surveys, experiments, and even documentaries. According to Laase and
Clemmons (1998), these accounts may be written, photographed, filmed, printed,
mapped, video-taped, painted or drawn, tape-recorded, or computer-generated.
According to them, when you utilize original sources in your research, you
find the pulse and the breath of people long dead, and you begin to be curious
about these people- to empathize with them, and to care about their fate. Your
connection with these people will stimulate more research, more intense learning,
and better retention of what you will have learned in the process, (Laase et al.
The same author also said that when you use primary sources, you must be
aware that these are more reliable sources than the secondary ones because the
accounts frequently reflect a sources point of view, bias, or self-interest or are
marred by confused memory or poor eyesight or hearing. Nevertheless, primary
sources contain exciting pieces of the whole picture that can be considered and
compared with others when doing a research.
Secondary Sources
The secondary sources, on the other hand, are those that you do like theses,
dissertations, books, encyclopedias, journals, magazines, newspapers and varied
web sites in the information super highway, the internet.
Given basic knowledge of identifying your future sources, it is but proper to
review other resources of your research. Laase et al. (1998) also cited the following
helpful resources for your research.
Resources of Research
biographical references
encyclopedias field trips
historical records
internet sites interviews

readers guides slides
travel agencies videotapes
vertical files

TV programs
video clips

As you go browsing shelves after shelves. Looking for that particular resource
material, you may at the same time, identify these sources as fiction or nonfiction.
By knowing them, this will help pick the right material suited to the kind of
information you are after. Laase et al. (1998) included the following types of
nonfiction books that you may identify them from the fiction ones, aside from the
parts of the reference materials you are after.
Types of Fiction Books
fairy tales

folk tales



Types of Nonfiction Books

ABC books
historical fiction
Laase et al. (1998) enumerated several websites that contain additional
information about primary
sources and links to digitized images and
documents which will be of help to you:
1. The Library of Congress:
2. Repositories of Primary Sources:
3. World Wide Web Virtual Library-History:

The college or university you are enrolled requires you to follow a certain
format they prescribed. In case like this, you have to equip yourself with the
necessary knowledge on carefully citing references or sources of materials used in
the process of your research.
APA Citation Style
The American Psychological Association style of citation includes pertinent
information like the name of the author and date of publication. This also refers to
to the rules and conventions established by the American Psychological

Association for documenting sources used in a research paper. APA style requires
both in-text citations and a reference list. For every in-text citation there should be a
full citation in the reference list and vice versa (APA Citation Style 2011). Other
references for additional information on APA citation can be found on Publication
Manual of the American Psychological Association, APA Style Guide to Electronic
References and APA Citation Handout- 6th edition.
The APA Citation Style, (2011) provides the following format on in-text
citation, reference listing and examples:
Reference Citations in-Text
The in-text citations here are placed within sentences and paragraphs so
that it is clear what information is being quoted or paraphrased and whose
information is being cited.
Works by a single author
The last name of the author and the year of publication are inserted in the text at
the appropriate point.

From theory on bounded rationality (Smith, 1945)

If the name of the author or the date appear as part of the narrative, cite only
missing information in parentheses.

Santos (1945) posted that

Works by multiple authors

When a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the reference
occurs in the text. In parenthetical material join the names with an ampersand (&).

as has been shown (Leiter & Maslach, 1998)

In the narrative text, join the names with the word "and."

as Leiter and Maslach (1998) demonstrated

When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the
reference occurs.

Kahneman, Knetsch, and Thaler (1991) found

In all subsequent citations per paragraph, include only the surname of the first
author followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others") and the year of publication.

Kahneman et al. (1991) found

Works by associations, corporations, government agencies, etc.

The names of groups that serve as authors (corporate authors) are usually written
out each time they appear in a text reference.

(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2007)

When appropriate, the names of some corporate authors are spelled out in the first
reference and abbreviated in all subsequent citations. The general rule for
abbreviating in this manner is to supply enough information in the text citation for a
reader to locate its source in the Reference List without difficulty.

(NIMH, 2007)

Works with no author

When a work has no author, use the first two or three words of the work's title
(omitting any initial articles) as your text reference, capitalizing each word. Place
the title in quotation marks if it refers to an article, chapter of a book, or Web page.
Italicize the title if it refers to a book, periodical, brochure, or report.

on climate change ("Climate and Weather," 1997)

Guide to Agricultural Meteorological Practices (1981)

Anonymous authors should be listed as such followed by a comma and the date.

on climate change (Anonymous, 2008)

Specific parts of a source

To cite a specific part of a source (always necessary for quotations), include the
page, chapter, etc. (with appropriate abbreviations) in the in-text citation.
seem to be

(Stigter & Das, 1981, p. 96)

De Waal (1996) overstated the case when he asserted that "we
reaching ... from the hands of philosophers" (p. 218).

If page numbers are not included in electronic sources (such as Web-based

journals), provide the paragraph number preceded by the abbreviation "para." or
the heading and following paragraph.

(Mnnich & Spiering, 2008, para. 9)

MLA Citation Style

In MLA style, writers place references to sources in the paper to briefly
identify them and enable readers to find them in the Works Cited list.

Citing Sources in the Text

These parenthetical references should be kept as brief and as clear as possible.
1. Give only the information needed to identify a source. Usually the author's
last name and a page reference suffice.
2. Place the parenthetical reference as close as possible to its source. Insert the
parenthetical reference where a pause would naturally occur, preferably at
the end of a sentence.
3. Information in the parenthesis should complement, not repeat, information
given in the text. If you include an author's name in a sentence, you do not
need to repeat it in your parenthetical statement.
4. The parenthetical reference should precede the punctuation mark that
concludes the sentence, clause, or phrase that contains the cited material.
5. Electronic and online sources are cited just like print resources in
parenthetical references. If an online source lacks page numbers, omit
numbers from the parenthetical references. If an online source includes fixed
page numbers or section numbering, such as numbering of paragraphs, cite
the relevant numbers.

Author's name in text

Dover has expressed

concern (118-21).


Author's name in reference

expressed (Dover 118-21).

Multiple authors of a work

This hypothesis (Bradley and

Rogers 7) suggested this
theory (Sumner, Reichl, and
Waugh 23).

Two locations

Williams alludes to
premise (136-39, 145).

Two works cited

(Burns 54; Thomas 327)


Multivolume works
References to volumes and pages

(Wilson 2:1-18)

References to an entire volume

(Henderson, vol. 3)

In text reference to an entire volume

In volume



Corporate authors

(United Nations, Economic

Commission for Africa 51-63)

Works with no author

as stated by the presidential

commission (Report 4).

When a work has no author, use the work's

title or a shortened version of the title when
citing it in text. (If abbreviating a title, omit
initial articles and begin with the word by
which it is alphabetized in the Works Cited



(Fox, pars. 4-5)


Getting into the research process also means lifting words, ideas, sentences,
or even phrases and putting them into writing will certainly make your discussion
and presentation more interesting and appealing. The process of getting the exact
thought or speech of a person is what is called direct quotation. But lifting quotes
directly from authorities must be given careful attention and hence, elude you from
owning ideas which are not yours. This will also avoid you from getting into trouble
of plagiarism which you do not like to happen. Arroyo et al. presented simple rules
in using direct quotations which you must consider.
1. Use a coma or colon after an introductory expression.
Example: Elrond said, A wish that is likely to be granted soon enough
in the mountains!
2. Use a comma, question mark, or exclamation mark after a quotation
followed by a concluding expression.
Example: What are the moon-letters? asked the hobbit.
3. Use a comma after part of a quoted sentence followed by an interrupting
expression. Use another comma after the expression.
Example: Moon-letters are rune-letters, but you cannot see them, said
Elrond, not when
you look straight at them.
4. Always place a comma or period inside the final quotation mark.
5. Always place a semicolon or colon outside the final quotation mark.
Example: They had thought of the coming to the secret door in the
Lonely Mountain, and
perhaps it will be Durins Day they
had said.

6. Place a question mark or exclamation mark inside the final quotation mark
if the end mark is part of the quotation.
Example: Bilbo said, Lets have a light!
7. Place a question mark or exclamation mark outside the final quotation
mark if the end mark is not part of the quotation.
Example: have you seen the Arkenstone of Thrain which is, The Heart
of the Mountains?
8. For quotations longer than a paragraph, put quotation marks at the
beginning of each paragraph at the end of the final paragraph.
9. Use single quotation marks for a quotation inside a quotation.
Example: Gandalf shouted, Run while pointing his rod.
According to (2015), here some ways of formatting
Short quotations
To indicate short quotations (fewer than four typed lines of prose or three
lines of verse) in your text, enclose the quotation within double quotation marks.
Provide the author and specific page citation (in the case of verse, provide line
numbers) in the text, and include a complete reference on the Works Cited page.
Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after
the parenthetical citation. Question marks and exclamation points should appear
within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage but after the
parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text.
According to some, dreams express "profound aspects of personality"
(Foulkes 184),
though others disagree.
According to Foulkes's study, dreams may express "profound aspects of
personality" (184).
Is it possible that dreams may express "profound aspects of personality"
(Foulkes 184)?
When short (fewer than three lines of verse) quotations from poetry, mark breaks in
short quotations of verse with a slash, ( / ), at the end of each line of verse (a space
should precede and follow the slash).
Cullen concludes, "Of all the things that happened there / That's all I
remember" (11-12).

Long quotations
For quotations that are more than four lines of prose or three lines of verse,
place quotations in a free-standing block of text and omit quotation marks. Start the
quotation on a new line, with the entire quote indented one inch from the left
margin; maintain double-spacing. Only indent the first line of the quotation by an
additional quarter inch if you are citing multiple paragraphs. Your parenthetical
citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. When quoting verse,
maintain original line breaks. (You should maintain double-spacing throughout your
Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her
They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their
room, and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the landing of the stairs,
hoping it would be gone on the morrow. By chance, or else attracted by
hearing his voice, it crept to Mr. Earnshaw's door, and there he found it
on quitting his chamber. Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I
was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and
inhumanity was sent out of the house. (Bronte 78)
When citing long sections (more than three lines) of poetry, keep formatting as
close to the original as possible.
In his poem "My Papa's Waltz," Theodore Roethke explores his childhood with
his father:
The whiskey on your breath
Could make a small boy dizzy;
But I hung on like death:
Such waltzing was not easy.
We Romped until the pans
Slid from the kitchen shelf;
My mother's countenance
Could not unfrown itself. (quoted in Shrodes, Finestone, Shugrue 202)
When citing two or more paragraphs, use block quotation format, even if the
passage from the paragraphs is less than four lines. Indent the first line of each
quoted paragraph an extra quarter inch.
In "American Origins of the Writing-across-the-Curriculum Movement," David
Russell argues,
Writing has been an issue in American secondary and higher
education since papers and examinations came into wide use in the
1870s, eventually driving out formal recitation and oral examination.
From its birth in the late nineteenth century, progressive education
has wrestled with the conflict within industrial society between
pressure to increase specialization of knowledge and of professional

work (upholding disciplinary standards) and pressure to integrate

more fully an ever-widerning number of citizens into intellectually
meaningful activity within mass society (promoting social equity). . . .
Adding or omitting words in quotations
If you add a word or words in a quotation, you should put brackets around the words
to indicate that they are not part of the original text.
Jan Harold Brunvand, in an essay on urban legends, states, "some individuals
[who retell urban legends] make a point of learning every rumor or tale" (78).
If you omit a word or words from a quotation, you should indicate the deleted word
or words by using ellipsis marks, which are three periods ( . . . ) preceded and
followed by a space.
In an essay on urban legends, Jan Harold Brunvand notes that "some
individuals make a point of learning every recent rumor or tale . . . and in a
short time a lively exchange of details occurs" (78).
Please note that brackets are not needed around ellipses unless adding brackets
would clarify your use of ellipses.
When omitting words from poetry quotations, use a standard three-period ellipses;
however, when omitting one or more full lines of poetry, space several periods to
about the length of a complete line in the poem:
These beauteous forms,
Through a long absence, have not been to me
As is a landscape to a blind man's eye:
Felt in the blood, and felt along the heart;
And passing even into my purer mind,
With tranquil restoration . . . (22-24, 28-30)


Notice that most of the academic papers you may have encountered, contain
three basic parts: the introduction that gives you a quick idea of the topic of the
literature review, the body which contains your discussion of sources and is
organized either chronologically, thematically, or methodologically, and the

conclusion which discusses what you have drawn from reviewing your literature so
far (The Writing Center at UNC, 2014).
The following ways of organizing and presenting your literature reviews lifted
from The Writing Center at UNC (2014) will surely guide you to come up with a
desirable presentation of your work.
If your review follows the chronological method, you could write about the
materials above according to when they were published. For instance, first you
would talk about the British biological studies of the 18th century, then about Moby
Dick, published in 1851, then the book on sperm whales in other art (1968), and
finally the biology articles (1980s) and the recent articles on American whaling of
the 19th century. But there is relatively no continuity among subjects here. And
notice that even though the sources on sperm whales in other art and on American
whaling are written recently, they are about other subjects/objects that were
created much earlier. Thus, the review loses its chronological focus.
By publication
Order your sources by publication chronology, then, only if the order
demonstrates a more important trend. For instance, you could order a review of
literature on biological studies of sperm whales if the progression revealed a change
in dissection practices of the researchers who wrote and/or conducted the studies.
By trend
A better way to organize the above sources chronologically is to examine the
sources under another trend, such as the history of whaling. Then your review
would have subsections according to eras within this period. For instance, the
review might examine whaling from pre-1600-1699, 1700-1799, and 1800-1899.
Under this method, you would combine the recent studies on American whaling in
the 19th century with Moby Dick itself in the 1800-1899 category, even though the
authors wrote a century apart.
Thematic reviews of literature are organized around a topic or issue, rather
than the progression of time. However, progression of time may still be an
important factor in a thematic review. For instance, the sperm whale review could
focus on the development of the harpoon for whale hunting. While the study
focuses on one topic, harpoon technology, it will still be organized chronologically.
The only difference here between a chronological and a thematic approach is
what is emphasized the most: the development of the harpoon or the harpoon
But more authentic thematic reviews tend to break away from chronological order.
For instance, a thematic review of material on sperm whales might examine how
they are portrayed as evil in cultural documents. The subsections might include
how they are personified, how their proportions are exaggerated, and their
behaviors misunderstood. A review organized in this manner would shift between
time periods within each section according to the point made.

A methodological approach differs from the two above in that the focusing
factor usually does not have to do with the content of the material. Instead, it
focuses on the methods of the researcher or writer. For the sperm whale project,
one methodological approach would be to look at cultural differences between the
portrayal of whales in American, British, and French art work. Or the review might
focus on the economic impact of whaling on a community. A methodological scope
will influence either the types of documents in the review or the way in which these
documents are discussed.
Once youve decided on the organizational method for the body of the
review, the sections you need to include in the paper should be easy to figure out.
They should arise out of your organizational strategy. In other words, a chronological
review would have subsections for each vital time period. A thematic review would
have subtopics based upon factors that relate to the theme or issue.
Sometimes, though, you might need to add additional sections that are
necessary for your study, but do not fit in the organizational strategy of the body.
What other sections you include in the body is up to you. Put in only what is
necessary. Here are a few other sections you might want to consider:
Current Situation
Information necessary to understand the topic or focus of the literature
The chronological progression of the field, the literature, or an idea that is
necessary to understand the literature review, if the body of the literature review is
not already a chronology.
Methods and/or Standards
The criteria you used to select the sources in your literature review or the
way in which you present your information. For instance, you might explain that
your review includes only peer-reviewed articles and journals.
Transitional Devices to Achieve Coherence
Sticking your sentences that go together is another task that awaits you on
your journey of research writing. Oneness in thoughts and ideas presented must be
done carefully to avoid confusion and misrepresentation or your passage sounds
clumsy and its ideas can be difficult to follow and so, you must consider the
following devices that will help you achieve a coherent and intelligent work (Forlini
et al. (1998).
Time Relationship
first, second, third, later, now, next,
before, finally, meanwhile, during,
earlier, after, then
Comparison or Contrast
nonetheless, nevertheless,

Spatial Relationship
outside, inside, beyond, here, behind,
before, ahead, beneath, near, above
Cause and Effect
thus, then, therefore, as a result,
accordingly, so, because of, on account

of, since, consequently

indeed, in fact, even, in other words,

also, besides, too, moreover, second, as
well, in addition, furthermore
for instance, as an illustration, that is, also, for example, namely, in particular

Organization in arranging your literature review is the same skill you have to
consider in writing the synthesis of your work. Having equipped with transitional
devices and formats of works cited, you can easily work on the synthesis of your
paper. Accordingly, your synthesis essay should be organized so that others can
understand the sources and evaluate your comprehension of them and their
presentation of specific data, themes, etc., also, the following format from
Jamieson (1999) will help you work well:
The introduction of your synthesis
Contain a one-sentence statement that sums up the focus of your synthesis
Also introduces the texts to be synthesized:
1. gives the title of each source (following the citation guidelines of whatever
style sheet you are using;
2. provides the name of each author;
3. sometimes also provides pertinent background information about the
authors, about the texts to be summarized, or about the general topic
from which the texts are drawn
The body of your synthesis essay
This should be organized by theme, point, similarity, or aspect of the topic.
Your organization will be determined by the assignment or by the patterns you see
in the material you are synthesizing. The organization is the most important part of
a synthesis, so try out more than one format.
Be sure that each paragraph:
1. Begins with a sentence or a phrase that informs readers of the topic of the
2. Includes information from more than one source;
3. Clearly indicates which material comes from which source using lead in
phrases and in-text citations. (Beware of plagiarism: Accidental plagiarism
most often occurs when students are synthesizing sources and do not
indicate where the synthesis ends and their own comments begin or vice
4. Shows the similarities and differences between the different sources in ways
that make the paper as informative as possible;
5. Presents how did you utilize the reviews in introduction, methodology, and
6. Compares your studies with the reviewed studies to show uniqueness;

7. Represents the texts fairlyeven if that seems to weaken the paper. Look
upon yourself as a synthesizing machine; you are simply repeating what the
source says, in fewer words and in your own words. But the fact that you are
using your own words does not mean that you are in any way changing what
the source says.
The conclusion
When you have finished your paper, write a conclusion reminding readers of
the most significant themes you have found and the ways they connect to the
overall topic. You may also want to suggest further research or comment on things
that it was not possible for you to discuss in the paper. If you are writing a
background synthesis, in some cases it may be appropriate for you to offer an
interpretation of the material or take a position (thesis). Check this option with your
instructor before you write the final draft of your paper.

Synthesis and Relevance

Literature and Studies




The reviewed literature and studies showed

similarities and differences between some past studies
and the present study. They provided the researcher
with a clearer understanding of the problem with
valuable insights into English proficiency and its
standards, diversity, context, methodology, teaching,
and learning.
The research had salient contributions from
Cummins, Vecchio, and Guerrero who comprehensively
defined English proficiency as the ability to send and
receive messages, to communicate or to ask questions,
to understand both the teachers and teaching
materials, to test or to challenge ideas in the classroom,
and to use language with greater formality accurately
and appropriately.
Newton, Manivanna, and Nerist discussed the
importance of English. Their ideas helped the
researcher enrich his findings.
Tocmo, the Accredited Language Services,
Camero, Macasinag, Labastida, and Marcelo pointed out
that proficiency in English is an advantage in the
industry. Good communication skills help workers to
participate in nation-building. The researcher used their
ideas to support his findings.
Xu, Maleki, Zangani, and Davis concluded that it
was possible to use English proficiency as a
determinant of learners success in academic
performance. This conclusion made the researcher
more determined to pursue this study.
On the other hand, Kelena, Gullas, and Sarreal
asserted that teachers and students high English
proficiency had positive effects on the teaching of nonEnglish subjects. The idea that proficiency in English
could be an instrument to enhance academic literacy
helped the researcher not only in the formulation of the

Sample Synthesis

The Importance of Documentation and Referencing
If there are moral or ethical issues that a researcher could face, plagiarism
and intellectual property are just two of them. Plagiarism is a very serious matter. It
is a displeasure to your professor, biased to your classmates, and destructive of the
process of university education. Most students are believing to some fallacy where
they can actually paraphrase or translate and revise directly the excerpts to another
structure or language without proper documentation. Plagiarism, according to (2013) of University of Cambridge, is defined as the
unacknowledged use of the work of others as if this were your own original work.
It also mentions the scope of plagiarism which may be due to: copying (using
another person's language and/or ideas as if they are your own); and
collusion (unauthorized collaboration).
Additionally, University of Cambridge states plagiarism methods for you to
anticipate: (a) quoting directly another person's language, data or illustrations
without clear indication that the authorship is not your own and due
acknowledgement of the source; (b) paraphrasing the critical work of others
without due acknowledgement even if you change some words or the order of the
words, this is still plagiarism if you are using someone else's original ideas and are
not properly acknowledging it; (c) using ideas taken from someone else without
reference to the originator; (d) cutting and pasting from the Internet to make a
'pastiche' of online sources; (e) colluding with another person, including another
candidate (other than as might be permitted for joint project work); and (f)
submitting as part of your own report or dissertation someone else's work without
identifying clearly who did the work (for example, where research has been
contributed by others to a joint project).
To avoid this, Roig (2014) enlists added some practical ways.
a. An ethical writer ALWAYS acknowledges the contributions of others and the
source of his/her ideas.
b. Any verbatim text taken from another author must be enclosed in quotation

c. We must always acknowledge every source that we use in our writing;

whether we paraphrase it, summarize it, or enclose it quotations.
d. When we summarize, we condense, in our own words, a substantial amount
of material into a short paragraph or perhaps even into a sentence.
e. Whether we are paraphrasing or summarizing we must always identify the
source of the information.
f. When paraphrasing and/or summarizing others work we must reproduce the
exact meaning of the other authors ideas or facts using our words and
sentence structure.
g. In order to make substantial modifications to the original text that result in a
proper paraphrase, the author must have a thorough understanding of the
ideas and terminology being used.
h. A responsible writer has an ethical responsibility to readers, and to the
author/s from whom s/he is borrowing, to respect others ideas and words, to
credit those from whom we borrow, and whenever possible, to use ones own
words when paraphrasing.
i. When in doubt as to whether a concept or fact is common knowledge, provide
a citation.
j. Authors who submit a manuscript for publication containing data, reviews,
conclusions, etc., that have already been disseminated in some significant
manner (e.g., published as an article in another journal, presented at a
conference, posted on the internet) must clearly indicate to the editors and
readers the nature of the previous dissemination.
k. Authors of complex studies should heed the advice previously put forth by
Angell & Relman (1989). If the results of a single complex study are best
presented as a cohesive single whole, they should not be partitioned into
individual papers. Furthermore, if there is any doubt as to whether a paper
submitted for publication represents fragmented data, authors should enclose
other papers (published or unpublished) that might be part of the paper
under consideration (Kassirer & Angell, 1995). Similarly, old data that have
been merely augmented with additional data points and that are
subsequently presented as a new study can be an equally serious ethical
l. Because some instances of plagiarism, self-plagiarism, and even some writing
practices that might otherwise be acceptable (e.g., extensive paraphrasing or
quoting of key elements of a book) can constitute copyright infringement,
authors are strongly encouraged to become familiar with basic elements of
copyright law.
m. While there are some situations where text recycling is an acceptable
practice, it may not be so in other situations. Authors are urged to adhere to
the spirit of ethical writing and avoid reusing their own previously published
text, unless it is done in a manner consistent with standard scholarly
conventions (e.g., by using of quotations and proper paraphrasing).
n. Authors are strongly urged to double-check their citations. Specifically,
authors should always ensure that each reference notation appearing in the
body of the manuscript corresponds to the correct citation listed in the
reference section and vice versa and that each source listed in the reference
section has been cited at some point in the manuscript. In addition, authors
should also ensure that all elements of a citation (e.g., spelling of authors
names, volume number of journal, pagination) are derived directly from the









original paper, rather than from a citation that appears on a secondary

source. Finally, authors should ensure that credit is given to those authors
who first reported the phenomenon being studied.
The references used in a paper should only be those that are directly related
to its contents. The intentional inclusion of references of questionable
relevance for purposes of manipulating a journals or a papers impact factor
or a papers chances of acceptance is an unacceptable practice.
Authors should follow a simple rule: Strive to obtain the actual published
paper. When the published paper cannot be obtained, cite the specific version
of the material being used, whether it is conference presentation, abstract, or
an unpublished manuscript.
Generally, when describing others work, do not rely on a secondary
summary of that work. It is a deceptive practice, reflects poor scholarly
standards, and can lead to a flawed description of the work described. Always
consult the primary literature.
If an author must rely on a secondary source (e.g., textbook) to describe the
contents of a primary source (e.g., an empirical journal article), s/he should
consult writing manuals used in her discipline to follow the proper convention
to do so. Above all, always indicate the actual source of the information being
When borrowing heavily from a source, authors should always craft their
writing in a way that makes clear to readers, which ideas are their own and
which are derived from the source being consulted.
When appropriate, authors have an ethical responsibility to report evidence
that runs contrary to their point of view. In addition, evidence that we use in
support of our position must be methodologically sound. When citing
supporting studies that suffer from methodological, statistical, or other types
of shortcomings, such flaws must be pointed out to the reader.
Authors have an ethical obligation to report all aspects of the study that may
impact the independent replicability of their research.
Researchers have an ethical responsibility to report the results of their
studies according to their a priori plans. Any post hoc manipulations that may
alter the results initially obtained, such as the elimination of outliers or the
use of alternative statistical techniques, must be clearly described along with
an acceptable rationale for using such techniques.
Authorship determination should be discussed prior to commencing a
research collaboration and should be based on established guidelines, such
as those of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.
Only those individuals who have made substantive contributions to a project
merit authorship in a paper.
Faculty-student collaborations should follow the same criteria to establish
authorship. Mentors must exercise great care to neither award authorship to
students whose contributions do not merit it, nor to deny authorship and due
credit to the work of students.
Academic or professional ghost authorship in the sciences is ethically

Plagiarism is stealing ones ideas and stealing is a crime. To regulate this

violation, this is governed by Intellectual Property (IP). Intellectual Property, based

on (2015), is the area of law that deals with protecting the rights of
those who create original works. It covers everything from original plays and novels
to inventions and company identification marks. Locally, The Intellectual Property
Rights of Philippines consists of copyright and related rights, trademarks and
service marks, geographic indications, industrial designs, patents, layout-designs
(topographies) or integrated circuits, and protection of undisclosed information.
Research writing is directed under the Copyright Law of RA No. 8293 Part IV.
Copyright is a legal right mandated by the law to use and distribute. The exclusive
rights enabling the creator to receive compensation for his intellectual effort. These
rights are limited with the total control of the work as described and defined by the
limitations and exceptions to copyright law. Aside from researches, it considers (a)
books, pamphlets, articles and other writings; (b) Periodicals and newspapers; (c)
Lectures, sermons, addresses, dissertations prepared for oral delivery, whether or
not reduced in writing or other material form; (d) Letters; (e) Dramatic or dramaticmusical compositions; choreographic works or entertainment in dumb shows; (f)
Musical compositions, with or without words; (g) Works of drawing, painting,
architecture, sculpture, engraving, lithography or other works of art; models or
designs for works of art; (h) Original ornamental designs or models for articles of
manufacture, whether or not registerable as an industrial design, and other works of
applied art; (i) Illustrations, maps, plans, sketches, charts and three-dimensional
works relative to geography, topography, architecture or science; (j) Drawings or
plastic works of a scientific or technical character; (k) Photographic works including
works produced by a process analogous to photography; lantern slides; (l)
Audiovisual works and cinematographic works and works produced by a process
analogous to cinematography or any process for making audio-visual recordings;
(m) Pictorial illustrations and advertisements; (n) Computer programs; and (o) Other
literary, scholarly, scientific and artistic works.

Adherence with Copyright Law, in-text citation and documentation using MLA
(Modern Language Association) and APA (American Psychological Association)
Manuals are recognized formatting for researches and other related works. MLA
style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts
and humanities; whereas, APA style is for social sciences.

Documenting Bibliographies
Documenting facts and information gathered from all your sources is vital.
Considering the following bibliographic information and putting them into your
notes will help you lessen the burden during your entry of your bibliography.
Perfecto, Paterno & Pison (2005) cited the following during your recording of
bibliographic information:


Authors full name

Full title, including any subtitle
Number of the volume and the total number of volumes (if the book is a
part of a multi-volume work)
5. City of publication
6. Shortened form of the publishers name
7. Year of publication
Journal Article
1. Authors name
2. Full title of the article
3. Full title of the journal
4. Volume number
5. Year of publication
6. Inclusive page numbers of the article
Newspaper or Magazine Article
1. Authors name
2. Full title of the article
3. Title of the periodical
4. Date of publication
5. Inclusive page numbers of the article
Internet Source
1. Authors name
2. Title of the document
3. Full information about any previous or simultaneous publication in print
4. Title of the scholarly project, database, periodical, or Website
5. Name of the editor of the scholarly project or database
6. Date of electronic publication or last update
7. Name of the institution or organization sponsoring or associated with the
8. Date when you accessed the source
9. Network address or URL

Reference List
References cited in the text of a research paper must appear in a Reference
List or bibliography. This list provides the information necessary to identify and
retrieve each source. These are some considerations.
1. Order: Entries should be arranged in alphabetical order by authors' last
names. Sources without authors are arranged alphabetically by title within
the same list.

2. Authors: Write out the last name and initials for all authors of a particular
work. Use an ampersand (&) instead of the word "and" when listing
multiple authors of a single work. Example:
Smith, J. D., & Jones, M.
3. Titles: Capitalize only the first word of a title or subtitle, and any proper
names that are part of a title.
4. Pagination: Use the abbreviation p. or pp. to designate page numbers of
articles from periodicals that do not use volume numbers, especially
newspapers. These abbreviations are also used to designate pages in
encyclopedia articles and chapters from edited books.
5. Indentation*: The first line of the entry is flush with the left margin, and
all subsequent lines are indented (5 to 7 spaces) to form a "hanging
6. Underlining vs. Italics*: It is appropriate to use italics instead of
underlining for titles of books and journals.
Two additional pieces of information should be included for works accessed online.
7. Internet Address**: A stable Internet address should be included and
should direct the reader as close as possible to the actual work. If the
work has a digital object identifier (DOI), use this. If there is no DOI or
similar handle, use a stable URL. If the URL is not stable, as is often the
case with online newspapers and some subscription-based databases, use
the home page of the site you retrieved the work from.
8. Date: If the work is a finalized version published and dated, as in the case
of a journal article, the date within the main body of the citation is
enough. However, if the work is not dated and/or is subject to change, as
in the case of an online encyclopedia article, include the date that you
retrieved the information.
* The APA has special formatting standards for the use of indentation and italics in
manuscripts or papers that will be typeset or submitted for official publication. For
more detailed information on these publication standards, refer to the Publication
Manual of the American Psychological Association, or consult with your instructors
or editors to determine their style preferences.
** See the APA Style Guide to Electronic References for information on how to
format URLs that take up more than one line.


References to periodical articles must include the following elements: author(s),

date of publication, article title, journal title, volume number, issue number (if
applicable), and page numbers.
Journal article, one author, accessed online
Ku, G. (2008). Learning to de-escalate: The effects of regret in escalation
Example: of commitment. Organizational Behavior and Human
Decision Processes, 105(2), 221-232. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2007.08.002
Journal article, two authors, accessed online
Sanchez, D., & King-Toler, E. (2007). Addressing disparities consultation and
strategies for university settings. Consulting Psychology Journal:
Practice and Research, 59(4), 286-295. doi:10.1037/1065- 9293.59.4.286
Journal article, more than two authors, accessed online
Van Vugt, M., Hogan, R., & Kaiser, R. B. (2008). Leadership, followership, and
evolution: Some lessons from the past. American Psychologist, 63(3),
Article from an Internet-only journal
Hirtle, P. B. (2008, July-August). Copyright renewal, copyright restoration, and
status. D-Lib
Magazine, 14(7/8).doi:10.1045/july2008-hirtle
Journal article from a subscription database (no DOI)
Colvin, G. (2008, July 21). Information worth billions. Fortune, 158(2), 73-79.
Retrieved from Business Source Complete, EBSCO. Retrieved from
Magazine article, in print
Kluger, J. (2008, January 28). Why we love. Time, 171(4), 54-60.
Newspaper article, no author, in print
As prices surge, Thailand pitches OPEC-style rice cartel. (2008, May 5). The
Wall Street Journal, p. A9.

Newspaper article, multiple authors, discontinuous pages, in print

Delaney, K. J., Karnitschnig, M., & Guth, R. A. (2008, May 5). Microsoft ends
pursuit of Yahoo, reassesses its online options. The Wall Street Journal,
pp. A1, A12.

References to an entire book must include the following elements: author(s) or
editor(s), date of publication, title, place of publication, and the name of the
No Author or editor, in print
Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (11th ed.). (2003). Springfield, MA:
One author, in print
Kidder, T. (1981). The soul of a new machine. Boston, MA: Little, Brown &
Two authors, in print
Frank, R. H., & Bernanke, B. (2007). Principles of macro-economics (3rd ed.).
Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Corporate author, author as publisher, accessed online
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2000). Tasmanian year book 2000 (No.
1301.6). Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Author. Retrieved from
Edited book
Gibbs, J. T., & Huang, L. N. (Eds.). (2001). Children of color: Psychological
interventions with culturally diverse youth. San Francisco, CA: JosseyBass.
References for dissertations should include the following elements: author, date of
publication, title, and institution (if you accessed the manuscript copy from the
university collections). If there is a UMI number or a database accession number,
include it at the end of the citation.

Dissertation, accessed online

Young, R. F. (2007). Crossing boundaries in urban ecology: Pathways to
sustainable cities (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest
Dissertations & Theses database. (UMI No. 327681)
References to an essay or chapter in an edited book must include the following
elements: essay or chapter authors, date of publication, essay or chapter title, book
editor(s), book title, essay or chapter page numbers, place of publication, and the
name of the publisher.
One author
Labajo, J. (2003). Body and voice: The construction of gender in flamenco. In
T. Magrini (Ed.), Music and gender: perspectives from the
Mediterranean (pp. 67-86). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Two editors
Hammond, K. R., & Adelman, L. (1986). Science, values, and human
judgment. In H. R. Arkes & K. R. Hammond (Eds.), Judgement and
decision making: An interdisciplinary reader (pp. 127-143). Cambridge,
England: Cambridge University Press.
References for encyclopedias must include the following elements: author(s) or
editor(s), date of publication, title, place of publication, and the name of the
publisher. For sources accessed online, include the retrieval date as the entry may
be edited over time.
Encyclopedia set or dictionary
Sadie, S., & Tyrrell, J. (Eds.). (2002). The new Grove dictionary of music and
musicians (2nd ed., Vols. 1-29). New York, NY: Grove.
Article from an online encyclopedia
Containerization. (2008). In Encyclopdia Britannica. Retrieved May 6, 2008,
Encyclopedia article

Kinni, T. B. (2004). Disney, Walt (1901-1966): Founder of the Walt Disney

Company. In Encyclopedia of Leadership (Vol. 1, pp. 345-349).
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


References to a report must include the following elements: author(s), date of
publication, title, place of publication, and name of publisher. If the issuing
organization assigned a number (e.g., report number, contract number, or
monograph number) to the report, give that number in parentheses immediately
after the title. If it was accessed online, include the URL.
Government report, accessed online
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2005). Medicaid drug price
comparisons: Average manufacturer price to published prices (OIG
publication No. OEI-05-05- 00240). Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved
Government reports, GPO publisher, accessed online
Congressional Budget Office. (2008). Effects of gasoline prices on driving
behavior and vehicle markets: A CBO study (CBO Publication No.
2883). Washington, DC:U.S Government Printing Office. Retrieved from
Technical and/or research reports, accessed online
Deming, D., & Dynarski, S. (2008). The lengthening of childhood (NBER
Working Paper 14124). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic
Document available on university program or department site
Victor, N. M. (2008). Gazprom: Gas giant under strain. Retrieved from
Stanford University, Program on Energy and Sustainable Development
References to audio-visual media must include the following elements: name and
function of the primary contributors (e.g., producer, director), date, title, the

medium in brackets, location or place of production, and name of the distributor. If

the medium is indicated as part of the retrieval ID, brackets are not needed.
Achbar, M. (Director/Producer), Abbott, J. (Director), Bakan, J. (Writer), &
Simpson, B. (Producer) (2004). The corporation [DVD]. Canada: Big
Picture Media Corporation.

Audio recording
Nhat Hanh, T. (Speaker). (1998). Mindful living: a collection of teachings on
love, mindfulness, and meditation [Cassette Recording]. Boulder, CO:
Sounds True Audio.
Motion picture
Gilbert, B. (Producer), & Higgins, C. (Screenwriter/Director). (1980). Nine to
five [Motion Picture]. United States: Twentieth Century Fox.
Television broadcast
Anderson, R., & Morgan, C. (Producers). (2008, June
Minutes [Television broadcast]. Washington, DC: CBS News.

20). 60

Television show from a series

Whedon, J. (Director/Writer). (1999, December 14). Hush [Television series
episode]. In Whedon, J., Berman, G., Gallin, S., Kuzui, F., & Kuzui, K.
(Executive Producers), Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Burbank, CA: Warner
Music recording
Jackson, M. (1982). Beat it. On Thriller [CD]. New York, NY: Sony Music.
For content that does not easily fit into categories such as journal papers, books,
and reports, keep in mind the goal of a citation is to give the reader a clear path to
the source material. For electronic and online materials, include stable URL or
database name. Include the author, title, and date published when available. For
undated materials, include the date the resource was accessed.
Blog entry

Arrington, M. (2008, August 5). The viral video guy gets $1 million in funding.
Message posted to
Professional Web site
National Renewable Energy Laboratory. (2008). Biofuels. Retrieved May 6,
2008, from

Data set from a database

Bloomberg L.P. (2008). Return on capital for Hewitt Packard 12/31/90 to
09/30/08. Retrieved Dec. 3, 2008, from Bloomberg database. Central
Statistics Office of the Republic of Botswana. (2008). Gross domestic
product per capita 06/01/1994 to 06/01/2008 [statistics]. Available
from CEIC Data database.
References cited in the text of a research paper must appear at the end of the
paper in a Works Cited list or bibliography. This list provides the information
necessary to identify and retrieve each source that specifically supports your
research. The following should be considered.
1. Arrange entries in alphabetical order by authors' last names (surnames), or
by title for sources without authors.
2. Capitalize the first word and all other principal words of the titles and
subtitles of cited works listed. (Do not capitalize articles, prepositions,
coordinating conjunctions, or the "to" in infinitives.)
3. Shorten the publisher's name; for example, omit articles, business
abbreviations (Co., Inc.), and descriptive words (Press, Publisher).
4. When multiple publishers are listed, include all of them, placing a semicolon
between each.
5. When more than one city is listed for the same publisher, use only the first
6. Use the conjunction "and," not an ampersand [&], when listing multiple
authors of a single work.
7. Pagination: Do not use the abbreviations p. or pp. to designate page
8. Indentation: Align the first line of the entry flush with the left margin, and
indent all subsequent lines (5 to 7 spaces) to form a "hanging indent."
9. Italics: Choose a font in which the italic style contrasts clearly with the
regular style.

References to an entire book should include the following elements:

1. author(s) or editor(s)
2. the complete title
3. edition, if indicated
4. place of publication
5. the shortened name of the publisher
6. date of publication
7. medium of publication
Basic Format
Last name, First name. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of
Publication. Medium of Publication.

One author:
Nabokov, Vladimir. Lolita. New York: Putnam, 1955. Print.
Another work, same author:
---. Speak, Memory: An Autobiography Revisited. New York: Knopf, 1999.
Two authors:
Cross, Susan, and Christine Hoffman. Bruce Nauman: Theaters of Experience.
New York: Guggenheim Museum; London: Thames & Hudson, 2004.
Three authors:
Lowi, Theodore, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Steve Jackson. Analyzing American
Government: American Government, Freedom and Power. 3rd ed. New
York: Norton, 1994. Print.
More than three authors:
Gilman, Sander, et al. Hysteria beyond Freud. Berkeley: U of California P,
1993. Print.
Corporate author:
Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art. A Guide to the Herbert F. Johnson Museum
Art, Cornell University. Ithaca: Cornell U, 1973. Print.

Multivolume work:

Samuel Eliot, Henry Steele Commager, and William E.

Leuchtenburg. The Growth of the American Republic. 2 vols.
New York: Oxford UP, 1980. Print.

No author or editor:
Peterson's Annual Guides to Graduate Study. 33rd ed. Princeton, NJ:
Peterson's, 1999. Print.
Editor (anthology or collection of essays):
Hill, Charles A., and Marguerite Helmers, eds. Defining Visual Rhetorics.
Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004. Print.

References to an essay or chapter in an edited book or compilation must include the
following elements:
1. essay or chapter author(s)
2. essay or chapter title
3. book title
4. book editor(s) or compilers
5. place of publication
6. the shortened name of the publisher
7. date of publication
8. inclusive page numbers of the cited piece
9. medium of publication
Article in a book:
Ahmedi, Fauzia Erfan. "Welcoming Courtyards: Hospitality, Spirituality, and
Gender."Feminism and Hospitality: Gender in the Host/Guest
Relationship. Ed. Maurice Hamington. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2010.
109-24. Print.
Reprinted article:
Hunt, Tim. "The Misreading of Kerouac." Review of Contemporary Fiction 3.2
(1983): 29-33. Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism. Ed. Carl
Riley. Vol. 61. Detroit: Gale, 1990. 308-10. Print.

If the article or entry is signed, place the author's name first; if it is unsigned, give
the title first. For well-known reference works, it is not necessary to include full
publication information. Include only the title of the reference source, edition, and
date of publication.
Dictionary entry:
"Hospitality." Def. 1a. Websters Third New World Dictionary. 1993. Print.
Encyclopedia entry:
Mercuri, Becky. "Cookies." The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in
America. Ed. Andrew F. Smith. Vol. 1. 2004. Print.
Article from a less familiar reference book:
Bernheisel, J. Frank. "Setting Recycling Goals and Priorities." McGraw-Hill
Recycling Handbook. Ed. Herbert F. Lund. 2 nd ed. New York: McGrawHill, 2001. Print.


References to periodical articles must include the following elements:
1. author(s)
2. article title
3. publication title (journal, magazine, etc.)
4. volume number
5. publication date (abbreviate months, if used)
6. the inclusive page numbers
7. medium of publication
Issue numbers should be stated as decimals to a given volume number. In the
example below, the number25.4 reads as Volume 25, issue 4. When citing
newspapers, it is important to specify the edition used (e.g. late ed.) because
different editions of a newspaper may contain different material
Journal article, one author:
Matarrita-Cascante, David. "Beyond Growth: Reaching Tourism-Led
Development." Annals of Tourism Research 37.4 (2010): 1141-63. Print.
Journal article, two authors:
Laing, Jennifer, and Warwick Frost. "How Green Was My Festival: Exploring
Challenges and Opportunities Associated With Staging Green
Events." International Journal of Hospitality Management 29.2
(2010): 261-7. Print.

Magazine article:
Kaplan, David A. "Corporate Americas No. 1 Gun For Hire." Fortune 1 Nov.
2010: 81-95. Print.
Newspaper article, no author:
"Africa Day Celebrated in Havana." Granma International 31 May 2009,
English ed.: 16. Print.
Newspaper article, one author, discontinuous pages:
Bajaj, Vikas. "The Double-Edged Rupee." New York Times 27 Oct. 2010: B1+.

References to government documents vary in their required elements. In general, if
you do not know the writer of the document, cite the government agency that
issued the document as author.

State document:

York State. Commission on Capital Punishment. Report of the

Commission to Investigate and Report the Most Humane and Practical
Method of Carrying Into Effect the Sentence of Death in Capital Cases.
Albany: Troy, 1888. Print.

Federal document:
United States. Cong. Senate. Committee on Governmental Affairs. The Future
of the Independent Counsel Act. Hearings 106th Cong., 1st sess.
Washington: GPO, 1999. Print.
International document:
United Nations. General Assembly. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms
of Discrimination Against Women. New York: United Nations, 1979.


Film or video recording:

Annie Hall. Dir. Woody Allen. 1977. Videocassette. MGM/UA Home
Video, 1991.
Sound recording:
Counting Crows. August and Everything After. DGC, 1993. CD.
Sound recording, specific song:
Counting Crows. "Mr. Jones." August and Everything After. DGC, 1993.
Citations should include the medium of the electronic publication (CD-ROM), the
name of the vendor that made the material available on CD-ROM, and publications
dates for the version used, if relevant.

"Marriage." Encyclopedia

Judaica. CD-ROM.




Citations for online sources, like those for print sources, should provide information
that both identifies a source and allows that source to be located and retrieved
again. All citations should include the medium of publication (Web) and the date the
content was accessed. If the source is difficult to locate or your instructor requires a
URL, list the complete address within angle brackets after the date. In many cases,
it is also necessary to identify the Web site or database that has made the material
available online.
Because there are currently few standards that govern the organization and
presentation of online publications, the information that is available to fulfill these
objectives can vary widely from resource to resource. In general, references to
online works require more information than references to print sources.
See sections 5.6.1-4 in the MLA Handbook for more complete information on
creating citations for online sources.
Web page:
Cornell University Library. "Introduction to Research." Cornell University
Personal Web site:
If a work is untitled, you may use a genre label such as Home page,

Rule, Greg. Home page. Web. 16 Nov. 2008.

Entry in an online encyclopedia:
"Einstein, Albert." Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica,
1999. Web. 27 Apr. 2009.
Article from a less familiar online reference book:
Nielsen, Jorgen S. "European Culture and Islam." Encyclopedia of Islam and
the Muslim World. Ed. Richard C. Martin. New York: Macmillan
Reference-Thomson/Gale, 2004. Web. 4 July 2009.
Article in an online periodical:
If pagination is unavailable or is not continuous, use n. pag. in place of the
page numbers.
Chaplin, Heather. "Epidemic of Extravagance." Salon 19 Feb. 1999: n. pag.
Web. 12 July 1999.
Article in a full-text journal accessed from a database:
Vargas, Jose Antonio. "The Face of Facebook." New Yorker 86.28 (2010): 5463. Academic Search Premier. Web. 25 Jan. 2011.
Online book with print information:
Frost, Robert. North of Boston. 2nd ed. New York: Henry Holt and Co.,
1915. Google Books. Web. 30 June 2009.

Unit VI
Research Methodology
This chapter of research caters the documentation of the methodologies
utilized by the researcher. It involves the methods and design, used to classify your
research. This will help your reader in broader way to understand components of the
procedure which includes the: Introduction and overview; method of research;
population, sample size and sampling technique; description of respondents;
research instrument; data-gathering procedure; and statistical treatment of data.
Provide explanation of how each component of the research methodology
must be developed and presented. Show that you understand how all of the

components combined form a logical, interconnected sequence and contribute to

the overall methodological integrity of the study.

The method of research should define, describe analyze and rationalize the
research according to design, type and purpose. As mentioned in Unit I, there are
various types of research and you have a large repertoire of these categories.
Sample Method of Research

Method of Research
This study used the descriptive method. According to
Zikmund, the major purpose of this method is to describe the
characteristics of a population or phenomenon (55). This
research, a correlational research, focused on the English
proficiency levels of the students in relation to their academic
performance. Correlational research according to Creswell,
describes what exists at the moment (conditions, practices,
processes, and structures) and is, therefore, classified as a type
of descriptive method (42). Correlational research comprises
collecting data to determine whether, and to what extent, a
relationship exists between two or more quantifiable variables.
Correlational research uses numerical data to explore
relationships between two or more variables. The degree of
relationship is expressed in terms of a coefficient of correlation.
This research used quantitative research approach. Zikmund
says a quantitative approach shows how the variables are
arranged, conceptually, in relation to each other (110). The
subject of this study was to correlate the data gathered from
the English proficiency test and the grades of the respondents
According to Mcleod (2014), sample is the group of people who take part in
the investigation while the people who take part are referred to as participants.
Sampling is the process of selecting participants from the population. The target
population is the total group of individuals from which your sample might be drawn;
and generalizability refers to the extent to which you can apply the findings of your
research to the target population you are interested in.
There are two types of sampling according to namely:

Non-Probability Sampling
In this type of population sampling, members of the population do not have
equal chance of being selected. Due to this, it is not safe to assume that the sample
fully represents the target population. It is also possible that the researcher
deliberately chose the individuals that will participate in the study.
Non-probability population sampling method is useful for pilot studies, case studies,
qualitative research, and for hypothesis development. This sampling method is
usually employed in studies that are not interested in the parameters of the entire
population. Some researchers prefer this sampling technique because it is cheap,
quick and easy.
This includes convenience, consecutive, quota, judgmental and snowball
1. Convenience Sampling. It is a non-probability sampling technique
where subjects are selected because of their convenient
accessibility and proximity to the researcher.
2. Consecutive Sampling. It is a non-probability sampling technique
wherein the researcher picks a single or a group of subjects in a
given time interval, conducts his study, analyzes the results then
picks another group of subjects if needed and so on.
3. Quota Sampling. It is a non-probability sampling technique wherein
the assembled sample has the same proportions of individuals as
the entire population with respect to known characteristics, traits or
focused phenomenon.
4. Judgmental
a non-probability
technique where the researcher selects units to be sampled based
on their knowledge and professional judgment.
5. Snowball Samplings It is also known as chain referral sampling, a
non-probability sampling technique that is used by researchers to
identify potential subjects in studies where subjects are hard to
Probability Sampling
In probability sampling, every individual in the population have equal chance
of being selected as a subject for the research. This method guarantees that the
selection process is completely randomized and without bias. The most basic
example of probability sampling is listing all the names of the individuals in the
population in separate pieces of paper, and then drawing a number of papers one
by one from the complete collection of names. The advantage of using probability
sampling is the accuracy of the statistical methods after the experiment. It can also
be used to estimate the population parameters since it is representative of the
entire population. It is also a reliable method to eliminate sampling bias.

Mcleod (2014) also presented four probability sampling methods which you
could choose to get the desirable representation of your samples or participants
which are commonly humans. He said that sampling bias refers to situations where
the sample does not reflect the characteristics of the target population. For your

further understanding on sampling techniques, the following sampling methods with

examples from Mcleod (2014) will certainly help you.
1. Random Sampling. Everyone in the entire target population has an equal
chance of being selected. This is similar to the national lottery. If the
population is everyone who has bought a lottery ticket, then each
person has an equal chance of winning the lottery (assuming they all have
one ticket each). Random samples require a way of naming or numbering
the target population and then using some type of raffle method to choose
those to make up the sample. Random samples are the best method of
selecting your sample from the population of interest. The advantages are
that your sample should represent the target population and eliminate
sampling bias, but the disadvantage is that it is very difficult to achieve
(i.e. time, effort and money).
2. Stratified Sampling. The researcher identifies the different types of people
that make up the target population and works out the proportions needed
for the sample to be representative. A list is made of each variable (e.g.
IQ, sex etc.) which might have an effect on the research. For example, if
we are interested in the money spent on books by undergraduates, then
the main subject studied may be an important variable. For example,
students studying English Literature may spend more money on books
than engineering students so if we use a very large percentage of English
students or engineering students then our results will not be accurate. We
have to work out the relative percentage of each group at a university e.g.
Engineering 10%, Social Sciences 15%, English 20%, Sciences 25%,
Languages 10%, Law 5%, Medicine 15% The sample must then contain all
these groups in the same proportion as in the target population (university
students). Gathering such a sample would be extremely time consuming
and difficult to do (disadvantage). This method is rarely used in
Psychology. However, the advantage is that the sample should be highly
representative of the target population and therefore we can generalize
from the results obtained.
3. Opportunity Sampling. Uses people from target population available at the
time and willing to take part. It is based on convenience. An opportunity
sample is obtained by asking members of the population of interest if they
would take part in your research. An example would be selecting a sample
of students from those coming out of the library. This is a quick way and
easy of choosing participants (advantage), but may not provide a
representative sample, and could be biased (disadvantage).
4. Systematic Sampling. Chooses subjects in a systematic (i.e. orderly /
logical) way from the target population, like every nth participant on a list
of names. To take a systematic sample, you list all the members of the
population, and then decided upon a sample you would like. By dividing
the number of people in the population by the number of people you want
in your sample, you get a number we will call n. If you take every nth
name, you will get a systematic sample of the correct size. If, for example,
you wanted to sample 150 children from a school of 1,500, you would take
every 10th name. The advantage to this method is that is should provide a
representative sample, but the disadvantage is that it is very difficult to
achieve (i.e. time, effort and money).

How many participants should be used?

This depends on several factors; the size of the target population is
important. If the target population is very large (e.g. all 4-6 yr. olds in Britain) then
you need a fairly large sample in order to be representative.
If the target population is much smaller, then the sample can be smaller but
still be representative. There must be enough participants to make the sample
representative of the target population. Lastly, the sample must not be so large that
the study takes too long or is too expensive!

An illustration of the different sampling methods adapted from Mcleod (2014)

Writing the Population, Sample Size, and Sampling technique

As indicated by the title, you should include the population universe, the total
number of respondents of the respondents to appear in the sample, demographic
characteristics, the types of selection principle used for sampling. If possible,
present the sample computation of the sampling. Define and rationalize also the
chosen sampling technique

Sample Population, Sample Size, and Sampling Technique

Population, Sample Size, and Sampling Technique
The population of sophomores at the Polytechnic
University of the Philippines Institute of Technology is 400.
The sample for this study was computed through Slovin
formula as indicated below.
n = N / (1 + N e )
is the computed number of samples
is the total number population
is the margin of error (.05).
n = 400 / [1 + 400 (.05) ]
n = 400 / [1 + 400 (.0025)]
n = 400 / (1 + 1)
n = 400 / 2
n = 200
Using the formula, the computed sample is 200. A
random sample from each stratum or diploma course
offered at Itech was taken in proportion to the stratum's
size and the population of 400 sophomores. The subsets
of the strata are then pooled to form a random sample;
hence, the sampling technique is called stratified random
sampling. This sampling involves the division of a
population into smaller groups known as strata. Strata are
formed based on members' shared attributes or
characteristics. In this study, the strata are the seven (7)
diploma courses. In the selection of each subset, the
researcher used purposive sampling because the needed
respondents were students with freshman grades for the


Sample Computation


Sample Size

Definition and
of Sampling


The description of characteristics like age, sex, occupation, socio-economic

status should be presented in the part. The number and types of characteristics to
be described depend on the nature of study. You may also discuss the classification
and position which the source of data belongs. The classification, position and
demographic traits would give your study a more detailed scope and limitations.

Sample Description of Respondents

Description of Respondents
The PUP Institute Technology has five hundred (400)
sophomore students: 96 Computer Engineering Management
Technology (CEMT) students, 22 Electrical Engineering Management
Technology (EEMT) students, 46 Electronics Communications
Engineering Management Technology (ECEMT) students, 68
Information Communication Management Technology (ICMT)
students, 18 Mechanical Engineering Management Technology
(MEMT) students, 138 Legal Office Management Technology (LOMT)
students, and 12 Medical Office Management Technology (MOMT)
students. LOMT and MOMT are the two options for DOMT.
The sample of 200 sophomores consisted of the following: 48
CEMT Students, 11 EEMT students, 23 ECEMT students, 34 ICMT
students, 9 MEMT students, 69 LOMT students, and 6 MOMT
This section presents the description of the tools and instruments used to
gather the data in answering the research problems. Details like name or title,
adaptation or citation, validation and table of specification, sections and parts,
number and type of questions, and the skills and the area to be tested should be
identified and presented.
Sample Research Instrument
Research Instrument
The instrument used was a researcher-made English proficiency test
composed of five sections: (1) Getting the Correct Grammar Form; (2) Combining
Sentences; (3) Answering Questions; (4) Word Sequencing; and (5) Academic Reading
Passage. A portion of the instrument was adapted from the instrument of Jane N.
Labastidas masters thesis, Correlation Between the English Language Proficiency of
the Second Year College Students and the College Teachers Handling English of
Southern Leyte State College of Science and Technology: Basis for In-Service Training
in Technical-Vocational College.
The test items were altered to items appropriate for technical-vocational
students in a Philippine setting. The draft of the test was approved by the adviser
before it was pretested two (2) times with 30 different respondents each time. The
120 respondents were not among the 200 that comprised the sample.
The first phase of the item analysis was done on January 20; and the second
run was on January 22, 2014 as shown in Appendix G. These were done to revise the
marginal items and replace poor items to those that were reliable and valid in
measuring the English proficiency level of the students.
The test was composed of 43 items. The levels of proficiency with
corresponding verbal interpretations were derived from the Cognitive Academic

Type of Instrument,
Parts, Adaptation,

Test Construction and

Revision through
Item Analysis

Number of Items,
Purpose of the Test,
Interpretation of the

Research instruments are measurement tools designed to obtain on a topic of

interest from research subjects. According to Chan et al., there are two types of
instrument namely Standardized Instrument and Researcher-made Instrument.
1. Standardized Instrument. It is a test that is administered and designed to
have consistent questions, administration procedures and scoring
procedures. It is made and validated by experts on that particular field or
area. According to, a standardized test is administered, is
it done according to certain rules and specifications so that testing conditions
are the same for all test takers. This can be interviews, questionnaires, or
directly administered intelligence tests.
2. Researcher-made Instrument. It is an instrument validated by the researcher.
Items placed in the instrument are prepared based on the statement of the
problem and theoretical or conceptual framework. Before this test could
administered this should follow the stages of validity procedure.
Stages of Instrument Construction
I. Planning the Test
A. Determining the Objectives
B. Preparing the Table of Specification
C. Selecting the Item Format
D. Writing the Test Items
E. Editing the Test Items
II. Trying Out the Test
A. Administering the First Tryout Item Analysis
B. Administering the Second Tryout Item Analysis
C. Preparing the Final Form of the Test
III. Establishing the Test Validity
IV. Establishing the Test Reliability
Adequate and extensive planning is required. Objectives of the
research, methodology, research design, and nature of respondent should be
considered. The table of specification will
determine the areas to be tested, the
number of items, placement and percentage. To select the
item format, the
researcher should involve the purpose of the test, the time available to prepare
and score the test, the characteristics of the respondents, the physical facility
and resources of the
research locale.
In test construction, there some reminders: (a) having information in
choices of one item to provide the answer to another one; (b) lack of
parallelism; (c) the length of correct response; (d) the position and pattern of
the correct answer; (e) grammatical rules; (f) using text book language
verbatim; and (g) using technical jargons.
The item analysis is the process of examining responses to each item
to determine the difficulty and discriminating ability of the item as well as the
effectiveness of each alternatives. This will tell the research which items are
to be revised and removed from the questionnaire. The respondents who took
the first and second tryout are not allowed to take the actually test
administration. Through this methods, the research instrument will be ready
for validity and reliability tests. (Evaluating Educational Outcomes, n.d.)

Essentially, research instrument should be valid and reliable. Validity is the

extent to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to measure and
performs as it is designed to perform. As a process, validation involves collecting
and analyzing data to assess the accuracy of an instrument. There are numerous
statistical tests and measures to assess the validity of quantitative instruments,
which generally involves pilot testing (Biddix, 2009).
Reliability, according to Biddix can be thought of as consistency. Does the
instrument consistently measure what it is intended to measure? It is not possible to
calculate reliability; however, there are four general estimators that you may
encounter in reading research:
1. Inter-Rater/Observer Reliability: The degree to which different
raters/observers give consistent answers or estimates.
2. Test-Retest Reliability: The consistency of a measure evaluated over time.
3. Parallel-Forms Reliability: The reliability of two tests constructed the same
way, from the same content.
4. Internal Consistency Reliability: The consistency of results across items,
often measured with Cronbachs Alpha.
The quality of the research depends of the quality of the data collected and
analyzed (Baac, 2010)
The data-gathering procedure narrates the steps in gathering the data. It
includes important dates and events in the research process such as proposals,
defenses, library researches, test administration and tallying.
Sample Data-Gathering Procedure

Data-Gathering Procedure
The topic was proposed on November 29, 2013.
Subsequently, the researcher visited the University of the
Philippines Main Library and the Philippine National Library on
December 2, 8, 9, and 15, 2013.
The item analyses and revisions of the instrument were
done from January 12, 2014 to January 24, 2014. With the
knowledge and permission of the dean and chairpersons of the
PUP Institute of Technology, the respondents in four batches
took the test from January 25 to 29, 2014. On January 30,
2014, the results were tallied and tabulated and were given to
the PUP Institute of Data and Statistical Analysis for the


The Statistical Treatment of Data presents that statistics used in the
interpretation of data. Definition of the statistical tool, relevance of its function,
possible formula and explanation are necessary in this section.
Sample Statistical Treatment of Data

Statistical Treatment of Data

The following statistics were used in analyzing the data.
Percentage was used to determine the portion or distribution of number
of the following demographics: age, gender, course, and grade-point
A percentage is defined as a number represented as
a fraction of 100. Percentages are used to express numbers between
zero and one. They are used for comparing things and for ratios. The
formula is percentage is equal to value divided by total value multiplied
by one hundred.
Pearsons R Correlation was used to know the relationship of the
variables: the English proficiency levels and the academic performance.
The formula is:

This test is used to measure the strength of a linear association

between two variables, where the value r = 1s means a perfect positive
correlation and the value r = -1 means a perfect negative correlation.
Statistics helps you to collect, organize, analyze and make inference from
data. This is used to communicate research findings and to support hypotheses and
give credibility to research methodology and conclusions. It also evaluates the
credibility and usefulness of information, and makes appropriate decisions.
According to (2007), Statistics is used in research because
of the following:
1. measure things;
2. examine relationships;
3. make predictions;
4. test hypotheses;
5. construct concepts and develop theories;

6. explore issues;
7. explain activities or attitudes;
8. describe what is happening;
9. present information;
10.make comparisons to find similarities and differences; and
11.draw conclusions about populations based only on sample results.

Unit VII
Presentation, Interpretation, and Analysis of Data
This chapter presents, interprets and analyzes the data gathered and tallied
from Chapter 3. This chapter is the most important of all because it answers the
problem and it gives substance to the findings. As the researcher, it is your job to
present the data intelligibly, interpret the findings accurately and analyze the
results comprehensively.
This chapter formulates on the researcher a clear understanding and grasp
on presenting, analyzing, and interpreting the data needed to delve deeper into the
fulfillment of the research process. You should be also acquainted with guides and
examples in the processing of his or her data.
In presenting your data, you may vary in style depending on classification or
grouping your data according to similarity in characteristics, classes, or order.
Calderon & Gonzales (1993) presents the following bases:
1. Classification of Data is grouping together data with similar characteristics as:
Qualitative (kind) which is having the same quality or are of the same kind
are grouped together or alphabetically or from the biggest to the smallest
as from phylum to specie I classifying animals or vice versa.
Quantitative which are grouped according to their quantity for example, in
ages of 10-14, 15-19, 20-24, etc., or arranging data according to their
numerical magnitudes, from the greatest to the smallest.
Geographical which may be classified according to their location for
example public elementary schools in area as Area 1, Area 2, etc., or
according to their direction from the north to south provinces.
Chronological which is classified according to the order of their occurrence
examples of drop out students from school years 2001- 2002, 2002- 2003,
2003-2004, etc., or listing down data that occurred first.
2. Cross Classification is classifying a group of data into subclasses or dividing a big
class into smaller classes. For instance, dividing a class into male or female;
classes per year level, etc.
3. Arrangement of Data or classes of data are the same as those of classification.
The process of organizing and presenting your data comes in different ways
for your audiences easier understanding and interpretation of them. According to
the Informative Presentation of Tables, Graphs, and Statistics (2000), data can be
presented in the text, in a table, or pictorially as a chart, diagram, or a graph. The
use of any of these, may be appropriate for the reader or viewer is supposed to
assimilate from cold while reading or listening. The same work also claims that

texts alone should not be used to convey more than three of four numbers, for
well- presented tables and graphs can concisely summarize information which
would be difficult to describe in words alone.
Rodrigues (2013) states, Several studies, journal guidelines, and discourses
on scientific writing affirm the critical role that tables, figures, and graphs (or
display items) play in enhancing the quality of manuscripts. At the manuscript
screening stage, these display items offer reviewers and journal editors a quick
overview of the study findings, and once the paper is published, they do the same
for readers (some of whom look only at these display items and not at the rest of
the manuscript). These visual elements help authors present detailed results and
complex relationships, patterns, and trends clearly and concisely; reduce the length
of the manuscript; and enhance readers understanding of the study results. But
while well-presented tables and figures in research papers can efficiently capture
and present information, poorly crafted tables and figures can confuse readers and
impair the effectiveness of a paper.
There are many ways to present the data. You may use tables, graphs, charts
and other non-prose forms. You may use the table format recommended by
institution or the standard format in APA or MLA Style. According to (2015) the purpose of tables and figures in documents is to
enhance your readers' understanding of the information in the document. APA Style
gives the following guidelines:
1. Necessity. Visual material such as tables and figures can be used quickly
and efficiently to present a large amount of information to an audience, but
visuals must be used to assist communication, not to use up space, or
disguise marginally significant results behind a screen of complicated
statistics. Ask yourself this question first: Is the table or figure necessary? For
example, it is better to present simple descriptive statistics in the text, not in
a table.
2. Relation of Tables or Figures and Text. Because tables and figures
supplement the text, refer in the text to all tables and figures used and
explain what the reader should look for when using the table or figure. Focus
only on the important point the reader should draw from them, and leave the
details for the reader to examine on her own.
3. Documentation. If you are using figures, tables and/or data from other
sources, be sure to gather all the information you will need to properly
document your sources.
4. Integrity and Independence. Each table and figure must be intelligible
without reference to the text, so be sure to include an explanation of every
abbreviation (except the standard statistical symbols and abbreviations).
5. Organization,
Coherence. Number all tables
sequentially as you refer to them in the text (Table 1, Table 2, etc.), likewise
for figures (Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.). Abbreviations, terminology, probability
level values must be consistent across tables and figures in the same article.
Likewise, formats, titles, and headings must be consistent. Do not repeat the
same data in different tables.

Tables provide list of numbers or text in columnar form which can be used in
synthesizing literature, explaining variables, or presenting the wording of your
survey questions. These are also used to help your paper or work appear more
visible and readable by eliminating numeric or listed data from the text. Tables
usually presents data that are raw and not to show relationship between and among
variables. (Figures and Charts 2015) Data in a table that would require only two or
fewer columns and rows should be presented in the text. More complex data is
better presented in tabular format. In order for quantitative data to be presented
clearly and efficiently, it must be arranged logically, e.g. data to be compared must
be presented next to one another (before/after, young/old, male/female, etc.), and
statistical information (means, standard deviations, N values) must be presented in
separate parts of the table. If possible, use canonical forms (such as ANOVA,
regression, or correlation) to communicate your data effectively. (APA 2015)
Specifically, these are the rules and consideration in tabular presentation
(Figures and Charts 2014).
Title must be headed by a number followed by a clear, descriptive title or
caption. Conventions regarding title length and content vary by discipline. In the
hard sciences, a lengthy explanation of table contents may be acceptable. In other
disciplines, titles should be descriptive but short, and any explanation or
interpretation of data should take place in the text. Be sure to look up examples
from published papers within your discipline that you can use as a model. It may
also help to think of the title as the topic sentence of the tableit tells the reader
what the table is about and how its organized. Tables are read from the top down,
so titles go above the body of the table and are left-justified.
Column titles. Simplify and clarify the column headings of your tables in
order that your reader may understand quickly all the components. Your column
titles must be short but descriptive including units of analysis.
Table body. This includes numerical or textual data. Organize your table in a
way that your readers understand all the importance of the data presented. Put
information in the column from up to down instead of row for this may allow your
readers for comparison. In short, construct your table so that like elements read
down, not across. When using numerical data with decimals, make sure that the
decimal points line up. Whole numbers should line up on the right. Label all the
tables with a number following the title. Label all of them separately from one
another. Your tables should also have lines demarcating different parts of the table
(title, column headers, data, and footnotes if present). Gridlines or boxes should not
be included in printed versions. Tables may or may not include other elements,
such as subheadings or footnotes. (Figures and Charts 2014) In reporting the data,
consistency is key: Numerals should be expressed to a consistent number of
decimal places that is determined by the precision of measurement. Never change
the unit of measurement or the number of decimal places in the same column. (APA
Numbers. Number all tables with arabic numerals sequentially. Do not use
suffix letters (e.g. Table 3a, 3b, 3c); instead, combine the related tables. If the
manuscript includes an appendix with tables, identify them with capital letters and
arabic numerals (e.g. Table A1, Table B2). (APA 2015)
Titles. Like the title of the paper itself, each table must have a clear and
concise title. When appropriate, you may use the title to explain an abbreviation

parenthetically. Example: Comparison of Median Income of Adopted Children (AC) v.

Foster Children (FC) (APA 2015)
Headings. Keep headings clear and brief. The heading should not be much
wider than the widest entry in the column. Use of standard abbreviations can aid in
achieving that goal. All columns must have headings, even the stub column (see
example structure), which customarily lists the major independent variables. (APA
Before you decide in using tables or figures, here is table checklist
1. Is the table necessary?
2. Is the entire table single- or double-spaced (including the title, headings, and
3. Are all comparable tables presented consistently?
4. Is the title brief but explanatory?
5. Does every column have a column heading?
6. Are all abbreviations; special use of italics, parentheses, and dashes; and
special symbols explained?
7. Are all probability level values correctly identified, and are asterisks attached
to the appropriate table entries? Is a probability level assigned the same
number of asterisks in all the tables in the same document?
8. Are the notes organized according to the convention of general, specific,
9. Are all vertical rules eliminated?
10.If the table or its data are from another source, is the source properly cited?
11.Is the table referred to in the text?
Tables should be:
1. Centered on the page.
2. Numbered in the order they appear in the text.
3. Referenced in the order they appear in the text.
4. Labeled with the table number and descriptive title above the table.
5. Labeled with column and/or row labels that describe the data, including units of
6. Set apart from the text itself; text does not flow around the table.

Sample Statement of the Problem and Presentation

Statement of the Problem

This study was conducted to determine the relationship between
the English proficiency levels and the academic performance of the
Polytechnic University of the Philippines Institute of Technology
Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:
1. What are the English proficiency levels of the students as shown
by their scores in the English proficiency test?
2. What is the academic performance of the students based on their
freshman overall grade-point average?
3. Is there any significant relationship between the students English
proficiency levels and their academic performance?
1. Students English Proficiency Levels
Table 3
Frequency and Percent Distribution of Students
English Proficiency Levels
Test Score

Proficiency Level




Level 1 (Beginning)
Level 3 (Intermediate)
Level 4 (Proficient)







The Use of Figures and Charts
Using figures and charts in the presentation of your data is inevitable
especially if you want your audience or your reader to have an easy hold of the
things you wanted to show particularly numbers. But putting them in place and
order must be carefully planned and thought of. Generally, most writers are
familiar with textual data summaries and this is often the best way to communicate
simple results. A good rule of thumb is to see if you can present your results clearly
in a sentence or two. If so, a table or figure is probably unnecessary. If your data
are too numerous or complicated to be described adequately in this amount of
space, figures and tables can be effective ways of conveying lots of information
without cluttering up your text. Additionally, they serve as quick references for your
reader and can reveal trends, patterns, or relationships that might otherwise be
difficult to grasp. Figures and Charts (2014).
The following lifted from Figures and Charts (2014) provides a comprehensive
way and examples of using and defining these figures and charts as well as

presenting them the best manner possible and thus, work your way out to the-nearend of your paper.
Figures are considered visual representations of results which come in the
forms of graphs, charts, drawings, photos, maps, or similar illustrations. They are
also used to present patterns or trends that show relationship in communicating
processes or exhibit complicated data in a simpler manner. Figures however, must
not duplicate the information already found in other illustrations like charts to maps,
or graphs or vice versa. Your knowledge on excel and word processor may help you
in constructing your own tables or graphs. In your table, remember to include the
legend, column, and the table body whether quantitative or qualitative data. Include
also subheadings and footnotes which are important when you think about the
organization of your paragraphs. Your readers may easily understand the meaning
or your presentation of data if your presentation is well-organized with ease of
Figures can take many forms. They may be graphs, diagrams, photos,
drawings, or maps. Think deliberately about your purpose and use common sense
to choose the most effective figure for communicating the main point. If you want
your reader to understand spatial relationships, a map or photograph may be the
best choice. If you want to illustrate proportions, experiment with a pie chart or bar
graph. If you want to illustrate the relationship between two variables, try a line
graph or a scatterplot (more on various types of graphs below). Although there are
features: captions, the image itself,
necessary contextual
information (which will vary depending on the type of figure you use).
Figure captions Figures should be labeled with a number followed by a
descriptive caption or title. Captions should be concise but comprehensive. They
should describe the data shown, draw attention to important features contained
within the figure, and may sometimes also include interpretations of the data.
Figures are typically read from the bottom up, so captions go below the figure and
are left-justified.
Image The most important consideration for figures is simplicity. Choose
images the viewer can grasp and interpret clearly and quickly. Consider size,
resolution, color, and prominence of important features. Figures should be large
enough and of sufficient resolution for the viewer to make out details without
straining their eyes. Also consider the format your paper will ultimately take.
Journals typically publish figures in black and white, so any information coded by
color will be lost to the reader. On the other hand, color might be a good choice for
papers published to the web or for PowerPoint presentations. In any case, use
figure elements like color, line, and pattern for effect, not for flash.
Additional Information Figures should be labeled with a number preceding
the table title; tables and figures are numbered independently of one another. Also
be sure to include any additional contextual information your viewer needs to
understand the figure. For graphs, this may include labels, a legend explaining
symbols, and vertical or horizontal tick marks. For maps, youll need to include a
scale and north arrow. If youre unsure about contextual information, check out
several types of figures that are commonly used in your discipline.

Figures should be:

o Centered on the page.
o Labeled (under the figure) with the figure number and appropriate
descriptive title (Figure can be spelled out [Figure 1.] or abbreviated
[Fig. 1.] as long as you are consistent).
o Numbered in the order they appear in the text.
o Referenced in the order they appear in the text (i.e. Figure 1 is referenced in
the text before Figure 2 and so forth).
o Set apart from the text; text should not flow around figures.
Every graph is a figure but not every figure is a graph. Graphs are a
particular set of figures that display quantitative relationships between variables.
Some of the most common graphs include bar charts, frequency histograms, pie
charts, scatter plots, and line graphs, each of which displays trends or relationships
within and among datasets in a different way. Youll need to carefully choose the
best graph for your data and the relationship within it that you want to show. More
details about some common graph types are provided below. Some good advice
regarding the construction of graphs is to keep it simple. Remember that the main
objective of your graph is communication. If your viewer is unable to visually
decode your graph, then you have failed to communicate the information contained
within it.
Pie charts are used to show relative proportions, specifically the relationship
of a number of parts to the whole. Use pie charts only when the parts of the pie are
mutually exclusive categories and the sum of parts adds up to a meaningful whole
(100% of something). Pie charts are good at showing big picture relationships
(i.e. some categories make up a lot or a little of the whole thing). However, if
you want your reader to discern fine distinctions within your data, the pie chart is
not for you. Humans are not very good at making comparisons based on angles.
We are much better at comparing length, so try a bar chart as an alternative way to
show relative proportions. Additionally, pie charts with lots of little slices or slices of
very different sizes are difficult to read, so limit yours to 5-7 categories.
Examples of bad pie charts:

Figure 1. Elements in Martian soil (Too many slices)

Figure 2. Leisure activities of Venusian teenagers (Slices do not add up to anything)

Bar graphs are also used to display proportions. In particular, they are useful
for showing the relationship between independent and dependent variables, where
the independent variables are discrete (often nominal) categories. Some examples
are occupation, gender, and species. Bar graphs can be vertical or horizontal. In a
vertical bar graph the independent variable is shown on the x axis (left to right) and
the dependent variable on the y axis (up and down). In a horizontal one, the
dependent variable will be shown on the horizontal (x) axis, the independent on the
vertical (y) axis. The scale and origin of the graph should be meaningful. If the
dependent (numeric) variable has a natural zero point, it is commonly used as a
point of origin for the bar chart. However, zero is not always the best choice. You
should experiment with both origin and scale to best show the relevant trends in
your data without misleading the viewer in terms of the strength or extent of those

Figure 3. Genders of spaceship crew members in popular television series

Frequency Histograms/distributions: Frequency histograms are a special
type of bar graph that show the relationship between independent and dependent
variables, where the independent variable is continuous, rather than discrete. This
means that each bar represents a range of values, rather than a single observation.
The dependent variables in a histogram are always numeric, but may be absolute
(counts) or relative (percentages). Frequency histograms are good for describing
populationsexamples include the distribution of exam scores for students in a
class or the age distribution of the people living in Chapel Hill. You can experiment
with bar ranges (also known as bins) to achieve the best level of detail, but each
range or bin should be of uniform width and clearly labeled.
XY scatter plots: Scatter plots are another way to illustrate the relationship
between two variables. In this case, data are displayed as points in an x,y
coordinate system, where each point represents one observation along two axes of
variation. Often, scatter plots are used to illustrate correlation between two
variablesas one variable increases, the other increases (positive correlation) or
decreases (negative correlation). However, correlation does not necessarily imply
that changes in one variable cause changes in the other. For instance, a third,
unplotted variable may be causing both. In other words, scatter plots can be used
to graph one independent and one dependent variable, or they can be used to plot
two independent variables. In cases where one variable is dependent on another
(for example, height depends partly on age), plot the independent variable on the
horizontal (x) axis, and the dependent variable on the vertical (y) axis. In addition
to correlation (a linear relationship), scatter plots can be used to plot non-linear
relationships between variables.

Figure 4. The effect of weather on UFO sightings

XY line graphs: Line graphs are similar to scatter plots in that they display
data along two axes of variation. Line graphs, however, plot a series of related
values that depict a change in one variable as a function of another, for example,
world population (dependent) over time (independent). Individual data points are
joined by a line, drawing the viewers attention to local change between adjacent
points, as well as to larger trends in the data. Line graphs are similar to bar graphs,
but are better at showing the rate of change between two points. Line graphs can
also be used to compare multiple dependent variables by plotting multiple lines on
the same graph.

Figure 5. Age of the actor of each Doctor Who regeneration (1-11)

General Tips for Graphs
Strive for simplicity.
Your data will be complex. Dont be tempted to convey the complexity of
your data in graphical form. Your job (and the job of your graph) is to communicate
the most important thing about the data. Think of graphs like you think of
paragraphsif you have several important things to say about your data, make
several graphs, each of which highlights one important point you want to make.
Strive for clarity.
Make sure that your data are portrayed in a way that is visually clear. Make
sure that you have explained the elements of the graph clearly. Consider your
audience. Will your reader be familiar with the type of figure you are using (such as
a boxplot)? If not, or if youre not sure, you may need to explain boxplot
conventions in the text. Avoid chartjunk. Superfluous elements just make graphs
visually confusing. Your reader does not want to spend 15 minutes figuring out the
point of your graph.
Strive for accuracy.
Carefully check your graph for errors. Even a simple graphical error can
change the meaning and interpretation of the data. Use graphs responsibly. Dont
manipulate the data so that it looks like its saying something its notsavvy
viewers will see through this ruse, and you will come off as incompetent at best and
dishonest at worst.
Placement of Figures

Placement of figures and tables within the text is discipline-specific. In

manuscripts (such as lab reports and drafts) it is conventional to put tables and
figures on separate pages from the text, as near as possible to the place where you
first refer to it. You can also put all the figures and tables at the end of the paper to
avoid breaking up the text. Figures and tables may also be embedded in the text,
as long as the text itself isnt broken up into small chunks. Complex raw data is
conventionally presented in an appendix. Be sure to check on conventions for the
placement of figures and tables in your discipline.
You can use text to guide the reader in interpreting the information included in a
figure or table or graphtell the reader what the figure or table conveys and why it
was important to include it.
Interpretation is the textual equivalence of the presented data in tables,
charts, and tables. There are two ways to interpret namely: chronological and
logical. Chronological interpretation is based on the actual presentation regardless
of the results. Ideally, logical interpretation is more advisable. It starts with the
highest score down to the lowest one.
Moreover, Statistics Canada (2014) enlists some guidelines in data
1. Focus the article on the important variables and topics. Trying to be too
comprehensive will often interfere with a strong story line.
2. Arrange ideas in a logical order and in order of relevance or importance. Use
headings, subheadings and sidebars to strengthen the organization of the
3. Keep the language as simple as the subject permits. Depending on the
targeted audience for the article, some loss of precision may sometimes be
an acceptable trade-off for more readable text.
4. Use graphs in addition to text and tables to communicate the message.
Always help readers understand the information in the tables and charts by
discussing it in the text.
5. When tables are used, take care that the overall format contributes to the
clarity of the data in the tables and prevents misinterpretation. This includes
spacing; the wording, placement and appearance of titles; row and column
headings and other labeling.
6. Explain rounding practices or procedures. In the presentation of rounded
data, do not use more significant digits than are consistent with the accuracy
of the data.
7. Satisfy any confidentiality requirements (e.g. minimum cell sizes) imposed by
the surveys or administrative sources whose data are being analyzed.
8. Include information about the data sources used and any shortcomings in the
data that may have affected the analysis. Either have a section in the paper
about the data or a reference to where the reader can get the details.
9. Include information about the analytical methods and tools used. Either have
a section on methods or a reference to where the reader can get the details.
10.Include information regarding the quality of the results. Standard errors,
confidence intervals and/or coefficients of variation provide the reader

important information about data quality. The choice of indicator may vary
depending on where the article is published.
11.Ensure that all references are accurate, consistent and are referenced in the
12.Check details such as the consistency of figures used in the text, tables and
charts, the accuracy of external data, and simple arithmetic.
Sample Interpretation
Table 3
Frequency and Percent Distribution of Students
English Proficiency Levels

Proficiency Level




Level 1 (Beginning)
Level 3 (Intermediate)


Level 4 (Proficient)





Table 3 shows the frequency and percent distribution

of students English proficiency levels. Ninety-four (94) or 47%
of the respondents belong to the intermediate level (Level 3);
91 or 45.5%, early intermediate level (Level 2); eight (8) or
4%, proficient (Level 4); and seven (7) or 3.5%, beginning
(Level 1).

Data analysis, according to (2015), is the process
to examine each component of the data provided. It is condensing and
recapping of data to draw inductive phenomenon of interest from the statistical
As first timers in researching, you are only advised to use reviewed literature
and studies to have an in-depth discussion. Experts or specialists of the particular
area of the study have the authority to analyze; hence, you are not allowed to cite
or give your opinion in the evaluation. The literature survey which you carried out
guides you through the various data analysis methods that have been used in

similar studies. Depending upon your research paradigm and methodology and the
type of data collection, this also assists you in data analysis. Hence once you are
aware of the fact that which particular procedure is relevant to your research
project, you get the answers to: (1) What kind of data analysis tools are identified
for similar research investigations? and (2)What data analysis procedures should
you use for your purpose?
Analysis is said to be the part that precedes the interpretation of your data. It
is the process of breaking up the whole study into its constituent parts of
categories according to the specified questions under the statement of the
problem, (Caledron & Gonzales, 1993).
Bala (2005), further explains that data analysis is an ongoing activity, which
not only answers your question but also gives you the directions for future data
collection. Data analysis procedures (DAP) help you to arrive at the data analysis.
The uses of such procedures put your research project in perspective and assist you
in testing the hypotheses with which you have started your research. She also said
that with the use of your DAP you can: (1) convert data into information and
knowledge, and (2) explore the relationship between variables.
Understanding of the data analysis procedures will help you to:
1. appreciate the meaning of the scientific method, hypotheses testing and
statistical significance in relation to research questions
2. realize the importance of good research design when investigating research
3. have knowledge of a range of inferential statistics and their applicability and
limitations in the context of your research
4. be able to devise, implement and report accurately a small quantitative
research project
5. be capable of identifying the data analysis procedures relevant to your
research project
6. show an understanding of the strengths and limitations of the selected
quantitative and/or qualitative research project
7. demonstrate the ability to use word processing, project planning and
statistical computer packages in the context of a quantitative research
project and report
8. be adept of working effectively alone or with others to solve a research
question/ problem quantitatively.

An illustration of the different Data Analysis Procedures adapted from Bala (2005)
presents the numerous ways under which data analysis procedures are broadly

Sample Analysis
Table 5
Test for Significant Relationship Between English Proficiency Levels
and Academic Performance

Grade-Point Average







Reject H0




Reject H0

Answering Questions



Reject H0

Word Sequencing



Reject H0

Academic Reading



Reject H0




Reject H0



Table 5 indicates the summary statistics of the test for significant relationship
between the respondents English proficiency levels and their academic performance.
All p-values are less than the 0.05 level of significance, so the null hypothesis is
rejected. The students English proficiency levels for grammar register a strong,
negative significant relationship with their grade-point average (GPA) or academic
performance; between their proficiency levels for combining sentences and answering
questions, and their GPA, moderate, negative significant relationship; and between
their proficiency levels for word sequencing and academic reading, and their GPA,
weak, negative significant relationship.
On the whole, their English proficiency levels have a strong, negative
relationship with their GPA or academic performance.
Therefore, there is a significant relationship between the students English
proficiency levels and their academic performance. This means that the higher a
students English proficiency level is, the higher is his GPA or academic performance.
The findings are confirmed by Maleki and Zangani whose conclusion in their
study is: English language proficiency is a good indicator and predictor of academic
achievement for those [sic] students who are majoring in English (6). Kelena has also
proven in her study that the teachers proficiency seems to have high and positive
significant effects on [their pupils] mathematics achievement and still higher on
science achievement (5). Likewise, Xu has found that Self-rated English Proficiency is
the most significant predictor of the perceived level of academic difficulty (3).



Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
To highlight the salient features, this last chapter of the research is the most
useful part because it is where the concise discussion of the body, the
generalization of the results, and the possible and appropriate solution to the
research problem can be found. This section includes the summary, the findings
(summary of findings for some universities), the conclusions, and the
Summary is a method of shortening a long article, but the condition of not
distorting or changing the original idea or content (Sayno et al., 2007). It can be
connoted to synopsis, prEsis, epitome, scope and abstract; however, summary is
only the highlights not the executive summary or the abstract. For the reason that
summary, in research, is based on the Chapters 1 and 3. There should be a brief
statement about the main purpose of the study or research objectives, the
population or respondents, the period of the study, method of research used, the
research instrument, and the sampling design. There should be no explanations
made. No deductions, nor inference, nor interpretation should be made otherwise it
will only be duplicated in the conclusion.
Sample Summary

Chapter 5
This chapter discusses the summary, findings, conclusions, and
This research sought to determine the relationship between the English
proficiency levels and the academic performance of sophomores at the
Polytechnic University of the Philippines Institute of Technology. Specifically,
these were the questions that answered the general problem: (1) What are
the English proficiency levels of the students as shown by their scores in the
English proficiency test? (2) What is the academic performance of the
students based on their freshman overall grade-point average? and (3) Is
there any significant relationship between the English proficiency levels and
the academic performance of the sophomores based on their freshman overall
grade-point average?
The descriptive correlation research method was used. The

Findings is based on the Chapter 4 of the research. The findings may be
lumped up all together but clarity demands that each specific question under the
statement of the problem must be written first to be followed by the findings that
would answer it. The specific questions should follow the order they are given under
the statement of the problem. Every statement of fact should consist of words,
numbers, or statistical measures woven into a meaningful statement. It is logically
grounded on the statement of the problem.
Sample Statement of the Problem


Statement of the Problem

This study was conducted to determine the relationship
between the English proficiency levels and the academic performance
of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines Institute of Technology
Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:
1. What are the English proficiency levels of the students as
shown by their scores in the English proficiency test?
2. What is the academic performance of the students based on
their freshman overall grade-point average?
3. Is there any significant relationship between the students
English proficiency levels and their academic performance?


1. Ninety-four or 47% of the students had an intermediate
English proficiency level; 91 or 45.5%, early-intermediate
level; 8 or 4%, proficient level; and 7 or 3.5%, beginning
2. On their academic performance, 149 or 74.5% had an overall
freshman grade-point average of 2.0-2.25 (good); 34 or 17%,
2.5-2.75 (satisfactory); and 17 or 8.5%, 1.5-1.75 (very good).
3. On the significant relationship between their English
proficiency levels and their academic performance, there was
a perfect negative correlation for all five areas of the
proficiency test: grammar, combining sentences, answering
questions, word sequencing, and academic reading; overall,

Conclusion is the abstraction of findings. It is the textual generalizations of
the numerical result based on the findings. Conclusion should appropriately answer
the specific questions raised at the beginning of the investigation in the order they
are given under the statement of the problem.
According to Gall, J. P. et al. (2005) The purpose of conclusion section is to
explain the meaning and implication of the results and to express their
interpretation of the results evaluate shortcomings draw conclusions and make
recommendations for future research.
Globio (2013) suggested some pitfalls to avoid in drawing conclusions.
Among the factors that a researcher should guard against are the following:
1. Bias. Business establishments, agencies, or organizations usually present or
manipulate figures to their favor. For instance, an advertisement may quote
statistics to show that a given product is superior to any other leading brand.
We should be wary of the use of statistics in this case because of the obvious
profit motive behind. An individual may also do the same. A respondent to a
questionnaire or in an interview may commit the same bias o protect his own
interests. Like the case of the science teachers in the high schools of Province
A, they may respond that the science facilities in their respective schools are
adequate although they are not just to protect the good names of their own
schools. A respondent, if asked how many science books he has read, may
say that he has read many although he has read only a few to protect his
name. Hence, if there is a way of checking the veracity of presented data by
investigation, observation, or otherwise, this should be done to insure the
accuracy of the conclusion based upon the data under consideration.
2. Incorrect generalization. An incorrect generalization is made when there is
a limited body of information or when the sample is not representative of the
population. Take this case. The Alumni Association of a big university would
like to conduct a survey to determine the average income of the alumni
during their first ten years after graduation. Though the total number of
returns may meet the sample size requirement, the population may not be
properly represented by the actual composition of the sample. This is likely to
happen because chances are that a great majority of the alumni in the high
income bracket will respond readily but the great majority of those who are
not doing well may ignore the survey by reason of pride. In such a case, the
high income group is over represented and low income group is under
represented in the sample resulting in the overestimate of the average
income of the entire alumni group. This is the result of a built-in sampling
3. Incorrect deduction. This happens when a general rule is applied to a
specific case. Suppose there is a finding that the science facilities in the high
schools of Province A are inadequate. We cannot conclude at once that any
particular tool or equipment is definitely inadequate. Suppose there is an





over-supply of test tubes. Hence, to make the conclusions that all science
equipment and tools in the high schools of Province A are inadequate is an
incorrect deduction in this case.
Incorrect comparison. A basic error in statistical work is to compare two
things that are not really comparable. Again, let us go to high schools of
Province A. Suppose in the survey, School C has been found to have 20
microscopes and School D has only eight. We may conclude that School C is
better equipped with microscopes than School D. However, upon further
inquiry, School C has 1,500 students while School D has only 500 students.
Hence, the ratio in School C is 75 students is to one microscope while in
School D the ratio is 63 students is to one microscope. Hence, School D is
better equipped with microscopes than School C. to conclude that School C is
better equipped with microscopes than School D based on the number of
microscopes owned by each school is incorrect comparison.
Abuse of correlation data. A correlation study may show a high degree of
association between two variables. They may move in the same rate but it is
not right to conclude at once that one is the cause of the other unless
confirmed so by other studies. In no case does correlation show causal
relationship. When the government increases the price of gasoline, the prices
of commodities also starts to rise. We cannot conclude immediately that the
increase in price of gasoline is the sole cause of the increase in the prices of
commodities. There are other causes to consider such as shortage or
undersupply of the commodities, increased cost of production, panic buying,
etc. To be able to make a conclusive statement as to what is or what are the
real causes of the increases in prices of commodities, an intensive
investigation is needed.
Limited information furnished by any one ratio. A ratio shows only a
partial picture in most analytical work. Suppose the only information that we
have about a certain establishment is that the ratio does not show the kinds
of employees leaving and why they are leaving. We do not know whether the
losses of employees are caused by death, retirement, resignations, or
dismissals. We can only surmise but we cannot conclude with definiteness
that the causes of the 20% employee turnover are death, retirement, poor
working conditions, poor salary, etc. Avoid as much as possible making
conclusions not sufficiently and adequately supported by facts.
Misleading impression concerning magnitude of base variable. Ratios
can give erroneous impressions when they are used to express relationships
between two variables of small magnitudes. Take the following examples. A
college announced that 75% of its graduates passed he CPA examination at a
certain time. Another college also advertised that 100% of its graduates who
took that same examination passed. From these announcements we may
form the impression that the standard of instruction in the two colleges is
Sample Conclusions

1. Most of the students had an intermediate English
proficiency level and an overall freshman grade-point
average of 2.0-2.25 or good.
2. There was a strong negative significant relationship
between the students English proficiency levels and their
academic performance, which meant that students with a
higher level of English proficiency had a higher overall
grade-point average.
Recommendations is best course of action on findings which can be a policy,
program, implementation of solution and suggestions for future verification of
research results. It should be based upon the findings and conclusions. Feasible,
practical, attainable, and action-oriented just some of its characteristics.


1. The Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET)
should formulate programs and policies for technical
programs or courses and materials with English
proficiency integration.
2. The PUP administration should evaluate the programs
and policies in enhancing English proficiency in contentarea or major subjects considering the available
materials and resources.
3. The PUP Institute of Technology (Itech) should revise the
policy on the English proficiency program and its
integration into subjects and into the on-campus rules
and regulations.
4. The PUP Itech faculty members should be made aware of
the importance of English proficiency in their field, and
they should be trained for English proficiency in seminars
and workshops.
5. English teachers should modify and improve their
second-language teaching techniques to make them
appropriate for technical-vocational courses.
6. The PUP Itech students should be evaluated according to
the given matrix of English proficiency to determine their
proficiency levels and provide any needed enhancement
7. Future educational researchers and MAELT students could
use this study as reference for their future studies.
8. A similar study could be undertaken to verify the result
that students with a high level of English proficiency