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Submitted To:-
Mrs.Vandana Tripathi
HOD,Electronics and Communication Department

Submitted by:
A FM transmitter is a circuit that generates high frequency signals in the
VHF (88 to 108 MHz) band. This circuit enables any audio signal source
to be easily frequency modulated, whereby the audio signal amplitude
variations are translated into frequency variations. It uses an RF
transistor in its output stage. Distance of transmission is critically
dependent on the operating Conditions (in a building or out on the open),
type of aerial used (single wire or dipole), operating voltage (9V is better
than 6V).

The circuit is basically a radio frequency (RF) oscillator. Audio picked
up and amplified by the electret microphone is fed into the audio
amplifier stage built around the first transistor. Output from the collector
is fed into the base of the second transistor where it modulates the
resonant frequency of the tank circuit by varying the junction
capacitance of the transistor. Junction capacitance is a function of the
potential difference applied to the base of the transistor T2. The tank
circuit is connected in a Hartley oscillator circuit. The final stage built
around 3rd transistor amplifies the output RF signal.
Let us look at the individual blocks of the circuit more closely:

The electret microphone:

An electret is a permanently charged dielectric. It is made by heating a
ceramic material, placing it in a magnetic field and then allowing it to
cool while still in the magnetic field. It is the electrostatic equivalent of a
permanent magnet. In the electret microphone a slice of this material is
used as part of the dielectric of a capacitor in which the diaphragm of the
microphone forms one plate. Sound pressure moves one of its plates.
The movement of the plate changes the capacitance. The electret
capacitor is connected to an FET amplifier. These microphones are
small, have excellent sensitivity, a wide frequency response and a very
low cost.

It is a type of condenser microphone, which eliminates the need for a

polarizing power supply. The name comes from electrostatic and
magnet; drawing analogy to the formation of a magnet by alignment of
magnetic domains in a piece of iron. Electrets are commonly made by
first melting a suitable dielectric material such as a plastic or wax that
contains polar molecules, and then allowing it to re-solidify in a
powerful electrostatic field. The polar molecules of the dielectric align
themselves to the direction of the electrostatic field, producing a
permanent electrostatic "bias". Modern electret microphones use PTFE
(polytetrafluoroethylene) plastic, either in film or solute form, to form
the electret.
First amplification stage:
This is a standard self-biasing common emitter amplifier. The 10n
capacitor isolates the microphone from the base voltage of the transistor
and only allows alternating current signals to pass.

Oscillator stage:
Every transmitter needs an oscillator to generate the RF carrier waves.
The tank circuit, the transistor and the feedback capacitor are the
oscillator circuit here. An input signal is not needed to sustain the
oscillation. The feedback signal makes the base-emitter current of the
transistor vary at the resonant frequency. This causes the emitter-
collector current to vary at the same frequency. This signal fed to the
aerial and radiated as radio waves.
The name 'tank' circuit comes from the ability of the LC circuit to store
energy for oscillations. In a pure LC circuit (one with no resistance)
energy cannot be lost. (In an AC network only the resistive elements will
dissipate electrical energy. The purely reactive elements, the C and the
L, just store energy to be returned to the system later.) Note that the tank
circuit does not oscillate just by having a DC potential put across it.
Positive feedback must be provided.

Final Amplification Stage :

This RF stage adds amplification to the RF signal.

Dipole Antenna:
A dipole antenna is a straight electrical conductor measuring 1/2
wavelength from end to end and connected at the center to a radio-
frequency (RF) feed line. This antenna, also called a doublet, is one of
the simplest types of antenna, and constitutes the main RF radiating and
receiving element in various sophisticated types of antennas. The dipole
is inherently a balanced antenna, because it is bilaterally symmetrical.
For best performance, a dipole antenna should be more than 1/2
wavelength above the ground, the surface of a body of water, or other
horizontal, conducting medium such as sheet metal roofing. The element
should also be at least several wavelengths away from electrically
conducting obstructions such as supporting towers, utility wires, guy
wires, and other antennas.

Dipole antennas can be oriented horizontally, vertically, or at a slant.

The polarization of the electromagnetic field (EM) radiated by a dipole
transmitting antenna corresponds to the orientation of the element. When
the antenna is used to receive RF signals, it is most sensitive to EM
fields whose polarization is parallel to the orientation of the element.
The RF current in a dipole is maximum at the center (the point where the
feed line joins the element), and is minimum at the ends of the element.
The RF voltage is maximum at the ends and is minimum at the center.

Operating Voltage:
Output power is also increased by using a higher operating voltage. 9V
is better than 6V.


A capacitor or condenser is a passive electronic component consisting

of a pair of conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator). When a
potential difference (voltage) exists across the conductors, an electric
field is present in the dielectric. This field stores energy and produces a
mechanical force between the conductors. The effect is greatest when
there is a narrow separation between large areas of conductor; hence
capacitor conductors are often called plates.

An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value,

capacitance, which is measured in farads. This is the ratio of the electric
charge on each conductor to the potential difference between them. In
practice, the dielectric between the plates passes a small amount of
leakage current. Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits to
block the flow of direct current while allowing alternating current to
pass, to filter out interference, to smooth the output of power supplies,
and for many other purposes.

Types of Capacitor:
Practical capacitors are often classified according to the material used as
the dielectric, with the dielectrics divided into two broad categories: bulk
insulators and metal-oxide films (so-called electrolytic capacitors).

Types of dielectric:

Air-gap: air-gap capacitors have a low dielectric loss. Large-

valued, tunable capacitors that can be used for resonating HF
antennas can be made this way.
Ceramic: The main differences between ceramic dielectric types
are the temperature coefficient of capacitance, and the dielectric
loss. C0G and NP0 (negative-positive-zero, i.e. ±0) dielectrics have
the lowest losses, and are used in filters, as timing elements, and
for balancing crystal oscillators.
1. C0G or NP0: typically 1 pF to 0.1 µF, 5%. High tolerance
and good temperature performance. Larger and more
2. X7R: typically 100 pF to 22 µF, 10%. Good for non-critical
coupling, timing applications. Subject to microphonics.
3. Z5U or 2E6: typically 1 nF to 10 µF, 20%. Good for bypass,
coupling applications. Low price and small size.
Gimmick: These capacitors are made by twisting together 2 pieces
of insulated wire. Values usually range from 3 pF to 15 pF.
Usually used in homemade VHF circuits for oscillation feedback.
Trimmer: These capacitors have a rotating plate (which can be
rotated to change the capacitance) separated from a fixed plate by a
dielectric medium. Typically values range from 5 pF to 60 pF.
Glass: These are used to form extremely stable, reliable capacitors.
Paper: They are common in antique radio equipment, paper
dielectric and aluminum foil layers rolled into a cylinder and
sealed with wax. Low values up to a few μF, working voltage up to
several hundred volts, oil-impregnated bathtub types to 5 kV used
for motor starting and high-voltage power supplies, and up to 25
kV for large oil-impregnated energy discharge types.



2.7 pf ceramic
12 pf ceramic
1000 pf ceramic 102
10000 pf ceramic 103
22 µf electrolytic

Low current(max.100 mA)
Low voltage(max. 65 V)

General purpose switching and amplification.

BC557 (PNP General Purpose Transistor):

Low current(max.100 mA)
Low voltage(max. 65 V)

General purpose switching and amplification.

A resistor is a two-terminal electronic component that produces a

voltage across its terminals that is proportional to the electric current
passing through it in accordance with Ohm's law:

V = IR

Resistors are elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and

are ubiquitous in most electronic equipment. Practical resistors can be
made of various compounds and films, as well as resistance wire (wire
made of a high-resistivity alloy, such as nickel/chrome).

The primary characteristics of a resistor are the resistance, the tolerance,

maximum working voltage and the power rating. Other characteristics
include temperature coefficient, noise, and inductance. Less well-known
is critical resistance, the value below which power dissipation limits the
maximum permitted current flow, and above which the limit is applied
voltage. Critical resistance is determined by the design, materials and
dimensions of the resistor.

Resistors can be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits, as well as

integrated circuits. Size, and position of leads (or terminals) are relevant
to equipment designers; resistors must be physically large enough not to
overheat when dissipating their power.

The ohm (symbol: Ω) is the SI unit of electrical resistance, named after
Georg Simon Ohm. Commonly used multiples and submultiples in
electrical and electronic usage are the milliohm (1x10−3), kilohm
(1x103), and megaohm (1x106).
Theory of operation:

Ohm's law

The behavior of an ideal resistor is dictated by the relationship specified

in Ohm's law:

Ohm's law states that the voltage (V) across a resistor is proportional to
the current (I) through it where the constant of proportionality is the
resistance (R).

Equivalently, Ohm's law can be stated:

This formulation of Ohm's law states that, when a voltage (V) is

maintained across a resistance (R), a current (I) will flow through the

Colour Coding:

Most axial resistors use a pattern of colored stripes to indicate resistance.

Surface-mount resistors are marked numerically, if they are big enough
to permit marking; more-recent small sizes are impractical to mark.
Cases are usually tan, brown, blue, or green, though other colors are
occasionally found such as dark red or dark gray.

Early 20th century resistors, essentially uninsulated, were dipped in

paint to cover their entire body for color coding. A second color of paint
was applied to one end of the element, and a color dot (or band) in the
middle provided the third digit. The rule was "body, tip, dot", providing
two significant digits for value and the decimal multiplier, in that
sequence. Default tolerance was ±20%. Closer-tolerance resistors had
silver (±10%) or gold-colored (±5%) paint on the other end.
Four-band resistors:

Four-band identification is the most commonly used color-coding

scheme on resistors. It consists of four colored bands that are painted
around the body of the resistor. The first two bands encode the first two
significant digits of the resistance value, the third is a power-of-ten
multiplier or number-of-zeroes, and the fourth is the tolerance accuracy,
or acceptable error, of the value. The first three bands are equally spaced
along the resistor; the spacing to the fourth band is wider. Sometimes a
fifth band identifies the thermal coefficient, but this must be
distinguished from the true 5-color system, with 3 significant digits.

For example, green-blue-yellow-red is 56×104 Ω = 560 kΩ ± 2%. An

easier description can be as followed: the first band, green, has a value
of 5 and the second band, blue, has a value of 6, and is counted as 56.
The third band, yellow, has a value of 10 4, which adds four 0's to the
end, creating 560,000 Ω at ±2% tolerance accuracy. 560,000 Ω changes
to 560 kΩ ±2% (as a kilo- is 103).

Each color corresponds to a certain digit, progressing from darker to

lighter colors, as shown in the chart below.

Resistor value 1st band 2nd band 3rd band

330 Ω Orange Orange Brown
2.2KΩ Red Red Red
4.7KΩ Yellow Violet Red
47KΩ Yellow Violet Orange
1MΩ Brown Black Green
Construction is quite simple. L1 is 3.25 turns in spiral form. The two
BC547 transistors can be replaced with (almost) any small signal NPN
transistor, such as the 2N2222. The final stage is a BC557 PNP general
purpose device. If you use different devices then you should select the
1M0 resistor for 5-volts DC at the collector of the first transistor. Select
the 47K resistor for 3- 4 volts on the collector of the third transistor.
The circuit draws about 30mA which should vary as you touch the tuned
circuit, a good test that the unit is oscillating. You should remove the
4K7 resistor if you use a dynamic microphone.
The PCB is 50mm x 25mm. The output power is about +10dBm

The PCB layout is shown below:


Component Quantity Cost (Rs.)

Resistors 6 6

Ceramic Capacitors 6 6

Electrolytic Capacitors 1 2

Transistors 3 6
Electret Microphone 1 10
Battery 1 10
Copper Clad 1 30
Some of the limitations of this circuit:
 Battery voltage/Frequency stability:
When the battery voltage falls to 8V, the frequency of transmitter may
 No immunity to supply voltage ripple
 1st transistor biasing changes the oscillator conditions

1. The FM Transmitter lets you wirelessly push your music to a
nearby radio, providing connectivity with the most common audio
2. It is used for transmission of a signal between a CD changer in a
car audio and a head unit.
3. It is also used for the application of reproducing music data stored
in such a small electronic device from a speaker of a stationary
audio component.
4. It can be plugged into a CD player, satellite radio system,
headphone jack, or a portable media player.
We take this opportunity to express our gratitude and thanks to
Mrs.Vandana Tripathi (HOD, Electronics and Communication
Department) for her valuable technical suggestions and constant
encouragement, without which this project would not have come into

We are also grateful to Mr. Rahul Kosta (Professor, EC Department)

for his time-to-time, much needed valuable guidance. His inspiration and
encouragement made us complete this project successfully.




This is to certify that the project entitled “FM TRANSMITTER”

submitted by Mr.Rethun K Bhaskaran, Mr. Pinak Ray, and Mr.
JABALPUR (M.P)”, in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the
award of the degree of B.E. in Electronics & Communication
Engineering, is a record of bonafide work carried out by them under my
supervision and guidance.

Prof. L K Patel Mrs. Vandana Tripathi Mr. Rahul Kosta

Principal H.O.D Professor

“150-300 milliWatt 88-108MHz FM Transmitter by Harry
“Preamplifiers and Microphones”
“FM transmitter (personal device) - Wikipedia, the free
“Capacitor Coding”
“Miniature ceramic plate capacitors”
“BC546 Datasheet pdf - NPN Silicon Epitaxial Planar Transistor”