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Tribology International

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/triboint

Low viscosity shear heating in piston skirts EHL in the low initial

engine start up speeds

Syed Adnan Qasim a,n, M. Afzaal Malik a, Mumtaz Ali Khan a, Riaz A. Mufti b

a

b

National University of Sciences and Technology, College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, Peshawar Road, Rawalpindi 46000, Pakistan

National University of Sciences and Technology, School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, H-12, Islamabad, Pakistan

a r t i c l e i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:

Received 1 August 2010

Received in revised form

14 April 2011

Accepted 20 April 2011

Available online 13 May 2011

Absence of elastohydrodynamic lubricating (EHL) lm causes piston wear in low speed cold initial

engine start up, while shearing of low viscosity lubricant in few cycles affects its load carrying capacity.

Shear heating effects are incorporated in 2-D hydrodynamic and EHL model by solving 2-D heat

equation. EHL pressures are calculated using inverse solution technique. Comparative analysis is based

on viscous dissipation coupled with piston motion, changes in pressure, lm thickness and viscosity.

This study suggests that the increase in temperature varies with speed to affect piston eccentricities,

viscosity and lm thickness. This optimizes low start up speed for a few engine cycles.

& 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Elastohydrodynamic lubrication

Piston skirt

Shear heating

Initial engine start up

1. Introduction

An ineffective lubrication of piston skirts causes adhesive wear

of the skirts and liner surfaces in the cold initial engine start up.

Adhesive wear is caused by partially ooded conditions, absence

of EHL lm and low hydrodynamic pressures. These factors also

affect the engine performance, reliability and operational life. In

the normal engine operation, combustion generates a tremendous

amount of heat. The engine heat removal mechanisms remove

some of the heat but a part of it manages to ow down from the

piston crown up to the bottom surface of the skirts. The lubricant

owing over the surface of the skirts absorbs the heat continuously during the entire duration of the normal engine operation.

The continuous heat absorption increases the engine lubricant

temperature substantially. Heat generated due to viscous shearing also adds up to enhance the lubricant temperature during the

normal engine running. The lubricant ows through the engine oil

passages and absorbs extra heat. During the normal engine

operation, the lubricant fails to shed away all the accumulated

heat. The lubricant temperature remains very high as compared

to that at the ambient conditions. High temperature reduces

viscosity, lm thickness and load carrying capacity of the lubricant and causes its degradation. Such frequent temperature-prone

viscosity reductions and lubricant degradations may ultimately

n

E-mail addresses: adnan_qasim@yahoo.com (S.A. Qasim),

drafzaalmalik@yahoo.com (M. Afzaal Malik), mumtaz-alikhan@hotmail.com

(M. Ali Khan), dr.mufti@hotmail.com (R.A. Mufti).

0301-679X/$ - see front matter & 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.triboint.2011.04.018

lead to engine failure [1]. At the time of initial cold engine start

up, the lubricant viscosity and surface of its ow passages are at

the ambient temperature. The lubricant viscosity at ambient

conditions is always more than that at the elevated temperatures.

When an engine starts up, the heat ow paths from the combustion chamber to the cylinder-head are available for maximum

heat removal. An effective engine cooling system functions at

maximum efciency. The cold piston crown and the cylinder liner

walls are in place. Such arrangements in a few cold engine start

up cycles do not let most of the combustion heat to travel

down to the surface of the piston skirts and alter the lubricant

temperature signicantly. In a few initial cold engine start up cycles,

shear heating is anticipated to be the major contributor towards

increasing the lubricant temperature. Hence, it may be logical to

ignore the minor variations in lubricant temperature due to combustion in the initial engine start up. This assumption facilitates in

modeling the viscous heating effects in the initial engine start up. A

piston skirts EHL model in the initial engine start up incorporates the

effects of shear heating on lubricant viscosity, hydrodynamic pressures and the contact geometry of the interacting skirts and liner

surfaces [2]. This is due to the fact that the thermal effects have a

more dominating inuence on the lubricant lm thickness than its

non-Newtonian behavior [3]. Viscous heating transforms the hydrodynamic and EHL regimes to become thermohydrodynamic (THD)

and thermoelastohydrodynamic lubrication (TEHL) regimes. Most of

the early researchers ignored temperature-based viscosity changes

and instead primarily focused their attention on the normal engine

operating conditions. They approximated such effects by taking the

pressure eld as Hertzian with no consideration of changes in the

Nomenclature

C

Cf

Cg

Cp

E1, E2

F

Ff

Ffh

FG

Fh

R

T

To

T nij 1

Specic heat of oil

Distance from piston center of mass to piston pin

Distance of piston pin from axis of piston

Youngs modulus of piston and liner

Normal force acting on piston skirts

Friction force acting on skirts surface

Friction force due to hydrodynamic lubricant lm

Combustion gas force acting on the top of piston

Normal force due to hydrodynamic pressure in

the lm

Transverse inertia force due to piston mass

Reciprocating inertia force due to piston mass

Transverse inertia force due to piston pin mass

Reciprocating inertia force due to piston pin mass

Piston rotary inertia about its center of mass

Lubricant thermal conductivity

Piston skirt length

Moment about piston pin due to normal forces

Moment about piston pin due to friction force

Moment about piston pin due to hydrodynamic

friction

Moment about piston pin due to hydrodynamic

pressure

Radius of piston

Lubricant lm temperature

Initial temperature

Temperature at new time level n1.

T nij

FIC

F~IC

FIP

F~IP

Ipis

K

L

M

Mf

Mfh

Mh

liner wall temperature to incorporate viscosity variations during

normal engine operation. A few others used local temperatures in

their modeling studies [5,6]. In some cases, temperatures were

averaged to model viscous shearing effects [7]. Some studies on

the piston ring pack incorporated the effects of shear rate and

temperature on lubricant viscosity and lm thickness during the

normal engine operation. However, they did not incorporate such

effects in the initial engine start up conditions [8]. A worth

mentioning work on the engine start up conditions is the TEHL

model of steadily loaded journal bearings [9]. In that study, viscosity

variations due to temperature changes are shown at low and high

engine start up speeds.

A review of previous research efforts shows the scarcity of

credible piston skirts lubrication models in the initial engine start

up. Existing models do not cater for the effects of thermoviscosity on piston secondary eccentricities, oil lm thickness

and hydrodynamic pressure in the engine start up conditions.

This study considers three low initial engine start up speeds as

may be the case during the actual start up. The 2-D hydrodynamic

and the EHL regimes are mathematically modeled such that the

calculated time steps are coupled as functions of 7201 crank

rotation cycle. Hydrodynamic pressures are calculated at each

secondary piston displacement and the corresponding hydrodynamic lm thickness by solving the 2-D Reynolds equation. The

model incorporates the elastic displacement effects to determine

the EHL lm thickness proles. The 2-D thermal energy equation

having adiabatic conduction and convective heat transfer with no

source term effects, is incorporated in the model. Viscous shear

heating is coupled with piston motion, hydrodynamic and EHD

U

a

b

eb

et

e_ b

e_ t

e b

e t

h

hehl

l

mpis

mpin

p

r

u, v

o

t 1, u 2

u

Z

j

k

rCp

Dt

1135

Piston velocity

Vertical distance from piston skirt top to piston pin

Vertical distance from piston skirt top to center of

gravity

Piston skirts bottom eccentric displacement

Piston skirts top eccentric displacement

Velocity term of piston skirts bottom eccentricities

Velocity term of piston skirts top eccentricities

Acceleration term of piston skirts bottom

eccentricities

Acceleration term of piston skirts top eccentricities

Mean oil lm thickness

Film thickness in the EHL regime

Connecting rod length

Mass of piston

Mass of piston pin

Hydrodynamic pressure

Crank radius

Velocity components along x and y directions

Crank angle

k/rCp, called the thermal diffusivity.

Connecting rod angle

Crank rotation speed

Poissons ratio

Elastic deformation of piston skirts

Piston skirts angle in degree

Dynamic viscosity of lubricant

Viscous dissipation

Thermal conductivity of lubricant.

Product of lubricant density and specic heat.

Time step

heating on the lm thickness and viscosity in the low initial

engine start up speeds is investigated. To develop the numerical

model, the following assumptions are made:

1. Lubricant is Newtonian and incompressible.

2. Roughness and waviness effects are neglected.

3. Boundary conditions for pressure at inlet are zero and surfaces

are oil-ooded.

4. Side leakage and squeeze effects are neglected.

5. Thermal effects due to combustion are neglected.

These assumptions are justied due to several reasons. The

assumption of Newtonian lubricant behavior highlights the direct

proportion between the shear stress and strain rate of the

lubricant. The assumption no. 2 supposes the piston skirts and

the liner surfaces to be ideal surfaces. Real skirts and liner

surfaces are rough due to the different surface asperity heights.

They have relatively long waves due to the unwanted vibrations

of machine tool systems during manufacturing. The surfaces have

different inter-asperity distances and non-uniform asperity distribution. Ideal surfaces have asperities of equal height, negligible

inter-asperity distances and uniform surface asperity distribution.

Such surfaces do not have long waves due to the unwanted

vibrations. Hence, the roughness and waviness effects may be

neglected. At the time of engine start up the mechanical engine

oil pump takes some time to deliver the oil and causes it to ow

between the piston skirts and the liner surfaces. Hence, starvation

and gaseous cavitation may prevail. To prevent starvation and

ensure the continuity of lubricant ow at the time of engine start

1136

turn-on of the ignition switch, the electric oil pump starts

delivering the lubricant well before the engine cranking and

subsequent start up. Lubricant may also be delivered from some

external source to ensure oil ooding and ow between the skirts

and the liner surfaces prior to the engine start up.

2. Governing equations

conditions are

@p

@p

0;

@x y 0 @x y p

p0, when x1 rx r x2 ; px,0 px,L 0

The normal force due to the hydrodynamic pressure and

its moment about the piston pin are found by integrating the

already determined hydrodynamic pressure, as shown by the

relationship [11]

ZZ

Fh

px,ycos x dxdy

8

A

The position and the velocity of the piston along the axis of the

cylinder are the functions of the crank angle c. For constant

crankshaft speed o, piston position is given by [11]

2

B C p r sin C

by [10,11]

Mh

ZZ

piston pin are calculated by integrating the shear stress generated

due to the piston sliding over the total skirts surface area A,

as [11]

ZZ

Ffh

tx,ydxdy

10

A

Mfh

px,yaycos x dxdy

A

ZZ

11

inertia, hydrodynamic force, hydrodynamic friction force and

moments. The input parameters are given in Table 1. The following equations are solved to dene the piston motion generally

similar to those dened by Zhu et al. [11]

2

3" # "

#

mpis aL mpis bL

mpis 1 aL mpis 1 bL

F h F s F f tan |

e t

skirts, the lubricant lm thickness is given by [11]

Ipis

L

mpis ab 1 bL

mpis ab bL

Ipis

L

e b

y

h C et tcos x eb tet t cos x

L

12

thickness equation is given by [11]

hehl h f x,y u

M Ms M f

4

Ms FG Cp F~ IC Cg

13

where f x,y denes the skirts surface prole due to the manufacturing imperfections and are neglected.

2.4. Oil lm temperature rise and heat equation

Hydrodynamic pressures generated over the total skirts surface area A in the x and y-direction, are calculated using the 2-D

Reynolds equation [11]:

@

@p

@

@p

@h

h3

h3

6ZU

7

@x

@x

@y

@y

@y

The range of x in dimensionless form is between 01 and 751

angle for the combined length of both skirts of piston. The range

of y in dimensionless form is from 0.5 to 0.5 if the mid-line

of piston skirts surface is selected as datum. The boundary

dimensional transient thermal energy equation with heat generated from shear heating [9].

!

@T

@T

@T

@2 T @2 T

j

u

v

K 2 2

rf Cf

14

@t

@x

@y

@ x @ y

where the viscous dissipation term related to the viscous shear

and normal stresses is [9]

(

"

2 #)

@u @v 2

@u 2

@v

Zj Z

2

15

@y @x

@x

@y

Table 1

Input parameters including piston geometry.

Sl. no.

Parameter

Value

Sl. no.

Parameter

Value

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

mpis

R

L

mpin

Cp

C

0.295 kg

0.0415 m

0.0338 m

0.09 kg

0.001 m

0.00001 m

0.03187 Pa s

0.133 m

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

a

b

Cg

u1, u2

E1, E2

r

Y y1 y2

To

0.0125 m

0.0015 m

0.0002 m

0.3

200 GPa

0.0418 m

751

40 1C/313 K

Z

l

only, then [9]:

@u @v 2

Zj Z

16

@y @x

At constant viscosity, the dissipation term is given by [9]

@u @v 2

j

17

@y @x

Considering heat convection along x-direction and heat

conduction along y-direction, the above energy equation can be

written as [10]

!

@T

@T

@2 T

u

K 2

j

rf Cf

18

@t

@x

@ y

1137

2

@

R

@

@h

3 @p

3 @p

h

h

@x

L @y

@x

@y

@y

22

where

h

h

x

y

pc2

; x ; y ; p

c

R

L

6ZUR

improve the accuracy of numerical solutions of the Reynolds

equation. The parameter is dened as [12]

Mv p h1:5

23

2 2

@ Mv

R @ Mv

FMv G

24

L

@x2

@y2

2

@T=@x 0 at x 751

TTo at y0

@T=@y 0 at y L

2.5. Viscositytemperature relation

Vogel equation denes the viscositytemperature relationship

as [8]

T1

Z ao exp

19

T2 Tm

;

h

h2

@h =@y

h1:5

25

operator to form a complete equivalent of the Reynolds equation.

The equation is then rearranged to provide an expression for

Mv,i,j [12]

Mv,i,j

2C1 2C2 Fi,j

by [8]

Z hZ B

1

Tx,ydxdy

20

Tm

hB o o

scheme is applied to get the numerical solution. Forward differencing for time dependent temperature term is given by [13]

pressure and temperature [12]. He noted that at constant pressure the lubricant viscosity increases more or less exponentially

with the reciprocal of absolute temperature. Similarly, at constant

temperature the viscosity increases more or less exponentially

with pressure. Such a relationship is suitable for computational

applications involving moderate-temperature ranges like lubricant shear heating at low engine start up speeds. It is more so

when the extreme sensitivity of viscosity does not allow an

analytical description of pressure and temperature dependent

changes. Roelands dened this relationship by the Eq. [12]

(

"

#)

To 2138 So

Z Zo exp ln Zo 9:67

1 5:1 109 pZ 1

Tm 138

21

where Z and So are constants, characteristic for a specic oil.

26

2

2

Forward differencing for convective term along x-direction is

given by [13]

T ni 1,j T ni,j =Dx

Central differencing for conduction term along y-direction is

given by [13]

T ni,j 1 2T ni,j T ni,j =Dy2 :

The nite difference form of the 2-D transient energy equation

is given by [13]

T ni,j 1 T ni,j =Dt aT ni,j 1 2T nij T nij1 =Dy2

u=rC p T ni 1,j T nij =Dx j=rC p

27

aDtT ni,j 1 2T nij T nij1 =Dy2 Dtj=rC p

28

3.1. Non-dimensional Reynolds equation

4. Numerical solution

dimensionless fractions of two or more real parameters. The

advantage is the reduction in the number of controlling parameters

to have a relatively limited data set. The data set provides the

required information. Reynolds equation in its non-dimensional

The relations given by Eq. (4) constitute an initial value problem

for a pair of non-linear second order differential equations in the

piston secondary eccentricities et(t) and eb(t). In the numerical

1138

It is done by assuming the values of et, eb, e_ t and e_ b at the previous

time step and using them as the initial values for the current time

step. Based on the present mean lm thickness and the lubricant

viscosity, hydrodynamic pressures are obtained by solving the

average Reynolds equation with nite difference scheme. To determine the viscosity at the present time step, the temperature at the

present time step is calculated with the known temperature values

at the previous time step. It is done by solving the 2-D energy

equation by adopting nite difference approach. All the forces and

moments on the right hand side of Eq. (4) are determined by using

Eqs. (5), (6), (8)(11). Then the accelerations e t and e b are computed

by numerical differentiation from the solution of e_ t and e_ b at

previous time step and the present values for the current time step

and checked if Eq. (4) is satised or not. To satisfy Eq. (4) with a

reasonable tolerance, necessary adjustments are made in the present solution of e_ t and e_ b for the current time step. The procedure is

repeated by using RungeKutta iterative scheme to get satisfactory

velocities, e_ t and e_ b. The satisfactory values lead us to determine the

piston position at the end of the current time step. The simulation of

second order non-linear differential equations show transient rigid

hydrodynamic lubrication of piston skirts at respective time steps or

crank angles [10]. The Reynolds equation, oil lm thickness equation

and thermal energy equation are solved simultaneously by using

Gauss Seidel iterative numerical scheme and forward time central

space differencing technique to maintain numerical stability.

4.2. Numerical solution for EHL of piston skirts

The EHL solution comprises integration of the Reynolds equation for already known geometry of piston skirts [11]. The inverse

solution of the Reynolds equation yields the geometry to get

specied pressure distribution [14]. The elastic deformations/

displacements in the temperature and pressure dependent

piezo-viscous regime are calculated and then incorporated in

Eq. (13) to get the mean lm thickness in the EHL regime [15].

5.1. Piston skirts top and bottom eccentricities

Fig. 1 shows two dimensionless eccentric displacement curves

of piston skirts top and bottom i.e., Et curve and Eb curve, in the

hydrodynamic and EHL regimes. The displacement curves are

functions of 7201 crank rotation cycle at the low initial engine

start up speeds of 500, 600 and 700 rpm, respectively. A comparison of the same in the EHL regime is shown in Fig. 1(g). The subFig. 1(a)(f) shows three horizontal lines. The lower line at 1.0 is

the touching line on the thrust side of the cylinder liner. The midline at zero shows the concentric position of the piston with

respect to the liner. The upper line at 1.0 is the touching line on

the non-thrust side of the liner. In case an Et or Eb curve touches

either the upper line at 1.0 or the lower line at 1.0, then solidto-solid contact between the skirts and liner surfaces gets

established and adhesive wear takes place. In the hydrodynamic

lubrication regime, shear heating causes a sharp reduction in the

lubricant viscosity. Such a reduction in the viscosity increases the

chances of a possible contact and wear of the interacting surfaces.

From the minimum value in the hydrodynamic regime, the

pressure dependent viscosity in the EHL regime increases exponentially. The net viscosity rise is substantially higher than the

viscosity at ambient conditions. The thermo and piezo-viscous

effects inuence the magnitudes of eccentric piston displacement

curves in the hydrodynamic and EHL regimes. The piston motion

in all the four strokes is cyclic in nature. Piston travels from one

attain maximum speed at the mid-stroke and then decelerates to

a minimum value at the end of the stroke. The sliding direction of

the piston changes after each stroke. Inside the engine combustion chamber, the magnitude of the gas pressure force varies

continuously in the four piston strokes. The cyclic piston motion,

the changes in the direction of sliding and a varying magnitude of

gas pressure force have a cumulative effect on the magnitude of

piston eccentricities at each engine start up speed. In the hydrodynamic lubrication regime, the Et curve at 500 rpm speed shows

the likely possibility of a physical contact between the skirts and

the liner surfaces in the expansion and exhaust strokes. At

600 rpm, a slightly reduced magnitude of the Et curve lowers

the chances of a possible physical contact in the expansion and

exhaust strokes. An increase in the start up speed to 700 rpm

delays such a possibility by around 1001 of crank rotation, as

shown in Fig. 1(c). In the EHL regime, there is a visible reduction

in the piston eccentric displacements due to the piezo-viscous

effect. An increase in the engine speed reduces the piston

eccentric displacements towards the thrust side but enhances

them slightly towards the non-thrust side of the liner. It happens

as a result of viscous shearing of a low viscosity lubricant at

relatively high engine speed in the low speed range. A comparison

of the piston eccentricities at different piston positions shows the

primary contribution of combustion gas force in shifting the bias

of the secondary piston displacements towards the thrust side.

The combustion gas force causes a maximum eccentric displacement of the skirts top surface at the peak cyclic speed of piston in

the mid of the expansion stroke. The minimum gas force effect

results in the corresponding minimum eccentric displacement of

the piston in the mid-induction stroke.

5.2. Hydrodynamic lm thickness at very low engine speeds

The maximum and minimum lm thickness proles at three

different engine speeds are shown in Fig. 2. Compared to the

maximum lm thickness, the minimum thickness is more important as it actually carries the hydrodynamic load. In the rst half

of the induction stroke, the lm thickness at 500 rpm is slightly

more than that at the other two speeds. It is due to the reduced

viscous heating and a corresponding small viscosity drop at low

speed. An eccentric displacement of the piston at the midinduction stroke brings a gradual increase in the lm thickness.

The hydrodynamic lm thickness rises sharply due to the second

eccentric piston displacement at the end of the induction stroke.

The lm thickness attains the maximum value at around 3401

crank angle in the second half of the compression stroke. The

directional shift in the eccentric displacements of the piston skirts

due to combustion at 3721 crank angle reduces the lm thickness

considerably. The cyclic piston speed, shear heating and the gas

pressure force bring the lm thickness to a minimum value in the

second half of the expansion stroke. At 500 rpm, a very small lm

thickness in the second half of the expansion stroke improves as

the start up speed increases to 700 rpm. The continuity of ow

and conservation of mass require additional ow of the lubricant

with an increase in the engine speed. Hence, the maximum lm

thickness increases with the engine speed. A slightly enhanced

lm thickness at 700 rpm damps the excessive combustion gas

load in the rst half of the expansion stroke.

5.3. Dimensionless hydrodynamic pressure elds at very low engine

speeds

Hydrodynamic pressure elds at some of the piston positions

are shown in Fig. 2. At the mid-induction stroke of piston the

pressure elds show a gradual positive shift to the right at

1139

Fig. 1. Piston skirts eccentricities: (a) At 500 rpm in hydrodynamic regime. (b) At 600 rpm in hydrodynamic regime. (c) At 700 rpm in hydrodynamic regime. (d) At

500 rpm in EHL regime. (e) At 600 rpm in EHL regime. (f) At 700 rpm in EHL regime. (g) Comparison of skirts top and bottom eccentricities in EHL regime.

600 rpm. A speed increase to 700 rpm shifts the peak pressure to

the left of the center of the skirts top surface. Such changes are

attributed to the lm thickness, lubricant ow and inertia effects,

which are the functions of the engine start up speed. In the midcompression stroke, the pressure elds show a tremendous

increase in the hydrodynamic pressure. An increase in the speed

from 500 to 600 rpm increases the pressure over the right side of

the top surface. From 600 to 700 rpm, the changes in the

gradients and pressure intensities shift the peak pressure to the

left side. A relatively large eccentric displacement of the skirts top

surface increases the lm thickness and intensies the hydrodynamic pressure. A speed increase from 500 to 700 rpm changes

the pressure gradients in the rst half of the expansion stroke.

Shear heating, lubricant ow rate, lm thickness and transverse

piston eccentricities change the pressure gradients. In the expansion stroke, combustion force brings fundamental changes to

displacement of the piston towards the thrust side affects the lm

thickness drastically. As a result, the bias of the pressure elds

shifts from the skirts top to the bottom surface. At 500 and

700 rpm speeds, the bias of the elds shifts to the skirts bottom

surface before the mid-point of expansion stroke. At 600 rpm, the

bias of hydrodynamic pressure elds shifts towards the skirts top

surface after the mid-expansion stroke. It is attributed to the

different magnitude of piston eccentricities at this speed.

5.4. Viscosity in hydrodynamic lubrication regime

The viscosity proles at the three stated speeds are shown in

Fig. 3. In the initial engine start up, the magnitude of hydrodynamic pressure is not large enough to compensate for the

viscosity reduction of a low viscosity lubricant due to shear

1140

Fig. 2. (a), (b) and (c): Film thickness proles at 500, 600 and 700 rpm. (d), (e) and (f): Hydrodynamic pressure elds at 901 crank angle for 500, 600 and 700 rpm.

(g), (h) and (i): Hydrodynamic pressure elds at 4501 crank angle for 500, 600 and 700 rpm.

drops and then rises. It causes the lm thickness to increase. The

transverse eccentric displacements of the skirts and shear heating

of the lubricant result in an abrupt viscosity drop in the compression stroke. Near the end of the compression stroke, the viscosity

rises again. It is due to an improved concentric displacement of

the decelerating piston and reduced viscous shearing. The effects

of combustion force dominate in the power and exhaust strokes.

An increase in the start up speed from 500 to 700 rpm delays the

initiation of signicant viscosity drop. At 500 rpm, the viscosity

drops in the induction stroke and attains a minimum value in the

rst half of the power stroke. At 700 rpm, the viscosity drops in

the second half of the compression stroke. The engine speed

affects the viscosity in the hydrodynamic regime due to which

there are viscosity variations in the expansion and exhaust

strokes. At 500 and 600 rpm, the minor viscosity uctuations

are in the induction stroke. At 700 rpm, the viscosity prole varies

due to viscous shearing and different piston eccentricities. A

comparison of the viscosities at different piston positions is

shown in Fig. 3. Increasing the engine speed in the induction

stroke does not affect the viscosity signicantly. However, at the

viscosity is seen at 600 rpm speed. At 700 rpm viscosity increases

slightly from its initial value in the intake and compression

strokes. It drops in the expansion stroke, signicantly. A comparison of minimum viscosities shows a very low viscosity at the

mid-expansion stroke of piston at 600 rpm. Such a low viscosity

corresponds to the minimum load carrying capability of the lm

at a critical piston position in the expansion stroke.

5.5. EHL viscosity at very low engine speeds

In the EHL regime, a complex relationship between viscosity,

temperature and pressure governs the changes in the lubricant

viscosity. The effect of EHD pressures on viscosity are more

pronounced as compared to the temperature effects. A reduction

in the viscosity due to shear heating is compensated by its

exponential increase with the very high pressures in the EHL

regime. The resultant viscosity in the EHL regime is high by an

order of magnitude or two than that at the ambient conditions.

The viscosity proles at the three start up speeds in the EHL

regime are generally similar. However, engine speed is a major

1141

Fig. 3. (a), (b) and (c): Viscosity proles in hydrodynamic regime at 500, 600 and 700 rpm. (d), (e) and (f): Viscosity proles in EHL regime at 500, 600 and 700 rpm.

(g) Comparison of viscosity changes in the hydrodynamic regime.

the EHL regime. A maximum value of viscosity in the induction

stroke is followed by a sinusoidal form of viscosity prole. Such a

viscosity prole corresponds to the cyclic piston motion and

eccentric displacements in the EHL regime. At 500 and 600 rpm

speeds, the pattern of viscosity proles is generally similar but the

magnitudes are different. At 700 rpm, the moving piston inertia,

the eccentric displacements of the skirts and viscous shearing

generate a slightly different viscosity prole than the proles at

the other two speeds.

5.6. Temperature in hydrodynamic lubrication regime

Fig. 4 shows the lm temperature proles at different engine

speeds. Shear heating raises the temperature of the lubricant in

all the three speeds. In the compression stroke, the temperature

increases to a maximum value at 600 rpm. It adversely affects the

hydrodynamic lubrication regime. At 500 rpm, the lubricant

temperature rises in the beginning of the induction stroke. An

early temperature rise causes a corresponding reduction in the

lubricant viscosity. It adversely affects the load carrying capacity

of the lubricant. In the compression and expansion strokes, the

lubricant temperature does not vary signicantly except for some

minor uctuations. It happens due to a visible drop in the

viscosity of the low viscosity lubricant being considered. The

viscosity drop reduces viscous shearing and heat generation at

the stated engine speeds. The reduced heat generation does not

cause any signicant temperature increase except the minor

cyclic variations. The cyclic temperature uctuations are a function of cyclic piston motion inside the combustion chamber.

During the 7201 crank rotation cycle, the cyclic temperature

changes do not let the lubricant to regain its initial viscosity at

ambient temperature conditions.

1142

Fig. 4. (a), (b) and (c): Temperature proles in the hydrodynamic regime at 500, 600 and 700 rpm. (d), (e) and (f): Temperature proles in the EHL regime at 500, 600 and

700 rpm.

increases the temperature of the lubricant and reduces the lm

thickness. It happens prior to the tremendous increase in the

hydrodynamic pressures that elastically deform the interacting

skirts and liner surfaces. There is a corresponding manifold

increase in the pressure dependent viscosity. It results in the

glass-like transition and EHL lm formation. Shearing of a

lubricant with substantially high viscosity in the EHL regime

generates additional heat. It raises the lubricant temperature,

which is higher than the temperature in the hydrodynamic

regime. A comparison of the temperature proles at the three

speeds facilitates in establishing a clear link between speed and

lubricant temperature. A relatively high speed of 700 rpm causes

the lubricant temperature to be higher than that at 500 and

600 rpm speeds. However, the pattern of temperature changes at

each speed is in sharp contrast to the temperature proles in the

hydrodynamic lubrication regime. There is a slight increase in the

temperature with an increase in speed from 500 to 600 rpm.

Compared to this the temperature rise is visibly high when the

start up speed increases from 600 to 700 rpm. An increase in the

heat generation rate and accumulation of heat cause such a high

temperature at 700 rpm speed.

Fig. 5(a), (c) and (e) show the temperature elds over the skirts

surface at the stated start up speeds. Generally, the temperature rise

is more over the right side of the skirts surface than the left side due

to viscous shearing. This trend exposes the vulnerability of the right

side to the reduced lubricant viscosity and the load carrying capacity.

In case of partially starved piston surface, the thermal distortion

of the right side due to excessive temperature variations may be

possible. In case of high temperatures the chances of lm break down

may not be ruled. The lm break down will invite solid-to-solid

contact and adhesive wear. At 600 rpm, the mean temperature rises

slightly more than that at 500 rpm speed. However, at 700 rpm the

temperature rise is quite high. It implies that the rate of temperature

increase is higher than the engine displacement rate. Hence, a further

increase in the speed will raise the temperatures to very high values.

In the initial engine start up phase, very high lubricant temperatures

contribute towards minimizing the lubricant lm thickness, a possible lm break down and eventually, adhesive wear.

5.9. EHD pressure at low engine speeds

Dimensionless pressure rise over the skirts surface at the three

engine speeds is shown in Fig. 5. At 500 rpm, low intensity EHD

1143

surfaces. Hydrodynamic lm thickness is optimum at 600 rpm,

whereas EHL lm thickness has a maximum value at 500 rpm

speed. The maximum lubricant viscosity at 700 rpm means more

load carrying capacity of the lubricant lm as compared to its

capacity at the other speeds. In the EHL regime, the maximum

temperature increases with an increase in the engine start up

speed and is quite high at 700 rpm. Viscosity variations in the

EHD regime increase with an increase in the engine start up

speed. EHD pressures rise very high at 600 rpm as compared to

the pressures at 500 rpm. In the very low initial engine start up

speeds, a slight variation in the speed may generate some adverse

effects. In optimizing the low initial start up speed, 700 rpm may

qualify as a recommended engine speed when using a low

viscosity lubricant under the stated conditions. It is justied since

the primary objective is the prevention of adhesive wear between

the skirts and the liner surfaces in a few initial engine start up

cycles. However, a more efcient heat removal mechanism is

suggested to keep the lubricant temperature as low as possible. A

study on the non-Newtonian lubricant rheology is recommended

to analyze the effects of shear heating in the low and high engine

start up speed ranges.

Acknowledgments

The authors are indebted to the College of Electrical and

Mechanical Engineering, National University of Sciences and

Technology for supporting this project. We are also thankful to

the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for providing

nancial resources for this research.

References

Fig. 5. EHD temperature elds and pressure rise over the surface at 500, 600 and

700 rpm engine speeds. (a) EHD temperature eld at 500 rpm. (b) EHD pressure

rise at 500 rpm. (c) EHD temperature eld at 600 rpm. (d) EHD pressure rise at

600 rpm. (e) EHD temperature eld at 700 rpm. (f) EHD pressure rise at 700 rpm.

pressures build up and rise over the skirts surface. The pressures

increase to maximum values as the engine speed increases to

700 rpm. The high EHD pressures build up close to the midsurface region causes a reduction in the minimum lm thickness

from 4 m to a fraction of a micron in the EHL regime. At 500 rpm, a

reasonably intense EHD pressures build up leads to a peak value

of 300%. The cumulative effect of the peak pressure and temperature causes a net substantial increase in the viscosity. A high EHD

pressure at 600 rpm causes the elastic deformation of the interacting surfaces. Under the starved conditions, the transformation

of pressure into Hertzian may cause adhesive wear of the

interacting surfaces. At 500 rpm, the low EHD pressure intensities

near the bottom surface are insignicant. Such low pressure

intensities grow with an increase in the speed and are visibly

high at 700 rpm.

6. Conclusions

The analysis of shear heating at low initial engine start up

speeds brings some useful conclusions. At 600 rpm the hydrodynamic pressures are relatively more consistent as compared to

those at 500 and 700 rpm speeds. An increase in the engine speed

reduces the piston eccentric displacements and minimizes the

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