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HEAT TRANSFER

FUNDAMENTALS
(CH.E-301)

Lecture 1

COURSE CONTENTS

Introduction to heat transfer


Applications and importance of heat transfer
Modes of heat transfer
Steady state one-dimensional conduction including heat
sources and convective boundary conditions
Extended surfaces
Transient conduction: lumped capacity method
Free and forced convection under various flow patterns
Dimensional analysis
Importance of temperature in mechanism of heat
transfer
Calculation of caloric and wall temperature
Momentum and heat transfer analogies
Boiling and condensation
Principles of radiation heat transfer
Introduction to heat transfer equipment and their
configurations

LIST OF BOOKS

Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by W. L.


McCabe, J. C. Smith, and P. Harriott

Process Heat Transfer by D. Q. Kern

Heat Transfer: A Practical Approach by Y. A. Cengel

Heat Transfer by J. P. Holman

Introduction to Heat Transfer by F. P. Incropera, D. P.


DeWitt, T. L. Bergman, and A. S. Lavine

Heat Transfer Textbook by John H. Lienhard

EVALUATION CRITERIA

Mid Term (30 marks)

Final Term (40 marks)

Two Quizzes (20 marks)

Assignments (5 marks)

Attendance and Class Participation (5 marks)


4

THE NATURE OF HEAT

Definition: Heat is the internal kinetic energy of the atoms


and molecules that make up a substance.
Since it is a form of energy, it is measured in the
standard unit of a Joule.
More commonly, it is measured in the following units:
Calorie heat energy needed to raise 1 gram of water by 1 degree
Celsius. 1 calorie = 4.186 Joules.
Calorie commonly used to measure energy content of food.
British Thermal Unit (BTU) heat energy needed to raise one
pound of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit. 1 BTU = 252 calories =
1,054 Joules.

INTRODUCTION
Thermodynamics:

Energy can be transferred between a system and its


surroundings.

A system interacts with its surroundings by exchanging


work and heat

Deals with equilibrium states

Does not give information about:


Rates at which energy is transferred
Mechanisms through with energy is transferred

DEFINITIONS
Heat

transfer is the science in which we deals


with rate of thermal energy transfer induced by
a temperature difference (or gradient)

Modes of heat transfer


Conduction heat transfer: Occurs when a temperature gradient
exists through a solid or flow of heat by direct contact between
warmer and cooler body.

Convection heat transfer: Occurs within a moving fluid, or


between a solid surface and a moving fluid, when they are at
different temperatures.
Thermal radiation: Heat transfer between two surfaces (that are
not in contact), often in the absence of an intervening medium.

CONDUCTION
Conduction is the process whereby heat is transferred
directly through a material, any bulk motion of the
material playing no role in the transfer.

Those materials that conduct heat well are called thermal


conductors, while those that conduct heat poorly are
known as thermal insulators.
Most metals are excellent thermal conductors, while wood,
glass, and most plastics are common thermal insulators.
The free electrons in metals are responsible for the
excellent thermal conductivity of metals.

HEAT TRANSFER
Conduction when two objects are in physical
contact.
T
Q kA
t
L
k = thermal conductivity
Q = heat transferred
A = cross sectional area
t = duration of heat transfer
L = length
T = temperature difference
between two ends

In a hot oven the air and the


metal rack are at the same
temperature, but which one
feels hotter and why?

CONDUCTION OF HEAT THROUGH A MATERIAL

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES
Metals have high thermal
conductivity, most electrical
insulators also have low
thermal conductivity.
Air is a great insulator,
except that large air spaces
allow
heat
flow
by
convection.

Substance

Thermal
Conductivity: k
W / (m K)

Gold

291

Glass

0.84

Water

0.60

Wood

0.10

Air

0.023

CONDUCTION
Stir your hot soup with a metal spoon
Pretty soon you need a pot holder because the end of
the spoon you are holding gets hot
This is heat transfer by conduction
Energy travels up the spoon from the end in the hot
soup to the end in your hand

CONDUCTION
We sense the movement of energy by the
increasing temperature
This means the atoms and molecules have higher
average kinetic energy
Primarily occurs by the movement of electrons in
the material
The more easily the electrons can move, the
better the conduction

CONDUCTION
Metals have some electrons that are very loosely bound
to the atoms in the material
These electrons can move easily and can rapidly pick
up additional kinetic energy
Metals are good conductors
Wood and plastic dont have loosely bound electrons, so
they are poor conductors

Heat Conduction

Steel: k = 14 J/s-m-C
How much energy is
conducted in 40
seconds?
--------------------------

Heat Conduction

Steel: k = 14 J/s-m-C
How much energy is
conducted in 40
seconds?
-------------------------H= kA (T2 - T1)/L
H= 14 (2)(475)/10
= 1330 J/s
Q= Ht = 1330 (40)
= 5.32 x 104 J

Suppose a human could live for two hours (120 minutes)


unclothed in air at 45 oF. How long could he live in water at
45 oF? How do the thermal conductivities of water and air
compare?

Table of Thermal Conductivities

Substance

Thermal
Conductivity
k [J/(s-m-C)]

Substance

Thermal
Conductivity
k [J/(s-m-C)]

Styrofoam

0.010

Glass

0.80

Air

0.026

Concrete

1.1

Wool

0.040

Iron

79

Wood

0.15

Aluminum

240

Body fat

0.20

Silver

420

Water

0.60

Diamond

2450

Water has 23 times the thermal conductivity that


air has. The human in the question above would
live for only 120/23 = 5.2 minutes.

A Thermal Conductivity Problem


H= kA T /L
k (insulation) = 0.20 J/(s-m-C)
k (wood)
= 0.80 J/(s-m-C)

How many joules of


thermal energy flow
through the wall per
second?
--------------------------------Heat is like a fluid:
whatever flows through
the insulation must also
flow through the wood.

Thermal Conductivity Problem Solution


Across insulation:
Hins = (0.20)(40)(25 - T)/0.076
(1)
= 2631.6 -105.3 T
(2)
Across wood:
Hwood = (0.80)(40)(T - 4)/0.019
= 1684.2 T - 6736.8
Heat is like a fluid: whatever flows through the
insulation must also flow through the wood:
Hwood = Hins
1684.2 T - 6736.8 = 2631.6 -105.3 T
1789.5 T = 9368.4
T = 5.235 C
H= Hwood = Hins
H= 1684.2 (5.235) - 6736.8 = 2080 J/s
H= 2631.6 - 105.3 (5.235) = 2080 J/s

(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)

CONVECTION AND RADIATION


Convection when heat is carried by a moving fluid
Example: heat house with radiator
Radiation when electromagnetic waves (radiation)
carry heat from one object to another.
Example: heat you feel when you are near a fire
Example: Heat from the sun

CONVECTION
Convection is the process in which heat is carried from place to place by
the bulk movement of a fluid.

Convection currents are set up when a pan of water is heated.

VOLCANIC ERUPTION

During a volcanic eruption, smoke at the top of the plume rises


thousands of meters because of convection.

CONVECTION

Explains why breezes come from the


ocean in the day and from the land at
night

Q: In the living room, the heating unit is placed in the floor but the
refrigerator has a top-mounted cooling coil. Why?
A: Air warmed by the baseboard heating unit is pushed to the top of the
room by the cooler and denser air. Air cooled by the cooling coil sinks to the
bottom of the refrigerator.

RADIATION
Radiation is the process in which energy is transferred by means of
electromagnetic waves.
Heat transfer by radiation can take place through vacuum. This is because
electromagnetic waves (e.g., light, microwaves, radio waves, X-rays etc.)
are involved in radiation and they can propagate through empty space.

SUMMER CLOTHING
Q: People are uncomfortable wearing dark clothes during the
summer. Why?

A: Dark clothes absorb a large fraction of the sun's radiation and


then reemit it in all directions. About one-half of the emitted
radiation is directed inward toward the body and creates the
sensation of warmth. Light-colored clothes, in contrast, are cooler
to wear, since they absorb and reemit relatively little of the
incident radiation.

WHY IS THE
MOTHER
SHIELDING HER

CUB?

Ratio of the surface area


of a cub to its volume is
much larger than for its
mother.

To cool food, we cut it into smaller pieces, why?

THE STEFANBOLTZMANN LAW OF RADIATION


The rate at which an object emits radiant energy is proportional to the
fourth power of its absolute temperature. This is known as Stefans law
and is expressed as follows, where is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, =
5.67 10-8 W/m2.K4.

Q
4
P eAT .
t
The factor e is called the emissivity, which is a number between 0 and 1.
Perfect radiators have a value of 1 for e. A is the surface area and T is the
temperature of the radiator in Kelvin.

Example
How much energy is radiated
by this object in ten minutes?
-----------------------------------------

H = eAT4

Example
How much energy is radiated
by this object in ten minutes?
----------------------------------------t = 10 x 60 seconds = 600 s
Q = radiant energy = H t
H = eA T4
Q = (0.8)(5.67x10-8)(5)(500)4 x
(600)
= 8.5 x 106 J

H = eAT4

THERMOS BOTTLE
A thermos bottle minimizes energy transfer due
to convection, conduction, and radiation.
Stopper- minimize conduction.
Double-walled glass vessel with the space
between the walls is evacuated to minimize
energy losses due to conduction and convection.
The silvered surfaces reflect most of the radiant
energy that would otherwise enter or leave the
liquid in the thermos.

HALOGEN COOKTOP

In a halogen cooktop, quartz-iodine lamps emit a large amount of


electromagnetic energy that is absorbed directly by a pot or pan.

APPLICATION AREAS OF HEAT


TRANSFER

Many ordinary household appliances are designed, in


whole or in part, by using the principles of heat transfers.
Some examples include the electric or gas range, the
heating and air-conditioning system, the refrigerator and
freezer, the water heater, the iron, and even the computer,
and TV. Of course, energy-efficient homes are designed on
the basis of minimizing heat loss in winter and heat gain in
summer.
Heat transfer plays a major role in the design of many
other devices, such as car radiators, solar collectors,
various components of power plants, and even spacecraft.
The Optimal insulation thickness in the walls and roofs of
the houses, on hot water or steam pipes, or on water
heaters is again determined on the basis of a heat transfer
analysis with economic consideration.