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# STEPHEN ASOMANING

BEW0001617
P.G.T.D 2 ASSIGNMENT 1
Q1. HOW TO SYNCHRONIZE A GENERATOR TO THE GRID
(NETWORK) AND ALSO SYNCHRONIZE TWO GENERATORS
Synchronization is the process of matching the speed and frequency of a generator
or other source to a running network.
An A.C generator cannot deliver power to an electrical grid unless it is running at
the same frequency as the network or grid. If two segments of a grid are
disconnected, they cannot exchange A.C power again until they are brought back
into exact synchronization.
Before synchronizing a generator to a grid, the following three conditions must be
the same:
1. Magnitude of the voltages
2. Frequency of the voltages
3. Phase of the voltages
The following conditions would be known by the following means
1. USING SYNCHROSCOPE
Another manual method of synchronization relies on observing an instrument
called a "synchroscope", which displays the relative frequencies of system and
generator as shown below. The pointer of the synchroscope will indicate "fast" or
"slow" speed of the generator with respect to the system. To minimize the transient
current when the generator circuit breaker is closed, usual practice is to initiate the
close as the needle slowly approaches the in-phase point. An error of a few
electrical degrees between system and generator will result in a momentary inrush
and abrupt speed change of the generator.

A synchroscope

2. SYNCHRONIZING LAMP
Formerly, three light bulbs were connected between the generator terminals and the
system terminals (or more generally, to the terminals of instrument transformers
connected to generator and system). As the generator speed changes, the lights will
flicker at the beat frequency proportional to the difference between generator
frequency and system frequency. When the voltage at the generator is opposite to
the system voltage (either ahead or behind in phase), the lamps will be bright.
When the voltage at the generator matches the system voltage, the lights will be
dark. At that instant, the circuit breaker connecting the generator to the system may
be closed and the generator will then stay in synchronism with the system.
An alternative technique used a similar scheme to the above except that the
connections of two of the lamps were swapped either at the generator terminals or
the system terminals. In this scheme, when the generator was in synchronism with
the system, one lamp would be dark, but the two with the swapped connections
would be of equal brightness. Synchronizing on "dark" lamps was preferred over

"bright" lamps because it was easier to discern the minimum brightness. However,
a lamp burnout could give a false-positive for successful synchronization.

SYNCHRONIZING

## 1. MAGNITUDE OF THE VOLTAGES

The magnitude of the sinusoidal voltage produced by the generator must be equal
to the magnitude of the sinusoidal magnitude of the grid. If all the conditions are
met but the two voltages are not the same, that is there is a voltage differential, the
following will occur.
1. Due to high incoming voltage magnitude, high reactive power will flow
through the generator which gives high mechanical shock to the stator and
rotor shaft.
2. Due to low incoming voltage magnitude results in weak magnetic flux
which may cause reverse current and slip protection of the generator.

## 2. FREQUENCY OF THE VOLTAGES

In a generator, the rotor rotates with the help of prime mover (turbine- steam,
hydraulic, gas etc) produces the rotating magnetic field which will cut by the stator
winding and induces the EMF. Therefore the frequency of the induced EMF or
voltage is proportional to the speed of the rotor.
In a summarized way the poor frequency matching may result the following effects
in the power system.
1. High Acceleration or deceleration in the prime mover which increases the
transient torque and creates damage to the rotor.
2. High transient current may flow in the windings
3. Power system oscillations due to the transient effect
4. Possible power system protection operation which creates power system
outage.
If only two generators have to be connected the generator with high power and
rotational force tries to pull the other one if any improper matching occurs. This
may create a serious damage to the both generators.
3. PHASE OF THE VOLTAGES
In summarized way poor phase matching during synchronization causes the
following effects in power system.
1. High transient toque with high current which damages the windings of the
generator.
2. High instant voltage which may damage the insulation of equipment
3 .Power system protection operation which creates power system outage.