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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/optlaseng

Recent advances in dental optics Part II: Experimental tests for a new

intraoral scanner

Silvia Logozzo a,n, Ari Kilpel b, Anssi Mkynen b, Elisabetta M. Zanetti a,

Giordano Franceschini a

a

b

Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Perugia, Via Duranti, 931 06125 Perugia (Italy)

Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu, PO Box 8000, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland

art ic l e i nf o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:

Received 21 June 2013

Received in revised form

27 July 2013

Accepted 30 July 2013

Available online 14 September 2013

The object of this paper is testing the performance of a new device for 3D oral scanning: a two channel

PTOF (pulsed time-of-ight) laser scanner, designed for dental and industrial applications in the

measurement range of zero to a few centimetres. The application on short distances (010 cm) has

entailed the improvement of performance parameters such as single shot precision, average precision

and walk error up to mm-level and to mm-level respectively.

The single-shot precision (s-value) has resulted to range from 43 to 63 ps (910 mm), having

considered the measurement range (6.510 mm) corresponding to 12 V signal; this result agrees well

with estimates made from simulations. The average precision has resulted to be dependent on the

number of measurements and can reach a value equal to 7 25 mm, whenever the measurements

frequency is sufciently high. For example, if the required scanning speed is 1000 points/s and the

required average precision is 725 mm, then a pulses frequency of 3050 MHz is needed, considering

signal amplitude varying between 12 V.

On the whole, the performance of this new device, based on PTOF has proven to be adequate to its

employment in the eld of restorative dentistry.

& 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Intraoral scanner

Pulsed time of ight

Laser range-nding techniques

Restorative dentistry

CAD/CAM

1. Introduction

Three-dimensional scanning of the mouth is required in a large

number of procedures in dentistry such as restorative dentistry

and orthodontics. The aim of the 3D mapping of the oral cavity is

to create digital impressions. Restorative dentistry is of course the

main eld which requires the application of very accurate 3D

intraoral scanners. In fact, the realization of any dental prosthesis

aided design/computer aided manufacturing; CFD, constant fraction discriminator;

F(M), excess noise factor of APD; G, laser gain; GBW, gain-bandwidth product;

, wavelength; LVPECL, low voltage positive emitter-coupled logic; LVTTL, low

voltage transistor-transistor logic; M, multiplication factor of APD; NEP, noise

equivalent power of APD; PD, photo-diode; PECL, positive emitter-coupled logic;

PTOF, pulsed time of ight; q, charge of electron (1.6 1019 C); R(), spectral

responsivity of APD; rms, root-mean-square; RX, receiver; S/N or SNR, signal-tonoise ratio; SR, slew rate; SSP, single shot precision; TDC, time-to-digital converter;

TOF, time-of-ight; tr, rise time (1090% of full pulse amplitude); tf, fall time

(9010% of full pulse amplitude); TX, transmitter; Vn amp, noise of electronics

(ampliers); Vout, voltage of the pulse in the timing point; Z, gain of a transimpedance amplier

n

Correspondence to: Via Curtatone e Montanara, 2-06129 Perugia, Italy.

Mobile: 39 348 7142939.

E-mail addresses: sililog@hotmail.com (S. Logozzo), arik@ee.oulu. (A. Kilpel),

anssi.makynen@ee.oulu. (A. Mkynen), elisabetta.zanetti@unipg.it (E.M. Zanetti),

giordano.franceschini@unipg.it (G. Franceschini).

0143-8166/$ - see front matter & 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.optlaseng.2013.07.024

dentition, performing a reverse engineering procedure; the prosthesis can be designed on this model and it can be realized by

means of CAD/CAM systems [1].

This work is focused on a new intraoral PTOF laser scanner [2];

previous articles [3, 4] have reported an extensive review of existing

techniques for reverse engineering; PTOF can represent an interesting alternative because these systems are capable of covering a large

volume of the scene in a single image or few images and accuracy

does not depend by target distance, unlike other sensors.

However the application of PTOF to dentistry implies a measurement range of zero to a few centimetres; therefore the device

employed for industrial measurements needs to be redesigned in

order to achieve improved single-shot precision and accuracy.

This work introduces this new system and describes its main

components; the performances of this new system are rst calculated on the basis of analytical formula, and then are experimentally

tested on a prototype. The possible impact of this new device is

nally discussed.

This paragraph summarizes main steps followed for the design

of the 3D PTOF laser scanner.

188

Table 1

Target performance parameters of the new PTOF

system.

Performance parameters

Minimum scanning speed

AP

Walk error

Measurement range

Mean measurement distance

1000 pts/s

7 25 mm

7 25 mm

110 cm

5 cm

2.1. Specications

The required performance parameters (Table 1), which could

make the new PTOF laser rangender suitable for dental applications, have been established on the basis of the performances

exhibited by the other intraoral scanning devices [1,5] and on the

basis of the requirements, in scientic literature.

in Table 2.

The main performance parameters of an APD are the multiplication factor M and the excess noise factor F(M), and are dened

by the following equations:

M

1

1

r

V

V br

1

1kr

FM kr M 2

M

in Fig. 1 and the components are listed below:

1. Oscillator or signal generator (STANDFORD RESEARCH SYSTEM,

model DG535);

2. noise generator (own designed circuit);

3. oscillator or signal generator (AVTECH AVPP-1-C);

4. laser driver or pulse generator circuit (own designed circuit);

5. START timing discriminator (own designed circuit);

6. pigtailed laser diode (Thorlabs LP660-SF40, 660 nm and Thorlabs

LP405-SF10, 405 nm);

7. pigtailed aspheric collimator (Thorlabs CFS2-532-FC);

8. tube;

9. 50/50 glass beam splitter;

10. Visible Achromatic Doublet Pairs (Thorlabs MAP107575-A);

11. target;

12. Receiver Avalanche photodiode unit (Thorlabs APD110A2/M),

which embeds a transimpedance preamplier and a current

feedback postamplier;

13. STOP timing discriminator (Analog Devices EVAL-ADCMP 573

and own designed circuit);

14. TDC circuit with evaluation kit (ACAM ATMD-GPX Evkit);

15. IBM-compatible PC.

This is a two channel PTOF system with a single-axis optic.

2.3. Electronics

The aim of the jitter circuit (or noise generator circuit) is

avoiding the synchronization of the oscillators of the transmitter

and of the time measuring unit, by adding random noise to the

oscillator of the transmitter. If the single-shot measurements are

repeated n times and the oscillators, used in the transmitter and in

the time measuring unit, are not synchronous (the single-shot

measurements are independent of each other), the precision of the

p

averaged result is improved by a factor equal to n, compared to

the single-shot precision.

Two laser diodes have been chosen to be tested in this work:

Thorlabs LP405-SF10 and Thorlabs LP660-SF40. The laser driver

circuit has been home-made. The circuit has been fed with the

input signal generated by the oscillator.

The receiver channel is composed of the avalanche photodetector Thorlabs APD110A2/M which embeds a silicon APD and a

ultra-low noise transimpedance preamplier and a current feedback

post-amplier.

coefcient depending on the material [6], and kr is the ionization

ratio, depending on the material [7].

The APD delivers an output voltage, which is a function of

incident light power Popt, detector responsivity R(), multiplication

factor M and transimpedance gain Z, given by

V out P opt RMZ V

it changes the analog pulses to logic level pulses, which are fed

to the time measuring unit,

it separates the timing pulses from the noise pulses.

The most important property of the timing discriminator is to

keep the timing event at the same point independently from the

amplitude of the incoming pulse.

The pulse shape in laser range nders usually remains stable

and only the amplitude changes as a function of the distance and

of the reectivity of the target [2]. The pulse shape may change if

the target surface is almost parallel to the measurement beam;

the measurement beam hits two targets located at different

distances at the same time; and

the amplier or the attenuator has a nonlinear behavior.

The performance of a timing discriminator can be expressed in

terms of its walk error, drift and precision.

The most critical is usually the walk error, produced by changes of

the averaged amplitude or of the shape of the incoming pulses. If the

walk error is small enough and the dynamic range of the input pulse

amplitude does not overcome the linear range of the ampliers, an

adjustable electrical or optical attenuator is not needed.

The STOP CFD is composed of the comparator Analog Devices

ADCMP573, its evaluation board (Analog Devices EVAL-ADCMP

573), working as a timing comparator, and of a home-made noise

comparator [8].

The time to digital converter circuit is ACAM AM-GPX with the

evaluation kit ACAM ATMD-GPX. The ATMD-GPX evaluation system consists of a motherboard together with the AM-GPX plug-in

module, mounted in a metal case. It is connected to the ATMD-PCI

interface card (mounted in the PC) by a SCSI-type cable [9].

The TDC AM-GPX has four operating modes: I, G, R and

M-mode. The laboratory tests have been performed using R-mode

and sometimes M-mode when the desired minimum frequency per

channel was 1 MHz and the best resolution was to be achieved.

According to [10], the features of each mode are the following:

R-mode

2 channels with 27 ps resolution.

Differential LVPECL inputs, optional LVTTL.

Measurement range 0 s up to 40 ms.

5.5 ns pulse-pair resolution with 32-fold multi-hit capability 182 MHz peak rate.

189

40 MHz continuous rate per channel.

40 MHz continuous rate per chip.

M-mode

2 channels with 10 ps resolution (70 ps peakpeak).

Differential LVPECL inputs.

Measurement range 0 ns up to 10 ms.

Trigger to rising or falling edge.

Max. 500 kHz continuous rate per channel.

Max. 1 MHz continuous rate per chip.

2.4. Optics

The optics is single axis and it is composed of the following

parts:

50/50 glass beam splitter;

Visible Achromatic Doublet Pairs (Thorlabs MAP107575-A); and

Tubes, in order to change the focused distances of the transmitter and the receiver.

190

A single-axis optic has been chosen for the laser range nder

because of its high linearity and its wide measurement range.

Moreover, the single-axis optics, when properly adjusted, exhibits

a very limited variation of the optical power.

The optics schematic is shown in Fig. 2. The laser beam is

transmitted by means of the pigtailed aspheric collimator. Two

tubes are used as a reference, in order to change the focused

distance of both the transmitter and the receiver.

The performance parameters of the optics have been calculated

and also simulated by means of software, implemented at the

Electronics Laboratory of the University of Oulu, on the basis of the

theory reported in [11]. The name of this software is SNR Calculation Program for Laser Radar (2008) by K. Mtt.

The calculations and simulations have been performed considering two kinds of targets: a paper screen and a tooth. The

reectance index was set at 0.17 at 405 nm and at 0.45 at 660 nm

for the teeth enamel and to 1 for the paper. Fig. 3 shows the

average reection spectrum of the teeth enamel at several wavelengths [12].

The used beam splitter is 50/50, so the transmittance index is

0.25. The index for the rest of the losses has been set at 0.15, on the

basis of the measured value of the optical power. So the total

transmittance index of the optics is 0.21. The optical amplitude has

been measured by an oscilloscope connected to an optical converter. The optical power of the laser pulse has been measured

using a power meter. The measured peak optical power has

resulted to be equal to about 30 mW for the blue laser, and to

40 mW for the red laser.

optics, by means of the software SNR Calculation Program for Laser

Radar (2008).

Basically, the aim of the simulations has been to forecast the

amplitude variation ratio, when the distance of the target changes

in a range of about 10 mm (5 mm backward and 5 mm forward

from the in-focus position).

As Fig. 2 shows, some parameters can be tuned, in order to

improve the performance of the optics.

p2 is the distance from the transmitter to the rst lens of

the pair;

p1 is the distance from the receiver optics to the rst lens of

the pair;

q2 is the focused distance of the transmitter;

q1 is the focused distance of the receiver;

d is the distance between the lenses of the pair;

TX is the diameter of the optic ber at the transmitter; and

RX is the diameter of the optic ber at the receiver.

The system has been simulated considering the Visible Achromatic Doublet Pairs Thorlabs MAP107575-A as a single lens, with a

focal length equal to the combination of the focal lengths of the

single lenses. The efciency of the lenses has been estimated to be

equal to the experimentally measured transmission index of the

optics. The diameter of sensor's active area has been calculated

Table 2

Specications Avalanche Photo-detector Thorlabs APD110A2/m.

Specication

Value

Multiplication factor, M

Detector active area diameter

Operating wavelength

Responsivity at 405 nm and M 1

Responsivity at 660 nm and M 1

Max responsivity at 800 nm and M 50

Max input power

Transimpedance gain Z

Max output voltage

Power supply

50

1 mm

2001000 nm

0.17 A/W

0.45 A/W

25 A/W

1 mW

50,000 V/A

3.6 V

7 12 V at 200 mA

Fig. 3. Average reectance factor of enamel. Bars indicate standard error at a few

wavelengths.

numerical aperture of the ber and the sizes of the FC connector.

The results of these simulations have been checked against

experimental tests, as reported in the Results section.

The rst simulation has been performed considering the blue

laser as a source and the paper screen as a target. The used

parameters are listed in Fig. 4. The same gure shows that the

maximum received optical power reaches about 7200 nW, when

q1 q2 7.6 cm. The correspondent maximum voltage amplitude

is 3.08 V (see Eq. (3)).

If the position of the target changes in a range of 7 5 mm from

the focused distance, the minimum received power is about

400 nW and the correspondent minimum voltage amplitude is

191

0.17 V, which is too low, while the amplitude variation ratio is too

high (3.08/0.17). According to this simulation, the distance variation range cannot exceed 72 mm from the focused distance.

In this situation, the minimum optical power is about 2600 nW

and the corresponding amplitude is 1.11 V; the amplitude variation

ratio is about 2.8 (3.08/1.11).

The second simulation has been performed using the red laser

and the paper screen as a target. The used parameters are reported

in Fig. 5; the same gure shows that the maximum received

optical power reaches about 1250 nW, when q1 is 7.4 cm and q2 is

8 cm. The correspondent maximum amplitude is 1.41 V see Eq. (3).

If the position of the target changes in a range of 75 mm from the

focused distance, then the minimum received power is about

192

is too low, while the amplitude variation ratio is too high (1.41/

0.23). According to this simulation, the distance variation range

should be limited to about 72 mm from the focused distance.

In this situation, the minimum optical power is about 550 nW and

the corresponding amplitude is 0.62 V. So the amplitude variation

ratio is about 2.3 (1.41/0.62)

The excess noise factor F(M) of the APD has been calculated

according to Eq. (2) and other experimental equations reported in

[13], considering the ionization ratio kr 0.02; in these conditions,

F(M) is about 3.

The slew rate (SR) of the signal can be calculated as

SR

V outampl

V =s

tr

where

2.5. Evaluation of single shot precision, pulses frequency and average

precision

The total single shot precision tTOT can be calculated as the

square root of the sum of squared single shot precisions tptof,

due to the PTOF system and tTDC, due to the TDC circuit:

q

t tot t 2ptof t 2TDC s

4

tTDC is at least about 40 ps using R-mode, as experimentally

measured, whereas tptof must be calculated; considering the case

of APD, the following equation holds:

s s

v2nampl 2qV outCFD MFMbZ

v2nrms

s

5

t ptof

SR2

SR2

where:

tr can be calculated as

tr

0:35

s

B

vn amp is the root mean square value of the electronics noise and

can be calculated as follows:

p

vnamp NEP MRZ B V

8

where:

vn rms rms value of the total noise in the timing moment [V];

vn amp rms value of the electronics noise [V];

Vout CFD pulse voltage in the timing point [V];

M multiplication factor of the APD;

F(M)excess noise factor of the APD;

B signal bandwidth [Hz];

Ztransimpedance gain of the amplier, in this system it is

equal to 50 k (Table 2);

q electron charge [C]; and

SR slew rate of the signal [V/s].

Vout CFD can be set equal to the product of the threshold voltage

level at CFD and the received amplitude voltage. The threshold

voltage level at CFD is 0.4 V (Tables 3), that is the 50% of the

Vout CFD, according to the LVPECL logic levels ((2.41.6 V)/2).

The multiplication factor M of the APD is 50 (Table 2), the signal

bandwidth B is 50 MHz (Table 3).

Table 3

Input and calculated performance parameters of the new PTOF system.

Performance parameters

M multiplication factor of APD

F(M) noise excess factor of APD

R(6 6 0) APD responsitivity at 660 nm

q electron charge

Vn amp

Vout ampl

Vthreshold CFD

Vout CFD

B bandwidth

Z

SR

tTDC

tptof

tTOT

Target AP in mm

Target AP in time

n (number of measurements needed)

Scanning speed

Minimum pulses frequency

Vout ampl is the output voltage at the receiver's amplier. As an

approximation, it can be estimated to be equal to the 80% of the

received amplitude voltage; a more precise estimation can be

reached a posteriori measuring Vout ampl with an oscilloscope,

after having built a physical prototype.

50 (Table 2)

3 Eq. (2)

0.45 A/W (Table 2)

1.6 10 19C

1.87 mV (measured)

2V

0.4 V

0.8 V

50 MHz

50 k (Table 2)

228.57 MV/s (measured)

40 ps (measured)

43.6 ps Eq. (5)

59.2 ps Eq. (4)

50 m (Table 1)

0.33 ps (50 10 6 2/3 108)

31,540 Eq. (9)

1000 points/s (Table 1)

31.5 MHz

[A/W];

p

NEP is the noise equivalent power of the APD [W= Hz].

The measured and calculated values of vn amp were almost

coincident and they were equal to 1.87 mV.

As already mentioned, if the single-shot measurements are

repeated n times and the oscillators used in the transmitter and in

the time measuring unit are not synchronous (the single-shot

measurements are independent of each other), the precision of the

p

averaged result is improved by a factor n, compared to the

single-shot precision. Thus, if the value of the desired average

precision (AP) is known in terms of distance, it can be converted to

time multiplying by 2 and dividing by the speed of light

(3 108 m/s); nally, the value of n can be calculated using Eq. (9):

t tot

AP p s

n

When the value of n and the required scanning speed (points/s)

are known, also the value of the sampling rate can be calculated,

which corresponds to pulses frequency; this last is limited by the

peak TDC frequency per channel.

In the present case, the maximum frequency per channel is

9 MHz.

Table 3 shows the calculated SSP, AP and pulses frequency and

the respective input parameters.

These calculations show that the required performance parameters (Table 1) can be achieved with a pulses frequency of about

30 MHz, when a single receiver channel is used. A multichannel

receiver needs to be used in order to increase the scanning speed

even more, and to decrease the pulse frequency.

2.6. Walk error evaluation

In this paragraph the walk error curve is calculated, referring to

2 V as the maximum received amplitude (Vampl). Assuming the

trailing and leading edges of the input signal are linear ramps, and

their rise and fall times are tr and tf, respectively, the time tcross,

required to reach a voltage level V0 in the output, can be so

calculated [14]

r

V of f

20 V 0 1V ampl

1 1 s

t cross D

SR

t t

r

10

where

0 time constant corresponding to the corner frequency of

unit gain (1/GBW);

D delay time constant (the comparator has a propagation

delay after which the input signal is transmitted to the output);

tcross response time required for reaching a voltage level V0 in

the output;

Voff offset voltage;

Vampl peak amplitude of the input voltage;

SR combined slew rate of the leading and trailing edges of the

input pulses in the timing point. It can be calculated from

Eq. (6), as the 80% of Vampl divided by tr.

The rst two terms of the equation represent the contribution

of the propagation delay (and thus of the GBW product of the

comparator) and the third term takes in account the effect of the

offset voltage.

Eq. (10) allows calculating the walk error as the difference

between tcross for a given Vampl and tcross for Vampl 2 V; input values

are summarised in Table 4. The respective curves shown in Fig. 6. It

can be noticed that

fast comparators give a smaller walk error than slow comparators;

faster pulses give smaller walk error than slow pulses;

if a fast comparator and slow pulses are used, a small offset

voltage is sufcient to correct the walk error [2,14]; and

if the pulses are fast, a larger offset voltage is needed.

193

the optimum ratio between the minimum and the maximum

received amplitude is 0.6/2, that is 1/3.33. It means that, if the

received amplitude varies in this range, the walk error can be

expected to be less than 1.8 ps that is less than 0.27 mm.

According to walk error calculated for Voff 3.5 mV (Fig. 6), the

optimum ratio between the minimum and the maximum received

amplitude is 1/2. It means that, if the received amplitude varies in

this range, we can expect that the walk error will be less than

0.5 ps that is less than 0.075 mm.

The value of the output voltage at the receiver channel is

strongly inuenced by the optics, which must be designed to stay

in the optimum variation ratio.

3. Experimental tests

The experimental tests have been aimed to the evaluation of

the performances of the optics, of the TDC circuit and of the built

PTOF system, in terms of single shot precision (SSP), average

precision (AP), walk error and pulses frequency.

3.1. Tests on optics

Basically, all optics layouts have been built according to Fig. 2

and optimizing the performance in terms of low amplitude

variation ratio. Some of the parameters used in the simulation

have been directly measured as, for example

the actual transmission index of the optics 0.21;

Table 4

Input and calculated parameters used to evaluate walk error.

Performance parameters

derived from these curves, when the maximum variation of the

output amplitude voltage at the receiver channel is known.

According to Voff 2.5 mV curve (Fig. 6), the optimum ratio

between the minimum and the maximum received amplitude is

0.36/2, that is 1/5.56. It means that, if the received amplitude

varies in this range, we can expect the walk error to be less than

4.1 ps that is less than 0.615 mm.

ADCMP573 G

ADCMP573 BW

ADCMP573

D

tr (rise time), tf (fall time)

0

V0

Voff

Max Vampl (received amplitude)

500

8 GHz

4 THz

150 ps

7 10 9 s Eq. (7)

2.5 10 13 s (1/GBW)

0.4V

2.533.5 mV

2V

194

the actual emitted optical power of the red laser 40 mW.

The rst test has been aimed to the validation of the rst

numerical simulation described in Section 2.4. The laser used in

this test is Thorlabs LP405-SF10. The measured optical peak power

of the laser is approximately 30 mW. All parameters have been set

according to the rst simulation's parameters (Fig. 4).

distance range is 72 mm;

the simulation software SNR Calculation Program for Laser Radar

(2008) is able to predict the actual behavior of the optics; and

when the distance range is wider than 72 mm, the optics

needs further improvements.

Table 5

Results of R-mode measurements without noise

(true delay value 5 ns)

Max measured delay

Min measured delay

Number of measurements

Mean value

Single shot precision in time (std)

Single shot precision in mm (std)

APD in time

APD in mm

5.083 ns

4.794 ns

1023

4.934 ns

40.5 ps

6.078 mm

1.267 ps

0.19 mm

to the other components, in order to evaluate its own performance

parameters. The circuit has been tested using R operating mode.

The circuit has been connected to a pulse generator and it has

been fed with one start TTL input and one stop TTL input. The

pulse generator has been connected to the start and stop input of

the TDC circuit by means of two cables whose lengths differed by

1 m; therefore the true value of the time delay is about 5 ns, as

experimentally evaluated. Performance parameters have been

evaluated with and without the noise generator circuit. As already

mentioned, the noise generator is needed in order to avoid the

synchronization of the pulse generator and the TDC circuit.

Table 6

Results of R-mode measurements with noise (true

delay value 5 ns).

Max measured delay

Min measured delay

Number of measurements

Mean value

SSP in time

SSP in mm

AP in time

AP in mm

2.55 V and 1.00 V, when the target moves backward and forward

of about 2 mm from the focused distance; however, the rst value

corresponds to channel saturation, therefore it cannot be considered. The amplitude's minimum value is very close to the simulated one (1.00 V against 1.11 V, Fig. 4), so the numerical calculus

has been proved to be a good estimate.

The second test has been performed in order to validate the

results of the second numerical simulation. The laser used in this

test is Thorlabs LP660-SF40, and the measured optical peak power

of the laser was about 40 mW. All the parameters have been set

according to simulation's parameters of Section 2.4 (Fig. 5).

The maximum and the minimum measured amplitude have

been resulted to be equal to 1.40 V and 0.60 V, respectively, when

the target moves backward and forward of about 2 mm from the

focused distances. These values are consistent with the simulated

ones (1.41 V and 0.62 V, Fig. 5).

These tests have experimentally conrmed that

5.3 ns

5.035 ns

1023

5.172 ns

36.2 ps

5.427 mm

1.131 ps

0.17 mm

Table 8

Performance parameters of the new PTOF system.

7 0.025 mm

1000 points/s

AP

Scanning speed

Table 7

Results of R-mode experimental measurements and numerical evaluations.

Amplitude [V]

1.6

Exp

# of Measurements

Max delay [ns]

Min delay [ns]

Mean value [ns]

SSP in time [ps]

SSP as a distance [mm]

AP in time [ps]

AP as a distance [mm]

a

b

1.5

a

20,440

59.36

58.83

59.04

64.2

9.63

0.449

0.067

Values calculated from Section 2.5.

(Section 2.5)

63.3

9.49

0.447

0.067

1.4

a

Exp

20,440

59.28

58.80

59.01

64.9

9.73

0.454

0.0681

(Section 2.5)

64.6

9.70

0.453

0.068

Exp

1.3

a

20,440

59.31

58.80

59.02

66.1

9.92

0.463

0.0694

(Section 2.5)

Expa

(Section 2.5)b

66.05

9.91

.462

0.0694

20,440

59.28

58.75

59.98

67.3

10.09

0.471

0.071

67.7

10.15

0.473

0.071

195

in Table 5.

Results of the R-mode measurements with noise generator are

reported in Table 6.

As expected, the precision is improved when the noise generator is included in the system.

3.3. Single shot precision and average precision measurements

Several tests have been executed using ACAM TDC R-Mode,

when the amplitude of the received signal was varying from 1.3 V

to 1.6 V. More than twenty thousand measurements have been

collected for each amplitude. The measured performance parameters are consistent with the calculated ones (Section 2.5), as

reported in Table 7.

In the calculations, the single shot precision of the TDC has

been considered to be about 40 ps, as evaluated from tests shown

in Section 3.2.

In all conditions, 20 MHz pulses frequency has proven to be

sufcient to achieve the measured values of precision, providing a

scanning frequency equal to 1000 points/s.

The results of experimental tests have demonstrated that the

designed device is suitable for applications in restorative dentistry

eld. The calculation model is able to predict its actual performance, in terms of single shot precision, average precision and

required pulses frequency. Therefore, operative parameters can be

chosen according to the desired performances (Table 1): 7 25 mm

average precision can be obtained with a scanning speed of at least

1000 points/s, if the laser pulsing frequency varies in the range

3050 MHz, whenever the received peak optical amplitude ranges

from 1 V to 2 V. The single-shot precision (s-value), in turn, is

equal to about 4363 ps (i.e. 910 mm) in the measurement range

(6.510 mm), when the signal amplitude varies in a range of 12 V

(see Table 8). Reported experimental results have been obtained

can be achieved with faster receivers and larger channel bandwidth, as resulting from Eq. (5). It is also important to note that

one single 50 MHz bandwidth channel is not even adequate to

3050 MHz pulses frequency, and making use of a faster channel

or recurring to multichannel receivers is strongly recommended.

Regarding walk error, it should be emphasized that the numerical model is likely to produce an optimistic estimate, and further

experimental tests are going to be performed. According to the

numerical model, the maximum error is less than 737 mm when

the offset voltage at the STOP CFD is 3.5 mV and the received peak

optical amplitude varies from 2 V to 1 V or according to the

optimum amplitude variation ratio which is 2:1 (Fig. 6).

The nal objective is the obtainment of 3D teeth model (Fig. 8)

to this aim, the here designed PTOF needs to be integrated with a

multichannel receiver (such as a 2D APD array), or with a 2 axes

scanning system (for instance by using MEMS mirrors).

The most innovative aspects of this work are

the applicability of PTOF technology to the dental eld has been

inquired for the rst time;

the current maximum values of precision and accuracy of the

existing devices and also of the PTOF laser rangenders have

been improved on short distances;

an absolute distance result value is achieved in short time;

the single axis optics is very indicated to be applied on small

size objects and to avoid shading;

the number of parallel measurement channels (receivers) can

be increased easily; and

the values of precision and accuracy can be improved even

more, by using higher channel bandwidth and faster receivers.

Acknowledgements

This paper is based on research work carried out at the

Electronics Laboratory of the Department of Electrical Engineering

196

7 months. We express our gratitude to Prof. Kari Mtt for his

help in solving many electronics and optics issues and for providing software and scientic material and Lauri Hallman for his help

in some laboratory's 'issues'.

References

[1] Logozzo S, Franceschini G, Kilpel A, Caponi M, Governi L, Blois L. A

comparative analysis of intraoral 3D digital scanners for restorative dentistry.

Internet J Med Technol 2011;5.

[2] Kilpel A. Pulsed time-of-ight laser range nder techniques for fast, high

precision measurement applications.. Oulu: Acta Universitatis Ouluensis;

2004.

[3] Pieraccini M, Guidi G, Atzeni C. 3D digitizing of cultural heritage. J Cultural

Heritage 2001;2:6370.

[4] Ramos Barbero B, Santos Ureta E. Comparative study of different digitization

techniques and their accuracy. Comput Aided Des 2011;43:188206.

in dental opticsPart I: 3D intraoral scanner for restorative dentistry. Opt

Lasers Eng 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.optlaseng.2013.07.017.

[6] Dragoman D, Dragoman M. Advanced optoelectronic devices. Springer-Verlag;

1999.

[7] Sze SM. Semiconductor devices, physics and technology. John Wiley & Sons,

Inc.; 1985.

[8] Analog Devices, Evaluation Board for ADCMP572/ADCMP573/ADCMP580/

ADCMP58/ADCMP582, 2006.

[9] ACAM, ATMD-GPX. TDC-GPX Evaluation system-datasheet, ACAM Mess

Electronic, 2005.

[10] ACAM, TDC-GPX. Ultra-high performance 8 channel time-to-digital converter

datasheet, ACAM mess electronic, 2007.

[11] Wang J, Kostamovaara J. Radiometric analysis and simulation of signal power

function in a short-range laser radar. Appl Opt 1994;33:406976.

[12] ten Bosch JJ, Coops JC. Tooth color and reectance as related to light scattering

and enamel hardness. J Dent Res 1995;74:37480.

[13] PerkinElmer, Avalanche photodiodea user guide, vol. Application NoteHigh

performance sensors, PerkinElmer precisely, 2010.

[14] Kilpel A, Ylitalo J, Mtt K, Kostamovaara J. Timing discriminator for pulsed

time-of-ight laser rangending measurements. Rev Sci Instrum 1998;69:

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