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FB-Pier

Users Guide and Manual


For the Analysis of Group Pile Foundations

Developed by the Florida Department of Transportation


and the Federal Highway Administration
Contract # DTF61-95-C-00157
February 2002

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 - General Information
1.1 Types of problems that FB-Pier solves ............................................................................ 1-1
1.1.1 Piles and cap only .................................................................................................... 1-2
1.1.2 General bridge piers................................................................................................. 1-4
1.1.3 High mast lighting and signs .................................................................................... 1-6
1.1.4 Retaining wall on top of deep foundations ............................................................... 1-6
1.1.5 Sound walls .............................................................................................................. 1-7
1.1.6 Equivalent pile group stiffness ................................................................................. 1-8
1.1.7 Pile bents.................................................................................................................. 1-9
1.1.8 Column analysis ....................................................................................................... 1-9
1.2 Hardware requirements.................................................................................................... 1-9
1.3 FB-Pier files...................................................................................................................... 1-9
1.3.1 FB-Pier.exe............................................................................................................... 1-10
1.3.2 FBPier_eng.exe , Conspawn.exe, and pyplot.dll ..................................................... 1-10
1.3.3 FB-Pier.cnt and FB-Pier.hlp ..................................................................................... 1-10
1.3.4 Pile and pier database files (*.pld and *.smd) .......................................................... 1-10
1.3.5 Default.in files ........................................................................................................... 1-11
1.3.6 Example.in and Example.out.................................................................................... 1-11
1.3.7 Binary Files............................................................................................................... 1-12

CHAPTER 2 - Modeling Parameters and Soil-Structure Interaction


2.1 Piles, and drilled shafts models........................................................................................ 2-1
2.1.1 Driven prestressed concrete piles............................................................................ 2-1
2.1.2 Drilled shaft............................................................................................................... 2-2
2.2 Bridge piers, and pier caps .............................................................................................. 2-3
2.2.1 Bridge piers .............................................................................................................. 2-3
2.2.2 Bridge pier caps ....................................................................................................... 2-4
2.3 Mast poles, and cantilever walls ...................................................................................... 2-5
2.4 Soil-structure interaction .................................................................................................. 2-6
2.4.1 Single pile or drilled shaft soil-structure interaction.................................................. 2-6
2.4.2 Far field or group behavior of piles/shafts ................................................................ 2-7

CHAPTER 3 - Example Problems


3.1 Laterally loaded single pile............................................................................................... 3-1
3.2 Bridge pier ........................................................................................................................ 3-26
3.3 Retaining wall ................................................................................................................... 3-55
3.4 High mast light/sign .......................................................................................................... 3-72
3.5 Sound wall........................................................................................................................ 3-78
3.6 Stiffness formulation......................................................................................................... 3-86
3.7 Multiple pile sets............................................................................................................... 3-91
3.8 Pile bents.......................................................................................................................... 3-101
3.9 Column analysis ............................................................................................................... 3-108

CHAPTER 4 - Soil Theory


4.1 Soil-pile interaction ........................................................................................................... 4-1
4.2 Lateral soil-pile interaction ............................................................................................... 4-1
4.2.1 ONeills sand ........................................................................................................... 4-1
4.2.2 Sand of Reese, Cox, and Koop................................................................................ 4-4
4.2.3 ONeills clay ............................................................................................................. 4-4
4.2.4 Matlocks soft clay below the water table ................................................................. 4-6

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4.2.5 Reeses stiff clay below water table ......................................................................... 4-7


4.2.6 Reese and Welchs stiff clay above water table....................................................... 4-9
4.2.7 User Defined ............................................................................................................ 4-10
4.3 Axial soil-pile interaction................................................................................................... 4-10
4.3.1 Axial T-Z Curves for Skin Friction ............................................................................ 4-10
4.3.1.1 Driven piles....................................................................................................... 4-11
4.3.1.2 Drilled and Cast Insitu Piles/Shafts .................................................................. 4-12
4.3.1.2.1 Sand ...................................................................................................... 4-12
4.3.1.2.2 Clay ....................................................................................................... 4-13
4.3.1.2.3 Intermediate Geomaterial...................................................................... 4-14
4.3.1.3 User Defined..................................................................................................... 4-15
4.3.2 Axial T-Z (Q-Z) Curves for Tip Resistance............................................................... 4-15
4.3.2.1 Driven piles....................................................................................................... 4-15
4.3.2.2 Drilled and Cast Insitu Piles/Shafts .................................................................. 4-16
4.3.2.2.1 Sand ...................................................................................................... 4-16
4.3.2.2.2 Clay ....................................................................................................... 4-18
4.3.2.2.3 Intermediate Geomaterial...................................................................... 4-20
4.3.2.3 User Defined..................................................................................................... 4-21
4.4 Torsional soil-pile interaction............................................................................................ 4-21
4.4.1 Hyperbolic curve....................................................................................................... 4-21
4.4.2 User defined ............................................................................................................. 4-22

CHAPTER 5 - Structural Analysis Theory


5.1 Nonlinear behavior ........................................................................................................... 5-1
5.1.1 Discrete element model............................................................................................ 5-1
5.1.2 Element deformation relations ................................................................................. 5-2
5.1.3 Integration of stresses .............................................................................................. 5-4
5.1.4 Element end forces .................................................................................................. 5-7
5.1.5 Element stiffness ...................................................................................................... 5-8
5.1.6 Stress-strain curves.................................................................................................. 5-9
5.1.6.1 Concrete ........................................................................................................... 5-9
5.1.6.2 Mild steel .......................................................................................................... 5-10
5.1.6.3 High strength prestressing steels..................................................................... 5-11
5.1.6.4 Adjustment for prestress .................................................................................. 5-12
5.1.7 Nonlinear solution strategies.................................................................................... 5-12

CHAPTER 6 - Suggested Insitu Soil Parameters


6.1 Soil properties .................................................................................................................. 6-1
6.1.1 Shear modulus ......................................................................................................... 6-1
6.1.2 Youngs modulus...................................................................................................... 6-2
6.1.3 Poissons ratio .......................................................................................................... 6-2
6.1.4 Angle of internal friction............................................................................................ 6-2
6.1.5 Undrained shear strength......................................................................................... 6-3
6.1.6 Subgrade modulus ................................................................................................... 6-4
6.1.7 Water table ............................................................................................................... 6-4

CHAPTER 7 - Program Usage Guide


7.1 Description of program menus ......................................................................................... 7-1
7.1.1 File menu.................................................................................................................. 7-1
7.1.2 View menu................................................................................................................ 7-1
7.1.3 Control menu ............................................................................................................ 7-2
7.1.4 Help menu ................................................................................................................ 7-2
7.2 Description of toolbar icons.............................................................................................. 7-3
7.3 Description of program modeling windows ...................................................................... 7-4
7.3.1 Model data window................................................................................................... 7-4
7.3.1.1 Problem tab ...................................................................................................... 7-4

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7.3.1.2 Analysis tab ...................................................................................................... 7-5


7.3.1.3 Pile tab.............................................................................................................. 7-5
7.3.1.4 Soil tab.............................................................................................................. 7-6
7.3.1.5 Pier (Wall) tab................................................................................................... 7-6
7.3.1.6 Members tab..................................................................................................... 7-7
7.3.1.7 Load tab............................................................................................................ 7-7
7.3.1.8 Springs tab ....................................................................................................... 7-8
7.3.1.9 Retaining tab .................................................................................................... 7-8
7.3.1.10 Pushover tab .................................................................................................. 7-9
7.3.2 Soil edit window........................................................................................................ 7-9
7.3.3 Pile edit window........................................................................................................ 7-10
7.3.4 3D view window........................................................................................................ 7-10
7.4 Description of program windows ...................................................................................... 7-11
7.4.1 Pile selection window ............................................................................................... 7-11
7.4.2 Pier selection window............................................................................................... 7-12
7.4.3 Plot display control window ...................................................................................... 7-12
7.4.4 Force plot window .................................................................................................... 7-13
7.4.5 Segment selection window....................................................................................... 7-13
7.4.6 Interaction diagram window ..................................................................................... 7-14
7.4.7 3D Display window ................................................................................................... 7-15
7.4.8 3D Results window................................................................................................... 7-15
7.5 Status bar ......................................................................................................................... 7-16
7.6 Additional program issues................................................................................................ 7-16
7.6.1 Reopening a window ................................................................................................ 7-17
7.6.2 Changing fonts ......................................................................................................... 7-17
7.6.3 Changing p-y multipliers........................................................................................... 7-17
7.6.4 Pile number and the pile edit window....................................................................... 7-17
7.6.5 Deleting load cases .................................................................................................. 7-17

APPENDIX A - Example Problem Input Files


Example 1............................................................................................................................... A-1
Example 2............................................................................................................................... A-2
Example 3............................................................................................................................... A-5
Example 4............................................................................................................................... A-7
Example 5............................................................................................................................... A-8
Example 6............................................................................................................................... A-10
Example 7............................................................................................................................... A-12
Example 8............................................................................................................................... A-15
Example 9............................................................................................................................... A-17

APPENDIX B - References
References ............................................................................................................................. B-1

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CHAPTER 1 GENERAL INFORMATION


This report documents the applications, system requirements, user input, and theory behind the
computer code FB-Pier. Chapter 1 provides a discussion of the types of problems that FB-Pier can solve,
followed by a description of the minimum hardware requirements and the files the FB-Pier generates.
Chapter 2 provides a description of the pile/shaft, pier models and soil-structure interaction available.
Next, Chapter 3 presents nine example problems with the necessary screen input. A detailed description
of the theory for both the soil in Chapter 4 and structure analysis in Chapter 5 are provided after the
examples. Chapter 6 provides suggested soil parameters from insitu tests, however, the parameters are
only suggested and an experienced geotechnical engineer should be consulted.

1.1.

TYPES OF PROBLEMS THAT FB-PIER SOLVES

There are eight general types of problem that the user may model with FB-Pier. They are:
1) pile and cap only;
2) general bridge piers;
3) high mast lighting, and signs;
4) retaining walls on top of pile groups;
5) sound walls;
6) equivalent stiffness of pile group analysis;
7) pile bents;
8) column analysis.
It should be noted in this documentation that the word piles or shafts are used interchangeably unless
specifically noted. Each of the eight categories starts the user with an initial default data structure and
limits the screens that the user subsequently modifies or asks the user if they wish to change problem
type. A complete description of the eight general problem types follows.

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1.1.1. Piles and Cap Only


Shown in Figure 1.1 (a) and (b) are both the single pile/shaft problem and a group of piles and
shafts, which may be modeled with the general pile and cap option.

Soil Layer

Soil Layer 1

Soil Layer 1

(a) Single Pile/shaft

(b) Group of Piles/Shafts with Cap

Figure 1.1 General Problem Type for Pile and Cap Only Option
As identified in Figure 1.1 (a), the single pile/shaft is the simplest soil-structure interaction
problem that the program solves and is ideal for checking all the soil and general pile/shaft information.
The analysis may be compared to similar runs of COM624P although the approaches to pile and
pile cap modeling are different between the two programs. COM624P has the capability of analyzing a
single pile with either a fixed or free pile head as shown in Figure 1.2 below. In a similar manner, FBPier has the capability of modeling the pile head connection to the pile cap as either a fixed or pinned
connection as shown in Figure 1.2
No rotation

Free pile head


(COM624P)

Fixed pile head


(COM624P)

Pinned pile head


connection
(FB-Pier)

Fixed pile head


connection
(FB-Pier)

Figure 1.2 Comparison of Pile Head Behavior

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For the single pile case with a free pile head, the results from COM624P and FB-Pier should be
very similar because they model the same pile behavior. However, in order to obtain the fixed pile head
condition modeled in COM624P, the user must apply a stiff rotational spring to the pile head in FB-Pier,
to prevent any pile head rotation as shown in Figure 1.3.
No rotation

No rotation
Stiff rotational
spring

Fixed pile head


(COM624P)

Fixed pile head


(FB-Pier)

Figure 1.3 Creating a Fixed Head Condition in FB-Pier


In addition to single pile modeling, FB-Pier has the capability of modeling pile group behavior,
which is not available in COM624P. In order to obtain similar results between the two programs when
simulating pile group behavior, all p-y multipliers in the FB-Pier pile group model must be set to 1.0 and
a pinned pile head connection must be used as shown in Figure 1.4. If a fixed pile head connection is
used, bending moments will develop at the pile heads and cause axial forces to develop in the piles (due
to frame actions). For this case, the COM624P results (for a simulated pile group) will not match the FBPier results. FB-Pier will have smaller lateral displacements due to the added axial soil resistance. Other
programs like GROUP 4.0 also do not include the axial effects. The FB-Pier results will also differ if p-y
multipliers other than 1.0 are used in the pile rows.

Pile Group
modeling in
FB-Pier

Fixed head
connection causing
frame actions

Pinned head
connection modeling
COM624P behavior

Figure 1.4 Pinned Head Connections to Model Pile Group Behavior


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For the case of pile/shaft group behavior in Figure 1.1 (b), both vertical and lateral soil
information must always be inputted since significant pile/shaft axial forces will develop for lateral loads.
The user has the option of inputting plumb or battered piles/shafts at fixed or variable spacing with
different properties along their length. In addition, all the piles/shafts are connected to a cap with a
variable fixity (either fixed or free). The cap (modeled with combined plate and beam finite elements)
response is controlled by its thickness, modulus and strength properties. All group loads (i.e. axial,
lateral, moments) are prescribed on pile/shaft cap nodes. Presently, there are no limitations on the
number of piles that may be modeled, except for the size of the PC and its memory; for instance groups
with over 100 pile/shafts have been represented.

1.1.2. General Bridge Piers


Shown in Figure 1.5 is the general bridge pier and corresponding members that FB-Pier is
capable of modeling: 1) piles or shafts; 2) pile cap; 3) piers (single or multiple); and 4) pier cap.

Pier Cap
Pier
Bridge
Pier

Soil
Soil

Pile Cap
Piles or
Shafts

Figure 1.5 General Bridge

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The piles/shafts may have variable cross-sections and properties with depth. The tip elevations
for all the piles/shafts within a pile set must be the same with similar properties at a given elevation. The
piles/shafts are connected to the pile/shaft cap with variable fixity. The piers, which may be round,
square or rectangular, may be of a uniform width or diameter or may be tapered with elevation. Both
single and multiple pier columns may sit on a single pile cap; however they must be uniformly spaced.
The pier cap, which is square or rectangular, is connected to the top of the piers and may be tapered or
prismatic at the cantilever ends. FB-Pier is also capable of modeling multiple pile caps under one pier
cap (Figure 1.6). The latter would be common for very wide roadways or very strong support (i.e. few
piles required) at shallow depths.

Pier Cap

Figure 1.6 Multiple Pile Groups Under One Pier Cap


As with the single pile or pile/shaft group, the user has the option of varying the batter angle of any pile
(see Figure 1.6).
To represent the added stiffness of the bridge girders and deck on top of the pier caps (Figure
1.5), the user has the option of inputting lateral or rotation springs on the pier caps. The latter is very
important to ensure that proper forces and moments are developed in the pier and underlying soil.

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1.1.3

High Mast Lighting and Signs


Due to large lateral loads and poor soil conditions, many lighting, sign, and barrier structures are

supported on deep foundations. Shown in Figure 1.7 are the general lighting, sign and barrier structures
with corresponding loads which may be analyzed with FB-Pier.

Wind Load

Pile Group

Figure 1.7 Lighting and Sign Structures


The foundation is modeled with either a single element (i.e. pile or drilled shaft) or a pile group
with a pole extending above the ground surface for the High Mast Lighting case. In the case of sign
structures, there can be a cross member attached to the top of the pole.

The user has the option of

inputting the wind loads along with the other loads. The wind load is characterized as a uniform line load
(force/length), which may be different on the cross member and the pole. Again, the user can employ
multiple pile or shaft types with variable spacing and batter.

1.1.4 Retaining Walls On Top Of Deep Foundations


In the case of concrete cantilever retaining walls in Figure 1.9 on soft or weak soils, FB-Pier will
analyze both the wall and supporting foundation as shown in Figure 1.9 (a). The soil behind the wall is

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converted to either Coulomb or Rankine's active lateral earth pressure as shown in Figure 1.9 (b). The
user has the option of identifying any number of layers and water table elevations for the backfill (soil
behind the wall). Any of the various pile/shaft types may be used to support the wall.

Soil Layer 1

Soil Layer 2

Soil Layer 3

Soil Layer 3

(b) FB-Pier Idealization

(a) Soil and Cantilever Wall


Figure 1.9 Retaining Wall

1.1.5 Sound Walls


Due to poor soil conditions, or large loads, sound walls may be supported on single piles/shafts or
a group as shown in Figure 1.10. The support for the sound wall is modeled with any of the linear, linear
full cross-section, and nonlinear steel and concrete members available for bridge piers or user generated
cross-sections. Loads on the sound wall are characterized with live and dead loads. In the case of wind
live loads, the user needs to input the uniform wind pressure (force/area) on the column and the spacing

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between columns (i.e. distance between footings). In terms of the footing, the user may input a single
member or a group of piles or shafts with variable properties along their length, but similar footing
elevations.

Wind Load

Pile Group

Figure 1.10 Sound Wall on a Deep Foundation

1.1.6 Equivalent Pile Group Stiffness


Anyone designing a bridge in an earthquake area, employing equivalent static loads from modal
analysis may use FB-Pier's equivalent Pile Group Stiffness. For this approach, the user "builds" their full
bridge pier in "FB-Pier" and applies equivalent static loads. FB-Pier analysis is performed and the full
6x6 stiffness at the bottom of the pier are printed out which in turn are inputted into a general-purpose
finite element representation of the bridge (e.g. GTSTRUDL). The latter software performs a modal
analysis and determines a new set of static forces, which are fed back into FB-Pier. Based on the new set
of forces, FB-Pier determines a new stiffness, stresses, displacement, etc., and the process is repeated
until convergence is achieved. Generally, three to five iterations are performed.

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1.1.7

Pile Bents
Many bridge structures utilize pile bent foundations for supporting the superstructure. Pile bent

foundations have piles that connect directly to the bent (pier) cap, thus eliminating the pier columns.
These foundations are restricted to a single row of piles.
1.1.8

Column Analysis
This type of problem allows the user to perform a biaxial bending analysis for a single column.

This is done internally by taking a single pile and treating it as a single column. The single column has
the ability to put springs at the top and bottom of the column. It also allows loads at the top and bottom.
The column properties are input as normal pile properties.
1.2

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
FB-Pier's visual interface was written in Visual C++ with full OpenGL 3D graphics allowing the

bridge pier to rotated real time. In addition the visual interface is multithreaded, where multiple windows
opened at the same time have different operations going on concurrently in each. As a consequence, the
smallest PC recommended is a Pentium with clock speed of 600 MHz and 64 MB of memory. Since the
files created by FB-Pier vary in size depending on size of the problem, a 100 MB free space on the hard
drive is recommended.
FB-Pier was developed to run on Microsoft's Windows 95, 98 or NT/2000 operating systems. The
self-installation disks will install the program and necessary files in the directory FB-Pier under the
directory Program Files.
1.3

FB-PIER FILES
The following is a list and description of the files that FB-Pier reads or writes, along with

accessibility.

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1.3.1

FB-Pier.exe
The visual graphical interface for the program is FB-Pier.exe, which handles input, output and

spawning the analysis "engine". Examples of its function are graphically inputting all the data, displaying
the results (moments, shear, and axial forces along the piles, piers, etc.; displacements, and biaxial
capacities of structural members), and providing on screen help on input parameters.
1.3.2

FBPier_eng.exe , Conspawn.exe, and pyplot.dll


The "engine" or analysis portion of the code is called "FBPier_eng.exe", and was written in

Fortran 90 for optimization purposes, and must reside in same directory as FB-Pier. The engine uses as
input the same ASCII file FB-Pier reads and writes. These files are automatically saved when the user
clicks on the analysis button in FB-Pier. FB-Pier executes the analysis engine (FBPier_eng.exe) through
the small program "Conspawn.exe" which must be in the same directory as "FB-Pier.exe", and
"FBPier_eng.exe". The dynamic link library file "pyplot.dll" is called by FB-Pier, whenever the user
wishes to view the soil-pile interaction curves (i.e. p-y, T-z, etc.) using the inputted soil parameters.
Pyplot.dll should be contained in the same directory as FB-Pier.
1.3.3

FB-Pier.cnt and FB-Pier.hlp


On-line help is provided in FB-Pier through the Help menu at top of the program screen. The

associated files that FB-Pier uses are FB-Pier.cnt and FB-Pier.hlp. Since FB-Pier.hlp is a help file, it may
be clicked on from the explorer and scanned without the need for running FB-Pier. The user has the
option of either looking at a table of contents or performing a search. Both FB-Pier.cnt and FB-Pier.hlp
must be contained in the same directory as FB-Pier.exe.
1.3.4

Pile and Pier Database files (*.smd and *.pld)


The user has the option of saving either their pile, shaft or pier cross-section for later use in

another problem with FB-Pier's database features. The pile or shaft database files are called *.pld and the

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pier files are called *.smd. Both sets of database files will reside in the same directory as FB-Pier. Both
sets of database files are in ASCII format so the user may edit them.
1.3.5

Default.in files
Whenever the user decides to begin a new problem in FB-Pier, they must click one of the

following nine possible choices in the Problem Tab dialog box:

General Pier - piles/shaft, cap, piers, and pier cap

Pile and Cap - pile/shaft and cap

Single Pile special case of the Pile and Cap only problem

High Mast Light/Sign - includes pile/shaft cap, pole and cross-member

Retaining Wall - piles or shafts with cap, retaining wall and backfill soil

Sound Wall - piles or shafts with cap and sound wall on top

Stiffness generates equivalent stiffness of foundation

Pile bent piles connected directly to the bent cap

Column analysis quickly compute the load-moment interaction of a column

Each of the possible nine combinations has a default data set (Default1.inDefault9.in), which gives
pile/shaft layouts, properties, etc. These files are ASCII files and may be modified with FB-Pier, or by
hand and resaved; however they must be given the same names.
1.3.6

Example.in and Example.out


Example.in or *.in is the ASCII input file that FB-Pier generates and that the engine reads to

perform an analysis. The file may be edited. The output file Example.out or *.out is an ASCII file
generated by the engine which provides a hardcopy of the output. The size of the file is controlled by the
print control options that the user checks in the analysis Tab dialog box in FB-Pier. Summary tables are
always generated. Both input and output files may be saved in any directory on the PC.

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1.3.7

Binary Files: *.pil, *.plf, *.sli, *.soi, *.vmd, *.str, *.axl, and *.mom
For every problem which FB-Pier runs, a number of binary input and output files are created

which saves the result for later viewing. These binary files (i.e. not viewed with a text editor) are as
follows:

*.pil - problem pile information

*.plf - problem plot file information

*.sli - pile, pier, interaction diagram information

*.soi - soil forces

*.vmd - shear and moments in the structural members

*.str - shell forces in the pile/shaft caps

*.axl - axial forces in the structural members

*.mom -moments in the structural members.

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CHAPTER 2 MODELING PARAMETERS AND SOIL STRUCTURE


INTERACTION
2.1 PILES, AND DRILLED SHAFTS MODELS
The FB-Pier program has a variety of models to represent concrete, mild steel, and prestressing in
piles, shafts, and pier cross-sections. Once a particular cross-section has been created, the user may save
it to a database for later use with a different problem.
In terms of input, the user must first specify the type of analysis, which is to be performed for the
piles/shafts. The user has the option of analyzing the structural components as one of three possibilities:
1) Linear with prescribed Youngs Modulus (E), Poissons Ratio (or Shear Modulus, G), and Moment of
Inertia (Ixx, Iyy, etc.); 2) Linear with full cross-section specified; and 3) Nonlinear. For case (2), the user
must supply in addition to the Young's Modulus, Shear Modulus, Moment of Inertia, and the location of
all the steel and concrete. The latter is used to generate a biaxial interaction diagram for the member. For
Case (3), the user must supply the parameters for default stress-strain curves for concrete and steel or
supply their own. It is recommended that for preliminary designs that Case (2) be employed. The
benefits of this over Case (1) are that the interaction diagrams, which are generated for all the members,
identifies their proximity to failure. Case (2) should always be used before Case (3), since the latter may
not converge due to failure of structural member and soil, whereas failure to converge in Case (2) is due
to lack of soil support only (i.e. need more or longer piles, shafts, etc.).

2.1.1 Driven Prestressed Concrete Piles


Shown in Figure 2.1 (a) is a typical prestressed concrete pile, which may be created in FB-Pier.

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Prestress Strands
Void
Mild Steel Bar
H Pile
(a) Typical Prestressed Concrete
Pile

(b) Possible Combinations within Concrete


Pile

Figure 2.1 Prestressed Concrete Piles


The user has the option of adding other combinations such as a void, mild steel, pipe (not shown),
and an H pile within the cross-section (Figure 2.1 (b)). Multiple cross-sections may be employed along
the length of the pile. For instance, the mild steel, or pipe may be used at the top for connection to the
pile cap, and the H pile at the bottom to represent a stinger.

2.1.2 Drilled Shaft


Possible cross-sectional combinations for drilled shafts are shown in Figure 2.2. The mild steel
reinforcement is entered in circular rings by identifying the diameter of the ring, the number of bars and
cross-sectional area of each. The user has the option of adding voids, pipes, and casing around the
outside of the shaft. For the casing, the user must identify if it is to act as confinement for the concrete or
as composite reinforcement.
Shell
Mild Steel Rebar
Void

Figure 2.2 Drilled Shaft Cross-Section

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Again the user has the option of identifying variable cross-sections with depth; however, the user must
use the same cross-sections at similar elevations for all the shafts within the group.

2.2 BRIDGE PIERS AND PIER CAPS


The same models used to represent concrete, mild steel, and prestressing in piles, shafts, are
available to piers and pier cap cross-sections. Once a particular cross-section has been created, the user
may save it to a database for later use with different problem.
In terms of input, the user must first specify the type of analysis, which is to be performed for the
piers or pier caps. The user has the option of analyzing each member (see Analysis Tab dialog box in
FB-Pier) as one of three possibilities: 1) Linear with prescribed Youngs Modulus, (E), Poisson's Ratio
(or Shear Modulus, G), and Moment of Inertias (Ixx, Iyy, etc.); 2) Linear with full cross-section specified;
and 3) Nonlinear. For case (2), the user must supply in addition to the Young's Modulus, Shear Modulus,
and Moment of Inertia, the location of all the steel and concrete. The latter is used to generate a biaxial
interaction diagram for the member. For case Case (3), the user must supply the parameters for default
stress-strain curves for concrete and steel or supply their own.

It is recommended that for preliminary

designs that Case (2) be employed. The benefits of this over Case (1) are that the interaction diagrams,
which are generated for all the members, identifies their proximity to failure. Case (2) should always be
used before Case (3), for preliminary design. However Case (3) (nonlinear) should always be run at the
end since Case (1) and (2) does not consider any p-y effects which may be important for tall piers.

2.2.1 Bridge Piers

Presently, FB-Pier uses round, square and rectangular piers. They may be straight or tapered
from the top down or bottom up. Shown in Figure 2.3 (a) are the rectangular and Figure 2.3 (b) the
round cross-sections. Note for the square or rectangular cross-sections (Figure 2.3a) the mild steel
placement doesn't have to be symmetrical. However for both the rectangular or round cross-sections the
steel is expected to run from the top to the bottom of the pier. In the case of tapered piers, the outside
FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

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dimension of the pier changes from the top to the bottom and the steel position is adjusted within the
cross-section to maintain the same concrete cover.

Mild Steel Rebar

Shell

Void

(a) Rectangular Concrete Pier

(b) Circular Concrete Pier

Figure 2.3 Rectangular and Circular Sections

2.2.2 Bridge Pier Caps


For the pier caps, the square or rectangular cross-sections shown in Figure 2.3 (a) are available.
The pier caps and columns may be tapered as shown in Figure 2.4 (a) for single piers and Figure 2.4(b)
for multiple piers. Figure 2.4(b) also shows a center pier cap element which may be given zero stiffness
to model independent piers that might support multiple roadways. Note only the outer cantilever pier
caps may be tapered. As with tapered pier columns, the caps have the same steel running from one end to
the other with only the size of the cross-section diminishing, with same concrete cover along its length.

Center Pier Cap


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Pier Cap
(Cantilever)
Pier
Column

Pile/shaft
Cap

(a) Single Column

(b) Multiple Pier Columns

Figure 2.4 Tapered Pier Caps and Columns

2.3 MAST POLES, AND CANTILEVER WALLS


As with piles, shafts, and piers the user has the option of analyzing mast poles and cantilever walls
as one of three possibilities: 1) Linear with prescribed Youngs Modulus, E, Poisson's Ratio (or Shear
Modulus, G), and Moment of Inertias (Ixx, Iyy, etc.); 2) Linear with full cross-section specified; and 3)
Nonlinear. For case (2), the user must supply in addition to the Young's Modulus, Shear Modulus, and
Moment of Inertia, the location of all the steel and concrete so that the program can generate the biaxial
interaction diagram.
In terms of cross-section, the user has available to them all the sections identified for piers (Figure
2.3(a) and 2.3(b)) for walls and mast poles. For example if the user wishes to model a steel or aluminum
mast pole, they would specify the pipe in Figure 2.3 (b). In the case of aluminum and nonlinear analysis
(Case 3), they would have to provide their own stress-strain curve or modify the default curve provided in
the program (i.e. specify Young's Modulus, E, and yield strength, fy for aluminum).

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As with the bridge piers, mast poles, and cantilever wall sections must have similar cross-sections
along their length and they may be tapered. Any cross-section created may also be saved to a database
for later recall in another problem.

2.4 SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERACTION


The soil-structure interaction for deep foundations is characterized with near and far field
representation. The single pile or shaft soil-structure interaction is referred to as near field behavior, and
the combined pile or shaft behavior is referred to as far field. Each is characterized independently of one
another and will be discussed.

2.4.1 Single Pile Or Drilled Shaft Soil-Structure Interaction


An individual pile or drilled shaft's soil-structure interaction is characterized with the nonlinear
springs shown in Figure 2.5.

T
Vertical Nonlinear Spring

Z
P

Lateral Nonlinear
Spring
(i.e. P-Y curve)
Torsional Nonlinear
Spring
(i.e. T- curve)

Y
T

Figure 2.5 Near Field Soil-Structure


All of the near field springs are presently considered uncoupled (i.e. user inputs separate
properties for each spring, inputted as layer values that may vary from top to bottom). The user has a
number of different options of representing the near field vertical, lateral, and torsional behavior of single

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piles/shafts. Examples of the lateral are API, Reese, Cox and Koop; and for vertical there is Reese and
O'Neill's curves for drilled shafts in sand and intermediate geomaterials, as well as others. Generally, the
program treats the vertical behavior of driven piles separate from drilled shafts (includes auger cast piles).
A complete description of various models is given in Chapter 4.

2.4.2 Far Field Or Group Behavior Of Piles/Shafts


A group of piles or shafts as shown in Figure 2.6 behaves quite differently from the sum of
single pile behavior (McVay, et al. 1998). In particular, the lead row (row furthest from lateral load)
carries more pile head shears than the trail row. For instance, in sands, the ratio was found to be
dependent on pile spacing (McVay, et al. 1998).

Lead Row

Trail Row

Figure 2.6 Group of Piles/shafts


The latter is demonstrated in Table 2.1 which shows the measured pile head shears for different
size (3x3 to 7x3) pile groups in medium dense sands. Interestingly, the average pile head shears in each
row (i.e. 1st, 2nd, etc.) of the different size groups is similar. The latter suggests that the group behavior

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may be characterized by an adjustment (i.e. p-multiplier) to a single pile's p-y curve depending on its row
position.
Table 2.1 Average Pile Shear (kN) - Medium dense Sand (Dr = 55%)
Layout
3x3
4x3
5x3
6x3
7x3
Average
Lead Row
2nd Row
3rd Row
4th Row
5th Row
6th Row
7th Row

245
178
142

294
205
151
142

294
222
160
151
142

302
205
178
142
142
142

285
222
178
151
142
142
142

Group
(Measured)

1664

2375

2909

3336

3790

Group
(Predicted)

1898

2398

2843

3270

3697

14

2.3

2.5

Error (%)

284
206
167
148
142
142
142

Shown in Figure 2.7 is the group representation with the p multipliers. For 3D pile spacing, the
multipliers are automatically set as 0.8, 0.4, 0.3,0.2, ... 0.3 where 0.8 is the lead row and 0.3 is the trail
row value. In the case of 5D pile/shaft spacing the value of 1.0, 0.85, 0.7, 0.7,, 0.7 is recommended,
where 1.0 is the lead row and 0.7 is the trail row value.

P
P
P
m1 P
Y

m2 P
Y

Figure 2.7 Group Representation


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CHAPTER 3 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS


The following examples were developed to acquaint the user with both the input and output of
FB-Pier. Due to the large number of options which are available for input and output, the examples will
concentrate on typical input (pile cross-sections, soil, loading, etc.) and general output. The examples are
arranged in no order of difficulty, but in type of problem being solved. It's recommended that the user
work all the problems, since different features are used.

3.1

LATERALLY LOADED SINGLE PILE


Consider the laterally loaded single pile shown in Figure 3.1.1. The pile is Florida Department

of Transportation's standard 0.76 m (30") prestressed concrete pile which is embedded in a soft clay
overlying a medium dense sand.

150 kN

3m

Soft Clay,
Cu = 25 kPa

50 =3%
t =16 kN/m3

Medium Dense
Sand, = 35o

t = 19 kN/m3
k = 27,155 kN/m3

16 m

Figure 3.1.1 Single Pile Example


When FB-Pier is run by double clicking the mouse on the FB-Pier icon, the user will first see a
blank screen with a pile cap in the center as shown in Figure 3.1.2. To create a new model, select New
as shown in Figure 3.1.3.

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Figure 3.1.2 Initial Screen for FB-Pier

Figure 3.1.3 Select New from the File Menu


Although Single Pile is one of the problem types, this example will start with a Pile and Cap Only
problem to model the single pile in order to demonstrate more of the program features. Choose Pile with
Cap only, SI units and enter the general information shown in Figure 3.1.4.

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Figure 3.1.4 Select Pile with Cap, SI Units and Enter Project Description
It should be noted that it is on this screen (Figure 3.1.4) that the user selects the type of problem
that they are going to solve (i.e. general pier, pile with cap, sign, etc.) and the units that they are going to
be working in.
After clicking OK at bottom of dialog, the default data set is loaded, as shown in Figure 3.1.5.
Figure 3.1.5 is the general-purpose input, which is split into 4 separate screens. The top left is referred to
as the tab dialogs. These dialogs control all soil, geometry, loads, analysis and problem types input. Note
that the font in the tabbed dialog depends on the screen resolution. To change the font go to the Control
menu and choose Set Dialog Font and select a suitable viewing font for the tabbed dialog. The top right
is the plan view of the piles, cap and coordinate system. By right clicking the mouse in this window, the
user can delete, batter, and change the spacing of the piles. The bottom left window is the soil edit
window. This window shows the elevation of all soil layers, water table, pile top and tip elevations, and
general soil information. Right clicking the mouse in this window will also allow the users to insert,
delete, and split layers. The bottom right window is the 3D view of the piles, cap and structure, if there is
one. Right clicking the mouse in this window allows the user to view the structure in thin element mode,

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and rotate the structure with the mouse (3D rotate). The latter is useful for placing loads, springs, etc. on
different nodes of the structure.
To model the example problem, the number of piles has to be reduced from 4 to 1 and the pile
cap has to be removed. This is accomplished by clicking the Pile & Cap tab dialog in Model Data
window (Figure 3.1.6a). To begin specify no cap overhang by unchecking the Apply Overhang box
under Pile Cap Data to specify zero cap Overhang length. Next, under Cap Data, click the Edit Pile Cap
button and change the cap Thickness to 0 as shown in Figure 3.1.6b. Click OK to apply the change in
pile cap thickness. At this point the Pile & Cap tab in the Model Data window should look like Figure
3.1.7.

Figure 3.1.5 Default Data Set (2x2 Pile Group)

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Figure 3.1.6a Pile Tab Dialog Box Adjusted for No Cap

Figure 3.1.6b Change Cap Thickness to Zero

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Figure 3.1.7 General Input Screens with Pile Cap Removed


To remove three piles (to create a single pile model), change the number of X and Y grid points
to 1. The new pile configuration is shown in Figure 3.1.8. Note the number of piles in the Pile Edit (top
right) and 3D (bottom right) windows is now one.

Figure 3.1.8 Change Grid Points to 1 by 1


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It should be noted at this point that the pile data can be obtained by left clicking on the pile in the
Pile Edit window. Doing so now shows the dialog box with the top x and y coordinates and the x and y
batter. For this problem, confirm that both the x and y coordinates are set to 0 as shown in Figure 3.1.9.
This pile information can be viewed at any time during the pile modeling by clicking on the pile of
interest in the Pile Edit window.

Figure 3.1.9 Pile Data Dialog Box


The pile type and pile length should now be changed while the Pile & Cap tab dialog in the
Model Data window is still visible. In the Pile & Cap tab dialog, move the mouse to the Pile/Shaft Type
option (that currently has 0.455 M Square FDOT) and click the drop down list. A drop down list (Figure
3.1.10a) with H-pile/Pipe Pile, Precast, Drilled Shaft and Multiple will appear. Moving the mouse over
any of these shows a sub list of piles, shafts, etc., which are presently in the database that the user may
select from. The user may add to this database when they edit their pile/shaft. Select the 0.76 M Square
FDOT Standard prestressed. This pile with dimensions, steel, properties, etc. replaces the default 0.455
M square FDOT standard. Also change the length of the pile by specifying 19m for the tip elevation of
the pile in the Pile tab dialog. The final Pile tab dialog should appear as in Figure 3.1.10b. This finishes
all of the pile layout and properties input. To change any of the pile or shaft dimensions, properties, etc.,
the user could then click the Edit Cross Section button in the Pile & Cap tab dialog.

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Figure 3.1.10a Select the 0.76 M Square FDOT Standard Pile

Figure 3.1.10b 0.76 M Pile with Tip Elevation of -19 m

The soil stratigraphy and properties will now be changed along with the water table. This is
accomplished by clicking on the Soil tab button in the Model Data window. Generally this screen is
referred to as the Soil tab dialog. It allows the user to input soil layers, their properties, as well as view
soil resistance (i.e. P-Y, T-Z, etc. plots). All information in the tab dialog refers to the soil layer given in
the "soil layer" box. A black box is drawn around that layer in the Soil Edit window that is being edited.

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Since Example 1 has two soil layers (similar to the default set), only layer elevations, soil types
and properties need to be changed for the default data. The Soil Type combo box (below soil layer
number 1) is presently displaying Cohesionless. Click the drop down button and select the Cohesive soil
type. Note that Soil Layer information regarding Lateral, Axial, Torsional, and Tip properties goes blank
as shown in Figure 3.1.11. The user needs to select a model for each (drop down arrow alongside) first.
The necessary soil properties can then be entered using the Edit button after specifying all four soil
models.

Figure 3.1.11 Select Cohesive Soil Type for Soil Layer 1


FB-Pier highlights in the active soil layer model name in blue. Click the mouse on the drop down
button under soil layer models "lateral" as shown in Figure 3.1.12 and select Clay (Soft < Water) for the
Layer 1.

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Figure 3.1.12 Select Soft Clay Below Water Table


These five different options represent the same p-y models in FHWA's COM624 with the
addition of O'Neill's model used by API, as well as a user defined (Custom) p-y data set for a clay.
Before the user may edit the data for lateral model, a selection must be inputted for the other soilpile interaction models. Under axial (Figure 3.1.13), the user has the option of selecting Driven Pile,
Drilled Shaft, and Custom T-Z. Note it's assumed that the axial behavior of driven piles and drilled shafts
are different from one another vs. the lateral model, which assumes that they are interchangeable. Also,
all model selection is based on soil layer number and soil type, which must be selected first. For this
model, select Driven Pile.

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Figure 3.1.13 Axial Soil Model


In the case of the Torsional model, there are only two to choose from (Hyperbolic or Custom).
Select the Hyperbolic, which requires the initial slope and ultimate skin friction (see Chapter 4). In the
case of the pile/shaft tip model in Figure 3.1.14, the user may select from driven pile, and multiple drilled
shaft options. Since the example is a driven pile, select the Driven Pile.

Figure 3.1.14 Select Driven Pile Option

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Once all the soil-pile models have been selected, look at the Soil Edit window (bottom left) and
observe that soil layer 1 has changed colors to brown (brown: cohesive; yellow: cohesionless; rock: gray)
as shown in Figure 3.1.15.

Figure 3.1.15 Soil Layer 1 Changed to Cohesive with Undrained Strength


Next, the elevations of the first soil layer, as well as the water table need to be changed. For soil
layer 1, enter 0 m for the top elevation, -3 m for the bottom and 0 m for the water table as shown in
Figure 3.1.16.

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Figure 3.1.16 Change Elevations of Layer 1


At this point, the user can edit the soil parameters for each of the Soil Layer Models for Layer 1.
Click on the Lateral drop down list to activate the lateral soil properties. (The word Lateral should now
be blue). Now click the Edit button to edit the lateral soil. Enter the values shown in Figure 3.1.17 and
click OK.
The user has the option of viewing the p-y, t-z, etc. for the top or bottom of each layer. For
instance, the soft clay's p-y curve for the bottom of the layer 1 is shown in Figure 3.1.18. The latter was
obtained by clicking the Plot button in the Soil tab dialog. Click OK when done. This concludes the data
entry for the top soil layer for this example.

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Figure 3.1.17 Additional Soil Properties Dialog Box (Layer 1)

Figure 3.1.18 P-y Plot for Soil Layer 1

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Next click on Soil Layer 2, in the Soil Layer box so that the soil properties can be specified for
the second soil layer. Select the Soil Type as Cohesionless. Confirm that the Lateral soil model is Sand
(Reese), the Axial model is Driven Pile, the Torsional model is Hyperbolic, and the Tip model is Driven
pile. Click on the Lateral model drop down list to activate the lateral properties. Click the Edit button
and enter the values shown in Figure 3.1.19. When done change the elevations of top of layer to -3 m,
and the bottom of the layer at -20 m (below the pile tip) and water table elevation for the layer at 0 m.
Note the user has the option of specifying different water table elevation for each layer. The Soil Edit
window should appear as shown in Figure 3.1.20.

Figure 3.1.19 Additional Soil Properties Dialog Box (Layer 2)

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Figure 3.1.20 Layer 2 Soil Models and Elevations


To change any information within a given soil layer, the user may click on Soil layer in the soil
tab dialog, or left click on that layer with the mouse in the soil edit window. Try left clicking with the
mouse on the Layer 1 (cohesive) in the soil edit window (bottom left). Notice that the black border now
encompasses layer 1.
The only other information required to analyze Example 1 is the pile loads, which are accessible
from the Load tab dialog in the Model Data window. Since the default data set has two load cases, the
user needs to left click the mouse on load case 2 and delete this load case with the left Del button.
The node in the 3D View that presently has a load on it is Node 7, which is leftover from the
original pile and cap only problem. Click on Node 7 in the list and delete this load by clicking the right
Del button. To add a load to Node 1, left click the mouse on the top node in the 3D View window. Click
Add and then enter 150 kN for the lateral load (X) in the tab dialog and press the tab or enter key to
update the load. The Load tab dialog should now look like Figure 3.1.21.
The Self Weight list item is used to enter load factors for self weight and buoyancy. Although
self weight will not be included in this problem, for simplicity, in a general problem the user would click
on Self Weight and enter the appropriate load factors for each load case. Leave the factors as zero.

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Figure 3.1.21 Lateral Load for Load Case 1

For Example 1, all of the data has been input (Soil, pile, and loading). The screen should now
look like Figure 3.1.22.

Figure 3.1.22 Model Screen Before Analysis

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Now the single pile problem can be analyzed. Shown in Figure 3.1.23 are the toolbar buttons
which are available to perform separate tasks (i.e. input, analysis, pile results, structural results, etc.). For
instance, the general four split screen input that has been used to this point is available by pushing the
Edit Model button.
Run Analysis
Pile Results
Edit Model

Pile Interaction

3D Results

Figure 3.1.23 Input, Analysis, and Result Viewing Toolbar Buttons


Clicking the mouse on the Run Analysis button will generate the popup window shown in Figure
3.1.24 after being prompted to save work and overwrite the results. The window identifies what is
occurring in the analysis, i.e. current load step, out of balance forces, moments, etc. After a successful
run, the window will identify that the forces in the system were recovered and then the status window will
display Done. The window will close automatically if the analysis converged to a solution.

Figure 3.1.24 FB-Pier Performing Analysis of Example 1


At this point, there are a number of different viewing options available (pile resultant forces,
displacements etc.) with the viewing icons given in Figure 3.1.23. For viewing pile displacements, click
on the 3D Results button and Figure 3.1.25 is generated. The user may find the displacements of any
point on the pile by clicking the mouse on the node of interest on the undeformed pile. The node should
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turn orange, and the displacements and rotations will be displayed in the 3D Display Control window to
the left.

Figure 3.1.25 3D View of Pile Displacements


For viewing the pile resultant forces, moments, and pile-soil reaction along the pile click the Pile
Results button in the toolbar. In this view, the resultant forces are plotted along the pile length. The user
controls what graphs to plot in the lower bottom window by clicking on or off in the Plot Display Control
window, what's of interest. Since, this is a single pile analysis only one pile is visible in the Pile Selection
window; however, if this was a group with a number of piles, the user could click on piles of interest.
Their results would be displayed together in the lower result windows. Click on the pile in the Pile
Selection window to active the pile. Check Shear 2, Moment 3, Demand/Capacity Ratio, Soil Axial, and
Soil Lat X in the Plot Display Control window. Next, check Apply to plot the forces along the length of
the pile. The resulting view is shown in Figure 3.1.26.

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Figure 3.1.26 Pile Resultant Forces, Moments, etc. Along Pile Length
The last window displayed in Figure 3.1.26 is the Demand/Capacity Ratio along the pile. It
identifies the ratio of the resultant moments from equilibrium divided by the biaxial moment capacity for
the section at that depth. For this problem, the value is 0.388, indicating that the section under the given
loading is at about 40% of its ultimate load capacity.
To see the resultant moments in both directions vs. the actual moment capacities for a pile click
the Pile Interaction button in the toolbar and select Biaxial Moment Interaction. Figure 3.1.27 shows the
typical biaxial interaction diagram. The user can click on different pile elements along the pile to view the
interaction. The symbols I and J refer to the bottom and top of the element, respectively. For the top
element that is currently selected, the combination of bending moments is clearly inside the failure
surface. Uniaxial Moment Interaction diagrams can also be viewed for bending about the local 2 and 3
axis. For the uniaxial moment interaction diagrams, the axial load is plotted against the bending moment.

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Figure 3.1.27 Resultant Moments and Segment Capacities


The user may print any active window by clicking on the printer icon (see Figure 3.1.23). The
full output is saved to a file "<filename>.out", where the <filename> is the name of input file that you
saved. To view this output file from the graphical interface, click on the Control menu and select View
Analysis Data.

COMPARISON OF FB-PIER RESULTS TO OTHER PILE ANALYSIS PROGRAMS


The Single Pile Example shown in Figure 3.1.1 was recreated using LPILE (Ensoft) and
COM624P (FHWA) for comparison to the FB-Pier results. This discussion shows that the results are
very similar results between the COM624P and FB-Pier analyses.

The results differed somewhat

between LPILE and FB-Pier, though. The results from all three programs were extracted from their
respective output files and plotted for comparison in the discussion that follows.

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Before proceeding it is important to explain a significant difference between the interpretation of


the pile diameter between FB-Pier and the LPILE and COM624P programs. FB-Pier uses an effective
soil diameter for non-circular piles, which considers both cross-sectional dimensions of the pile. This
procedure was implemented to be consistent with the diameter used in the calculation of vertical skin
friction on non-circular piles. (For square piles, the effective soil diameters is about 13% larger than the
pile width) In contrast, LPILE and COM624P use only the width of the pile in determining the soil
reaction. Note that for round piles, the pile diameter is the same for all three programs. The results
presented below use a round pile implementation for FB-Pier so that a valid comparison can be done
between the programs.

0
Lpile

Depth (m)

COM624
8

FB-Pier

12
16
20
-50.00

0.00

50.00

100.00

150.00

Soil Reaction (kN/m)

Figure 3.1.28 Comparison of Soil Reaction.


Figure 3.1.28 shows some variation in the soil reaction computed by all three programs. The
variation in soil reaction can be attributed to the difference in the p-y curve methodology used by each
program. While all three programs compute an equivalent depth of soil layers by matching the ultimate
soil resistance at the soil layer interface (Georgiadis 1983), the procedures are clearly not identical. The
FB-Pier results fall in between the COM624P and LPILE results. Notice that the discrepancy occurs at
approximately 3 meters along the pile, at the interface between the soil layers.

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As shown in Figures 3.1.29 and 3.1.30, the values of the maximum shear and moment are similar
for FB-Pier and COM624P. The results are slightly different when compared to LPILE.

0
Lpile

4
Depth (m)

COM624
8

FB-Pier

12
16
20
-150.0 -100.0 -50.0

0.0

50.0

100.0 150.0 200.0

Pile Shear Force (kN)

Figure 3.1.29 Comparison of Pile Shear Force.

0
Lpile

4
Depth (m)

COM624
8

FB-Pier

12
16
20
-100.0

0.0

100.0

200.0

300.0

400.0

500.0

Pile Moment (kN-m)

Figure 3.1.30 Comparison of Pile Moment.


For the pile deflection plotted in Figure 3.1.31, the FB-Pier and COM624P results match very
well. LPILE predicted a smaller pile deflection though.

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Depth (m)

Lpile
COM624

FB-Pier

12
16
20
-0.002

0.000

0.002

0.004

0.006

0.008

0.010

Pile Deflection (m)

Figure 3.1.31 Comparison of Pile Deflection.

A comparison can also be made for the error in equilibrium along the pile. Consider a free body
diagram of the top portion of the pile. This diagram would include the loads at the pile head and the soil
reaction force results all the way up to the cut. The error in shear equilibrium can be determined by
summing the horizontal forces and then solving for the shear force at the cut. This shear force can then be
compared to the shear force reported by the program at the cut. The difference between the values can be
attributed to numerical error in the solution process.

Load

Soil Reaction

V (Shear)

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The following graph shows the difference between the pile shear forces reported by LPILE,
COM624, and FB-Pier compared to the shear force obtained from the respective horizontal force
summations. The results show that there is significantly less numerical error in determining the shear
force using FB-Pier. Although not shown here, there is also a similar numerical error associated with the
determination of moment equilibrium in the pile. The end result is that you can expect to see a different
location for the maximum shear and moment along the pile when comparing the results of the three
programs, particularly when dealing with layer soil systems.
0

Lpile

COM624

FB-Pier

Depth (m)

6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
-25

-20

-15

-10

-5

10

Shear Error (kN)

It should also be stated that all three programs satisfy global equilibrium. In all cases, the
externally applied load equals the sum of the soil reactions. The distribution of that load along the pile
between the three programs can be notably different, however.

This concludes Example 1.

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3.2 BRIDGE PIER


Shown in Figure 3.2.1 is the bridge pier with geometry and soil conditions, which will be
modeled in Example 2. The problem represents a navigable waterway crossing, which involves both
lateral and axial loads. The foundation consists of 6-54 inch drilled shafts (80 ft long), and two pier
columns which are 30 ft tall, 5 ft square and spaced 16 2/3 ft apart. The pier cap is 5 ft thick and the
drilled shaft cap is 10 ft thick with a 4.5 ft overhang. Due to scour, the sand surface is located 15 ft below
mean sea level, and the soft rock is characterized as FHWA's intermediate geomaterial. The properties of
the sand and rock are given in Figure 3.2.1.

150 kips

150 kips

250 kips

13.7'
16.7'

9.65

30'

1000 kips
15'
Sand
t = 120 pcf
Soft Rock,
t = 140 pcf

Water
80'
35'

N = 35
k = 150 pci
Cu=2.8ksi
qt=0.28ksi
50 = 1%

Figure 3.2.1 Example 2, Pier Structure

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From the File option, the user needs to select new (Figure 3.2.2):

Figure 3.2.2 Select New from the File Menu


Choose General Pier and enter the general information in Figure 3.2.3. Be sure to choose the
English systems of units to load the correct default data set.

Figure 3.2.3 Select General Pier, English Units and Enter Project Description

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After clicking OK at bottom of dialog, the default data set is loaded. Figure 3.2.4 shows the
general-purpose input, which is split into 4 separate screens. The top left is referred to as the Model Data
window. The Model Data window contains tabbed dialogs that control all soil, geometry, loads, analysis
and problem types input. The top right is the plan view of the piles, cap and coordinate system. By right
clicking the mouse in this window, the user can delete, batter, and change the spacing of the piles. The
bottom left window is the Soil Edit window. This window shows the elevation of all soil layers, water
table, pile top and tip elevations, and general soil information. Right clicking the mouse in this window
will also allow the users to insert, delete, and split layers. The bottom right window is the 3D View of the
piles, cap and structure, if there is one. Right clicking the mouse in this window allows the user to view
the structure in line mode, and rotate the structure with the mouse (3D rotate). The latter is useful for
placing loads, springs, etc. on different nodes in the structure.

Figure 3.2.4 Default Data Set (3x3 Pile Group)


To model the example problem, click the Pile & Cap tab in the Model Data window. To begin,
click on the yellow drop down box to access the Pile/Shaft Database and select 54 drilled shaft from
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Drilled Shaft list. Change the number of grid points in the Y-direction to 4. Now the number of piles has
to be reduced from 9 (from a 3x3 group) to 6 (to a 3x2 group). Next, in the Pile Cap Data section, set the
Overhang to 54 inches. Finally, confirm that the pile spacing in both the X and Y directions is set to 3d.
The Model Data window should now look like Figure 3.2.5a.

Figure 3.2.5a Pile Tab Dialog Adjusted for Number of Piles and 54 Drilled Shaft

The next step is to edit the pile cap properties. To do this, click on Edit Pile Cap in the Cap Data
section. The Cap Properties dialog should appear as shown in Figure 3.2.5b. Change the Thickness to
10 ft and then click OK to confirm the change and exit the dialog.

Figure 3.2.5b Pile Cap Properties

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The four split screen inputs should look like Figure 3.2.6. Note the Pile Edit window (top right)
shows six shafts (i.e. 3x2).

Figure 3.2.6 General Input Screen for Shafts with Pile Cap
After completing the shaft and cap configuration, the user is ready to specify the soil stratigraphy,
properties, and the water table. To begin, click on the Soil tab with the Model Data window (Figure
3.2.7). This problem consists of two soil layers below a water table. Confirm that a Cohesionless soil is
selected for Layer 1 to model the top sand layer. Change the Unit Weight to 120 pcf. Change the Axial
soil model to Drilled Shaft Sand. The other soil properties can remain as their default values. Next,
change the Elevation of the Water Table to 0 ft, the Top of Layer 1 to -15 ft, and the Bottom of Layer 1 to
-50 ft. Make sure to include the negative signs on the elevations to indicate a downward direction.
Notice that while editing the soil properties, a black box appears around the current soil layer.

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Figure 3.2.7 Select Cohesionless Soil Type for Soil Layer 1

The second soil layer properties can now be entered after completing the soil properties for the
first soil layer. For this problem, the second layer consists of soft rock with the properties given in Figure
3.2.1. To begin editing the second layer, select Add Layer from the Soil Layer drop down list (Figure
3.2.8). Click OK in the dialog to confirm the layer addition. Notice that a black box is drawn around the
second soil layer, indicating that soil layer 2 is the current soil layer.

Figure 3.2.8 Select Add Layer to Create Soil Layer 2

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To create the soft rock layer for layer 2, select Rock from the Soil Type list as shown in Figure
3.2.9a. After selecting the rock Soil Type, proceed to the Soil Layer Models. For the Lateral model,
select Clay (Soft < Water) from the drop down list. For the Axial model choose Drilled Shaft Rock and
for the Torsional model choose Hyperbolic. Finally, for the Tip model, choose Drilled Shaft Rock. After
selecting the Soil Layer Models, change the Unit Weight of the rock to 140 pcf. Also change the Water
Table Elevation to 0 ft, the Top of Layer 2 to -50 ft, and the Bottom of Layer 2 to -80 ft. Again
remember to include the negative signs in the layer elevations. All of the rock layer parameters are
shown in Figure 3.2.9a.

Figure 3.2.9a Select Soil Layer Models for Layer 2


Before completing the rock layer, the soil properties must be specified for the Clay (Soft <
Water) Lateral Model. To do this, first click on the Lateral model to activate the layer model. At this
point the word Lateral should be blue. Now, click the Edit button next to the Soil Layer Models. Enter
the properties shown in Figure 3.2.9b and click Ok when done.

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Figure 3.2.9b Soft Clay Properties for Layer 2


Now the soil properties must be specified for the Axial Soil Model. To do this, first click on the
Axial Model to activate the layer model. At this point the word Axial should be blue. Now, click the
Edit button next to the Soil Layer Models. Enter the properties shown in Figure 3.2.9c. For this problem
only change the Tensile Strength to 40,320 psf, the Mass Modulus to 20 ksi and the Modulus Ratio to 0.5.
All other properties in this dialog can remain as their default values. Click OK when done.

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Figure 3.2.9c Axial Soil Model for Layer 2

The final plot of the soil strata should look like Figure 3.2.10. Note that you can zoom in or out
of this soil layer view by clicking the center mouse button (if available) to toggle to 3D control mode.
After doing so, hold the Control key down while left clicking the mouse and dragging the mouse upward
or downward.

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Figure 3.2.10 Final Soil Layers


The pile system is now complete and is embedded into the given soil layers. The next step is to
change the pier structure to model the current pier. To begin, click on the Pier tab in the Model Data
window. Enter the values that appear in Figure 3.2.11 to modify the pier structure. These are the same
dimensions given in Figure 3.2.1 in the introduction to Example 2. Also, be sure to click the Full Cross
Section button so that a complete cross section can be specified for the pier. The pier should appear
centered on the pile cap in the 3D in the bottom right window. Remember that at any time you can click
the right mouse button in the 3D window to change the viewing properties of the pier system.

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Figure 3.2.11 Selecting the Structure Tab for Structure Properties

The Full Cross Section button was clicked to enable the section properties for the pier. Click the
Edit Cross Section button to view the dialog shown in Figure 3.2.12. This dialog allows the user to
specify the dimensions of the pier component, the stress/strain curves, and the placement of the
reinforcing steel. The list under Pier Component shows the sections that are currently defined. By
default there are two sections, representing the pier column and the pier cap beam. To modify the column
section, click the first item on the list to activate the column section. Click the Modify Current Section to
change the section properties. Now change the Width and Depth of the column to 60 inches. Note that
the name of the cross-section is called Custom until the section is saved to the database. This can be
done after entering all of the properties for the section. Now click on the Edit Properties button to specify
the material properties for the column. At this time, only the concrete properties can be entered. The
steel properties will be entered after specifying the layout of the reinforcing bars. Enter the concrete
properties shown in Figure 3.2.13 and click OK when done.

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Figure 3.2.12 Editing Pier Cross-Sectional Properties

Figure 3.2.13 Default Stress/Strain Curves

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The next step is to customize the shape of the cross-section. Return to the Pier Component
Properties dialog if not already there. Start with the Pier Column first by clicking on the Column
component in the list. Again, the name of the section name Custom will be changed after entering all
of the section properties and saving the section to the database. Make sure that the Rectangular Section
shape button is activated. Then click on the Edit Section Contents button to specify the reinforcement.
The Rectangular Section Properties dialog should appear as shown in Figure 3.2.14.

Figure 3.2.14 Square Section Properties


First, create a new bar group by clicking the Add button under Edit Bar Groups. The list now
shows Group1 as the only group. To place the reinforcement, the user must select the number of bars
in each row, the bar area, the starting coordinates of the row, and the orientation of the row (either
horizontal or vertical). For this problem, use 12 #11 bars with a bar area of 1.56 in2. The origin of the
bar placement is in the center of the square shown in Figure 3.2.14. To maintain a 4 concrete cover with
the 60 x 60 column, the bar placement should start at the point (-26, -26) to place a vertical row of bars
on the left face of the column. Enter these values as shown in Figure 3.2.14a and click Apply to update
the bar group. The first row of bars now appears.

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Figure 3.2.14a First Row of Reinforcing Steel


Now a horizontal row of reinforcing steel can be added. Click Add to create Group2. Enter 10
#11 bars with a bar area of 1.56in2. Change the starting bar coordinates to (-21.27,26) in the 2 and 3
directions, respectively. This starting coordinate will ensure that the bar spacing is consistent both
vertically and horizontally. Make sure to click Horizontal for a row of steel. Enter the values shown in
Figure 3.2.14b and click the Apply button when done to update the bar placement. Enter the 3rd and 4th
bar groups in a similar manner. Make sure to change the starting coordinates to (26, 26) for group 3 and
(21.27, -26) for group 4. When finished, click Apply and the bar placement should look like Figure
3.2.14c. Click OK when done to return to the Element Properties dialog.

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Figure 3.2.14b Second Row of Reinforcing Steel

Figure 3.2.14c Final Placement of Reinforcing Steel


Before saving the section, the material properties for the reinforcing steel should be entered. To
do this, make sure that the column section is selected from the list material property. Click Edit

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Properties to enter the steel properties. In the dialog, click Mild Steel to activate the steel properties and
enter the values given in Figure 3.2.15. Click OK when done to return to the Element Properties dialog.

Figure 3.2.15 Entering Steel Material Properties


In order to change the name of the column section click Save Section to add the section to the
existing database. Change the name of the section to Linear 60x60 concrete. When finished the
dialog should look like Figure 3.2.16. Click OK. The Material Property list will update after clicking
Retrieve Section in the Pier Component Properties dialog. After selecting the section just created, the
Pier Component Properties dialog will look like Figure 3.2.17.

Figure 3.2.16 Saving Column Section


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Figure 3.2.17 Renamed Column Section

The pier cap section can then be specified now that the column section is complete. For this
example, the pier cap will be reinforced in a similar way to the pier columns. Assume that the pier cap is
4ft (48 inches) deep and 5 ft (60 inches) wide. Also assume that the cantilever portions of the pier cap are
not tapered. To start with the Beam properties, click Modify Current Section and then change the Width
to 60 inches and the Depth to 48 inches. Next, change the fc Compressive to 5 ksi and the Concrete
Modulus to 4200 ksi by editing the stress/strain properties and clicking OK. Now click Edit Section
Contents to enter the data for the reinforcement.
The placement of the reinforcing bars is based on a system of local axes that is different than the
column. This is because the orientation of the pier cap section is different than the pier column section.
The difference in the local coordinate systems is shown in Figure 3.2.18.

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3
WIDTH

DEPTH

WIDTH

DEPTH
2

Pier Column

Pier Cap

Figure 3.2.18 Local Coordinate System for Pier Column and Pier Cap

The bar layout in the Section Properties dialog is based on the appropriate 2-3 coordinate system.
For both the pier column and pier cap, strong axis bending is assumed about the 3-axis. For the pier cap,
the 2-3 axes are oriented differently than the column 2-3 axes. Therefore the reinforcement will be placed
differently in the Section Properties dialog. The following steel placement will illustrate the proper use of
the 2-3 local coordinate system.
Create a new bar group by clicking Add. Then create a horizontal row of 6 #9 bars with a bar
area of 1 in2. Start the horizontal row at (-16, -26) for the 2 and 3 directions, respectively. After entering
the values and clicking Apply, the dialog should look like Figure 2.3.19a. Create a second bar group for
the row of horizontal bars at the top. Click the Add button and use the same bar properties, but start the
row at (-16, 26) for the 2 and 3 directions, respectively.

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Figure 3.2.19a First Row of Steel Bars for Pier Cap Beam
The vertical layers of steel (for flexure) can be created in a similar manner. Use 12 #11 bars with
a bar area of 1.56 in2 on both the top and bottom. For the 2-3 coordinate system, this would be a vertical
layer of steel on the left and right faces. Add the two rows as Group 3 starting at the point (-21, 26) and
Group 4 starting at the point (21, 26). The final bar placement should appear as in Figure 3.2.19b. When
finished click OK to return to the Pier Component Properties dialog.
Before leaving the Pier Component Properties dialog, click the Edit Properties button to specify
the stress-strain values for the mild steel in the pier cap section. Click Mild Steel and enter 60 ksi for the
Yield Stress and 29,000 for the Modulus. Click OK when done to update the cross-section.

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Figure 3.2.19b Final Placement of Steel Bars for Pier Cap Beam

Figure 3.2.20 Final Section Properties for Pier


Click OK to return to the main program.

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Now that the pier configuration is complete, the 3D View looks like Figure 3.2.21a.

Figure 3.2.21a 3D View of Pier

To change the view, click the right mouse button in the 3-D view window. The menu that
appears (Figure 3.2.21b) allows you to change the various plotting characteristics of the pier. To rotate
the pier to a new orientation, select 3D Mouse Control. Hold the left mouse button down and move the
mouse in the direction that you wish to rotate the pier.

Figure 3.2.21b 3-D View Menu

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Click on the Load tab in the Model Data window to apply the loads to the pier. First, delete Load
Case 2 using the Del button to the left of the Load Case list. Next, delete the nodal loads in Load Case
1 one at a time using the right Del button (the Self Weight item can not be deleted). The lateral load
will be included first by clicking on Node 38 in the 3D View window and then clicking the Add button
(to the right of the node list). Node 38 is a node on the center left side of the pile cap where the lateral
load will be applied. Enter 1000 kips for the X Load. Click the right Del button to delete Node 68. The
dialog should look like Figure 3.2.22.

Figure 3.2.22 Applying Lateral Load


The node can also be activated by clicking on the appropriate node in the 3D view of the pier. To
demonstrate this, click on the leftmost node of the pier cap. The node turns orange and the Load dialog
shows that the node is Node 71. Click Add to add the node to the load case and enter 150 kips for the Z
Load. Notice that the load arrow turned orange to indicate the current load. Next, add 250 kips to Node
70 and 85 (the top of the two pier columns). Finally add 150 kips to Node 89 at the right end of the pier
cap. When all of the loads are entered, the load dialog should look like Figure 3.2.23.
For this example, leave the Self Weight and Buoyancy Factors as zero to ignore self weight.

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Figure 3.2.23 Final Load Application


For the last part, a spring will be added to simulate the lateral stiffness of the bridge. To
accomplish this, click on the Springs tab in the Model Data window. Now in the 3D View of the pier
click on the far right node in the pier cap to place the spring there. Click on Add to create a new spring.
Enter 5000 kips/in for the Stiffness in the X Direction. The dialog should now look like Figure 3.2.24.
The spring should visible in the 3D View at this point.

Figure 3.2.24 Lateral Spring Application

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The analysis options should now be set before analyzing the pier. Click on the Analysis tab in
the Model Data window. Since this is a preliminary analysis, select Linear for both the Pile Behavior and
the Structure Behavior. Later, these can be switched to nonlinear for a complete analysis including
nonlinear material behavior and p- effects. The dialog should look like Figure 3.2.25.

The data entry phase is now complete. Save the file if you havent already done so by clicking
on the disk icon at the top of the screen. Type Example2.in for the name of the file. The pier is now
ready for the analysis phase.

Figure 3.2.25 Analysis Options


To analyze the pier, click on the

button at the top of the screen.

A dialog appears

showing the status of the analysis after prompting the user to overwrite the file. The time needed for the
analysis will depend on the speed of the computer.

When the analysis is done close the window to

continue.
To view the drilled shaft (or pile) results, click on the

button in the top toolbar. Click

on the drilled shaft labeled 1 in the Pile Edit window and then click Apply in the Plot Display Control
window. The screen should now look like Figure 3.2.26, which shows different plots for drilled shaft #1.

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As an example, look at the plot of moment about the 3 axis along the pile. Click on the Moment
3 window to signal the Plot Display Control Window to update the maximum and minimum moment
values. Notice that for shaft #1, the largest moment is -1,482 kip-ft.
The plots for other shafts can be generated at the same time by clicking on the shaft number and
then Apply. To remove a shaft from the plots, click on the shaft in the Pile Edit window to return the
shaft to its original color and click Apply. Use the check boxes to control the number of plots shown.
Remember to click Apply to redraw the plots. The maximum force values can also be plotted for all load
cases.

Figure 3.2.26 Drilled Shaft Results


To view the pier structure results, click on the

button in the top toolbar. Click on the pier

cap in the Structure window and then click Apply in the Plot Display Control window. The screen should
now look like Figure 3.2.27, which shows different plots for pier cap. The plots for the pier columns can
be generated at the same time by clicking on the pier component and then Apply. Use the check boxes to
control the number of plots shown. Remember to click Apply to redraw the plots. The maximum force
values can also be plotted for all load cases.
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Figure 3.2.27 Pier Structure Results


To view the interaction diagrams for the drilled shafts (or piles), click on the

button in

the top toolbar. Select Biaxial Moment Interaction and then click on the shaft #1 in the Pile Edit window.
The interaction diagram is shown for the top segment shaft #1. This interaction diagram (Figure 3.2.28)
shows the failure contour at the given axial load. The plot represents all possible cases of biaxial failure
for the given section. For this example, there is only uniaxial bending from the applied loads. Points I
and J on the diagram show the force combination for the current segment (element). Point J
represents the top of the element and point I represents the bottom of the element. The remaining
contour plots for the drilled shaft can be generated by clicking on any one of the 16 shaft segments in the
Segment Edit window.

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Figure 3.2.28 Drilled Shaft Interaction Diagram


To view the interaction diagrams for the pier structure, click on the

button in the top

toolbar. Select Biaxial Moment Interaction and then click on the right column in the Structure window.
The interaction diagram is shown for the bottom segment of the right column. This interaction diagram
(Figure 3.2.29) shows the failure contour at the given axial load. The plot represents all possible cases of
biaxial failure for the given column section. For this example, there is only uniaxial bending from the
applied loads. Again, points I and J on the diagram show the force combination for the current
segment (element). The remaining contour plots for the drilled shaft can be generated by clicking on any
one of the 6 column segments in the Segment Edit window. You can also click on the other column or
the pier cap to see additional interaction diagrams.

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Figure 3.2.29 Pier Structure Interaction Diagram


The 3D Results can also be viewed as a final step in the analysis. To view the displaced shape of
the pier system, click on the

button in the top toolbar. The resulting screen should look like

Figure 3.2.30. The displacement values can be obtained for each node. Click on the node in the 3D plot
or select the node under Node Information to view the values. In addition to the displaced shape, you can
also view the displacement contours and stresses in the pile cap by clicking the appropriate button in the
3D Display Control window.

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Figure 3.2.30 3D Pier Results


This completes Example 2.

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3.3

RETAINING WALL
Shown in Figure 3.3.1 is the retaining wall with geometry and soil conditions, which will be

modeled in Example 3. The 12 ft high by 20 ft long cantilevered retaining wall has backfilled soil
behind the wall and an existing soil base beneath the wall. The wall is supported by 2 rows of 12 Hpiles. There is a surcharge strip load of 500 psf located 5 ft behind the wall. The soil properties and wall
configuration are given in Figure 3.3.1.

5 ft

4 ft
500 psf

1.5 ft

= 10 deg.

= 110 lb/ft3
sat= 120 lb/ft3

12 ft

Granular
Backfill

= 34o
6 ft

6 ft
3 ft

= 98 lb/ft3
60 ft

sat = 107 lb/ft3

Soft
Clay

c = 900 lb/ft2
= 18o

Figure 3.3.1 Example 3, Retaining Wall

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To begin modeling the retaining wall select New from the File menu after starting FB-Pier.
Select Retaining Wall for the Structure Type and enter the information about the problem shown in
Figure 3.3.2. Click OK when finished.

Figure 3.3.2 Select Retaining Wall, English units and enter project description.

FB-Pier now loads a default data set for the retaining wall problem. The screen is divided into
four different windows as shown in Figure 3.3.3. The top left window is used to enter the retaining wall
configuration, soil properties, and any other parameters for the problem. The bottom left window shows
the wall and soil layers in an elevation view. The top right window shows the layout of the piles in a plan
view and the bottom right window shows the entire foundation in a 3D view.
The default problem will be modified to model the retaining wall presented in Figure 3.3.1 at the
beginning of Example 3.

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Figure 3.3.3 Default Data Set for Retaining Wall


This example will begin by modifying the structure properties by clicking on the Wall Structure
tab in the Model Data window. For the retaining wall problem, the wall is modeled as a column with a
wall width parameter equal to the 20 ft length of the wall. The program will apply the soil pressure using
wall width parameter in order to correctly apply the loading along the entire wall. The soil properties are
assumed to be uniform along the length of the wall.
For the example problem enter 13.5 ft for the Wall Height (measured from the center of the pile
cap), 20 ft Wall Width, and 6 ft for the Wall Offset. Leave the remaining values as they are since they
will not be used in this example. Select Linear Properties for this example. The Wall Structure tab dialog
should now look like Figure 3.3.4.

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Figure 3.3.4 Changing the Structure Properties

For this example, the wall is modeled with Linear Properties. To specify the section properties
for the wall, click on the Edit Cross Section button. Enter the section properties for the 240 x 18 wall
shown in Figure 3.3.5 and click OK when done.

Figure 3.3.5 Specifying Wall Section Properties

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Note that since this example uses gross cross-sectional properties, the program will not be able to
model the true length of the wall in the 3D View window. The wall will be modeled with a square crosssection. If full cross-section properties were specified, the section width and depth of the wall would be
entered and the 3D View window would show the true size of the wall.
The remaining retaining wall properties can now be entered by clicking on the Retaining tab in
the Model Data window. The dialog has a number of parameters for input. Currently, Soil Layer 1 is
active. To model the example problem, enter 10 degrees for the Ground Slope Incline, 3 ft for the
Ground Water Height, 12 ft for the Thickness of the layer. Enter 5 for the Number of Sub Layers to
divide the wall into 5 segments from the base to the top. Finally, confirm that the Active Case soil
pressure model is selected for this problem. The dialog should now look like Figure 3.3.6.

Figure 3.3.6 Changing the Retaining Wall Properties


Now select Layer 2 from the Soil Layer drop-down list. Click Delete to delete Soil Layer 2 since
this example only has one layer of granular backfill soil. Click OK to confirm the deleting of the soil
layer.
Now edit the soil layer data by clicking Layer Data in the Soil Layer Data section. Enter the
values that are shown in the dialog in Figure 3.3.7a. Click OK when done to return to the Retaining tab.

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Figure 3.3.7a Changing Backfill Soil Properties


To specify a surcharge load on the soil behind the wall as shown in Figure 3.3.1, click the
Surcharge button in the Retaining tab of the Model Data window. Click on Strip Load and then enter 5 ft
for the Wall Distance, 4 ft for the Load Width, and 500 psf for the Load Intensity to describe the loading.
These values are shown in Figure 3.3.7b.

Figure 3.3.7b Applying a Surcharge Load

This completes the data entry for the retaining wall. Now the underlying soil and pile properties
for this example need to be specified before proceeding with the analysis.
To edit the soil properties at the base of the wall, click on the Soil tab in the Model Data window.
First make sure that Layer 1 is selected as the Soil Layer. Select a Cohesive soil from the Soil Type
dropdown list. Now enter the Unit Weight as 107 pcf and the Undrained Shear Strength as 900 psf.
Select the Soil Layer models shown in Figure 3.3.8. Finally, enter the Water Table elevation as 0 ft, the

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Top of Layer elevation as 0 ft, and the Bottom of Layer elevation as -80 ft. Make sure to include the
negative sign in the bottom elevation to indication a downward direction.

Figure 3.3.8 Specifying Soil Properties


The next step is to specify the parameters for the soil layer models. Click on the dropdown list
for the Lateral models to activate the Lateral soil Model (the word Lateral should turn blue). Now click
Edit to edit the lateral properties for the layer. Enter the values into the dialog shown in Figure 3.3.9a.
Click OK when done to return to the Soil tab.

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Figure 3.3.9a Lateral Model Properties

Figure 3.3.9b Axial Model Properties

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Now specify the Axial soil properties. Click twice on the Axial dropdown list to active the Axial
model. The model is activated when the word Axial turns blue. Leave the model as Driven Pile and
click Edit to edit the driven pile properties. Make sure that the values match the dialog shown in Figure
3.3.9b on the previous page. Most of the values should not need to be changed, but double check just to
be sure. Click OK when done.
The Torsional model is based on previously defined values. To verify that the values are correct
for this example problem, activate the Torsional model and click Edit. The values should appear as shown
in the dialog in Figure 3.3.9c. If any values are different, change them now and click OK when done.

Figure 3.3.9c Torsional Model Properties


The Tip model is also based on previously defined values and values from the default parameter
set. There is no need to change the values for this example. To view the values anyway, activate the Tip

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model and click Edit. The values should appear as shown in the dialog in Figure 3.3.9d. If any values
are different, change them now and click OK when done.

Figure 3.3.9d Tip Model Properties

This completes the soil data entry. The Soil tab dialog should now look like Figure 3.3.10. If
any parameters are different change them now. At this point, only the pile configuration needs to be
specified before proceeding to the analysis.

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Figure 3.3.10 Final Soil Properties

To specify the pile configuration, click on the Pile & Cap tab in the Model Data window. This
example calls for two rows of 12 inch H-piles. First, select 12x84 H-Pile from the yellow Database list.
To support the 20 ft width of retaining wall, enter 11 Grid Points in the Y-direction with a Spacing of 3d
(36 inches). Click Yes to add a pile at all of the new grid points. A dialog now appears to remind you of
the change in pile geometry and possible changes in the p-y multipliers. Click OK in the dialog to change
the spacing. This reminder is important because if new pile rows are added, p-y multipliers must be
assigned to these rows. Do this now in the Soil tab with the Group button. Default p-y multipliers can be
assigned with the Default button or the user can specify their own at this point. Click the Defaults button
for this example. Return back to the Pile & Cap tab and enter 4 for the Grid Points in the X-direction and
change the spacing to 4d. Again click OK to add piles to the new grid points and confirm the change in
spacing. Enter the 60 ft for the Tip Elevation. Make sure to include the negative sign to indicate a
downward elevation. Finally, click Apply Overhang and enter an overhang of 48 inches for the pile cap.
The Pile & Cap tab dialog should now appear as shown in Figure 3.3.11. The pile layout should now
appear as shown in Figure 3.3.12.

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Figure 3.3.11 Modifying the Pile Configuration

Figure 3.3.12 H-Pile Configuration


Before leaving the Pile tab dialog, click the Edit Pile Cap button in the Cap Data section. In the
dialog that appears, enter 3 ft for the cap thickness as shown in Figure 3.3.13. Click OK when done.
This completes the data entry phase of the problem. Save the file if you havent already done so by

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clicking on the disk icon at the top of the screen. Type Example3.in for the name of the file. We can
now proceed with the analysis.

Figure 3.3.13 Changing Pile Cap Thickness

To analyze the pier, click on the

button at the top of the screen.

A dialog appears

showing the status of the analysis. The time needed for the analysis will depend on the speed of the
computer. When the analysis is done close the window to continue.
To view the pile results, click on the

button in the top toolbar.

To demonstrate the

plotting capabilities click on the pile labeled 1 in the Pile Edit window and then click Apply in the Plot
Display Control window. The screen should now look like Figure 3.3.14, which shows different plots
for pile #1.
As an example, look at the plot of the axial soil force along the pile. Click on the Soil Axial
window to signal the Plot Display Control Window to update the maximum and minimum force values.
Notice that for pile #1, the largest axial force is 1.10 kip at 3.8 ft below the ground surface. Note that the
positive sign indicates compression in the soil.
The plots for other piles can be generated at the same time by clicking on the pile number and
then Apply. To remove a pile from the plots, click on the pile in the Pile Edit window to return the pile to

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its original color and click Apply. Use the check boxes to control the number of plots shown. Remember
to click Apply to redraw the plots. The maximum force values can also be plotted for all load cases.

Figure 3.3.14 Pile Results

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To view the retaining wall results, click on the

button in the top toolbar. Click on the

wall in the Structure window and then click Apply in the Plot Display Control window. The screen
should now look like Figure 3.3.15, which shows different plots for the retaining wall. Use the check
boxes to control the number of plots shown. Remember to click Apply to redraw the plots. The
maximum force values can also be plotted for all load cases.
For this problem, notice that the maximum bending moment occurs at the base of the wall. The
Moment 3 value at the base is 300 kip-ft. Also note that the shape of the moment diagram is cubic due
to the distributed soil load behind the wall.

Figure 3.3.15 Retaining Wall Results

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To view the interaction diagrams for the piles, click on the

button in the top toolbar

and select Biaxial Moment Interaction. Click on pile #1 in the Pile Edit. The interaction diagram is
shown for the top segment of shaft #1. This interaction diagram (Figure 3.3.16) shows the failure
contour at the given axial load. The plot represents all possible cases of biaxial failure for the given
section. For this example, there is only uniaxial bending from the applied loads. Points I and J on the
diagram show the force combination for the current segment (element). Point J represents the top of
the element and point I represents the bottom of the element. The remaining contour plots for the pile
can be generated by clicking on any one of the 16 shaft segments in the Segment Edit window.

Figure 3.3.16 Pile Interaction Diagram

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For this example is not possible to plot the interaction diagram for the retaining wall since only
the minimum linear properties were specified. Later, the user can return back to the wall properties and
specify all of the section properties to generate an interaction diagram.
The 3D results can also be viewed as a final step in the analysis. To view the displaced shape of
the wall system, click on the

button in the top toolbar. The resulting screen should look like

Figure 3.3.17. The displacement values can be obtained for each node. Click on the node in the 3-D plot
or select the node under Node Information to view the values. In addition to the displaced shape, you can
also view the displacement contours and stresses in the pile cap by clicking the appropriate button in the
3D Display Control window.

Figure 3.3.17 3D Results


This concludes Example 3.

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3.4

HIGH MAST LIGHT/SIGN


The high mast light/sign problem is relatively straightforward to model and analyze using FB-

Pier. This example assumes that the user has already been exposed to many of FB-Piers features by
working through the first three examples. The overall modeling will be touched on briefly using the
default problem that is provided with FB-Pier, but the emphasis will be on modeling the mast arm.
The default high mast sign that FB-Pier provides is similar to the one shown in Figure 3.4.1. The
problem consists of a cantilever mast arm on a column supported by a single drilled shaft. A line load is
applied to the mast. Certain aspects of the mast structure will be changed to demonstrate some of the
modeling features that FB-Pier offers. This will entail changing the mast arm length and loading.
10 ft

2 kip/ft

Reese Sand
= 120 lb/ft3
= 35o

8.3 ft

25 ft

Figure 3.4.1 Mast Arm Example


To begin, select New from the File menu. Select High Mast Light/Sign from the New Problem
Type dialog and enter the information shown in Figure 3.4.2.

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Figure 3.4.2 Select High Mast Light/Sign


After clicking OK, the default data set is loaded. Figure 3.4.3 shows the general purpose input,
which is split into 4 separate screens. The top left is referred to as the tab dialogs. These tabs control all
soil, geometry, loads, analysis and problem types input. Note that the font in the tabbed dialogs depends
on the screen resolution. To change the font go to the Edit menu and choose Set Dialog Font and select a
suitable viewing font for the tabbed dialog. The top right is the plan view of the piles, cap and coordinate
system. By right clicking the mouse in this window, the user can delete, batter, and change the spacing of
the piles. The bottom left window is the soil edit window. This window shows the elevation of all soil
layers, water table, pile top and tip elevations, and general soil information. Right clicking the mouse in
this window will also allow the users to insert, delete, and split layers. The bottom right window is the
3D view of the piles, cap and structure, if there is one. Right clicking the mouse in this window allows
the user to view the structure in line mode, and rotate the structure with the mouse (3D rotate). The latter
is useful for placing loads, springs, etc. on different nodes of the structure.

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Figure 3.4.3 Default High Mast Lighting Data Set

To modify the properties of the mast arm, click on the Pier tab in the Model Data window.
Change the Cantilever length to 10 ft and change the Number of Cantilever Nodes to 10. The Pier tab
dialog is now shown in Figure 3.4.4.

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Figure 3.4.4 Changing Mast Arm Properties


For this example, there is no need to change the pile or soil properties, as both were covered in
the previous examples. The next step is to apply the loads to the mast arm. To do so, click on the Load
tab. Delete the existing nodal loads using the Del button to the right of the nodal loads list. The mast
arm line load is applied using the local coordinate axis. The local 3-direction corresponds to a negative ydirection. To model the load in this example, a negative sign must be placed in front of the load to apply
the load in the positive y-direction. To change the line load for the mast arm, enter -0.167 kips/in (2
kips/ft) in the Line Load Mast box and change the Col. Line Load to 0. The Load tab dialog should now
match Figure 3.4.5.
At this point, the analysis can be run to observe the behavior of the mast arm under the given
loading. Click on the Analysis button in the toolbar to proceed.
To view the forces in the column, click on the Pier Results button in the toolbar. Click on the
column to view the column results and verify by a quick calculation that the mast arm load was applied
correctly. The force results are shown in Figure 3.4.6. Notice that the shear is 20 kips and the maximum
moment is -167 kip-ft, which are correct for the given loading.

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Figure 3.4.5 Applying the Line Load to the Mast Arm

Figure 3.4.6 Force Results for the Column


To view the deformed shape of the mast arm under the applied loading, clicking on the 3D
Results button in the toolbar. Figure 3.4.7 shows the 3D deformation of the mast arm.

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Figure 3.4.7 3D Results for the Mast Arm


This completes Example 4.

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3.5

SOUND WALL
The sound wall problem is a relatively straightforward to model and analyze using FB-Pier. This

example, like the high mast lighting example, assumes that the user has already been exposed to many of
FB-Piers features by working through the first three examples. The overall modeling will be touched on
briefly using the default problem that is provided with FB-Pier, but the emphasis will be on modeling the
sound wall.
The default sound wall that FB-Pier provides is similar to the one shown in Figure 3.5.1. The
problem consists of a sound wall that is supported on a 2x2 pile group. The wall is supported by 1ft x 1ft
columns spaced at 4 feet. A 50 psf wind pressure is applied to the wall. Certain aspects of the wall
structure will be changed to demonstrate some of the modeling features that FB-Pier offers. This will
entail changing the wall height, width, and loading.

1ft x 1ft columns


50 psf

15 ft

Reese Sand
= 114 lb/ft3
= 36o

25 ft

4 ft

Figure 3.5.1 Sound Wall Example


To begin, select New from the File menu. Select Sound Wall from the New Problem Type dialog
and enter the information shown in Figure 3.5.2.

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Figure 3.5.2 Select Sound Wall


After clicking OK, the default data set is loaded. Figure 3.5.3 shows the general-purpose input,
which is split into 4 separate screens. The top left is referred to as the tabbed dialogs. These tabs control
all soil, geometry, loads, analysis and problem types (check tabs) input. Note that the font in the tabbed
dialog depends on the screen resolution. To change the font go to the Edit menu and choose Set Dialog
Font and select a suitable viewing font for the tabbed dialog. The top right is the plan view of the piles,
cap and coordinate system. By right clicking the mouse in this window, the user can delete, batter, and
change the spacing of the piles. The bottom left window is the soil edit window. This window shows the
elevation of all soil layers, water table, pile top and tip elevations, and general soil information. Right
clicking the mouse in this window will also allow the users to insert, delete, and split layers. The bottom
right window is the 3D view of the piles, cap and structure, if there is one. Right clicking the mouse in
this window allows the user to view the structure in line mode, and rotate the structure with the mouse
(3D rotate). The latter is useful for placing loads, springs, etc. on different nodes of the structure.

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Figure 3.5.3 Default Sound Wall Data Set

To modify the properties of the sound wall, click on the Wall Structure tab in the Model Data
window. Change the Wall Height to 15 ft, the Wall Offset to 1.5 ft to place the wall in the center of the
pile cap, and the Wall Width to 4 feet. The Wall Width is used to designate the length of wall between
columns. In this case, 4 feet was used to match the outer pile group dimensions. The Wall Structure tab
dialog is now shown in Figure 3.5.4.

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Figure 3.5.4 Changing Mast Arm Properties


The dimensions of the wall will now be changed. Click on the Edit Cross Section button in the
Wall Structure dialog. Confirm that both the Width and Depth are 12 inches as shown in Figure 3.5.5.
Next Click on the Edit Section Contents button in the Section Type section. Change the existing
reinforcement from prestressing steel to mild steel. To do this, change the Prestress After Losses to 0 ksi
and click the Mild Steel button to signal the program to use mild steel instead (mild steel is shown as
blue, prestressing steel is show as red). This must be done for each of the four steel groups. The crosssection with mild steel should now look like Figure 3.5.6. Click OK to dismiss the Square Section
Properties dialog and return to the Pier Component Properties dialog.
While in the Element properties dialog click on the Edit Properties button to specify the steel
properties. Click on the Mild Steel check box and enter 60 ksi for the Yield Stress and 29000 ksi for the
Modulus as shown in Figure 3.5.7. Click OK to dismiss the Stress-Strain Dialog. Click OK in the Pier
Component Properties dialog to apply the changes and dismiss the dialog.

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Figure 3.5.5 Changing Sound Wall Properties

Figure 3.5.6 Changing Sound Wall Reinforcement

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Figure 3.5.7 Specify Steel Properties


The final step before running the analysis is to apply a wind load to the sound wall. To apply a
wind pressure to the sound wall, first click on the Load tab. Click on the Wind Pressure load and change
the wind pressure from 23 psf to 50 psf as shown in Figure 3.5.8. This pressure will be applied to the
width of the sound wall (currently 4 feet).
This completes the data entry portion of the example. To analyze the sound wall click the
Analysis button in the toolbar. When the analysis is complete, click on the Pier Interaction button in the
toolbar. The interaction diagram for the wall is shown in Figure 3.5.9. The element at the column base
is currently selected. Notice that the top of element #1 (marker J) is within the failure curve, but the
bottom of element #1 (marker I) is not. This indicates a failure condition at the base of the column.
Click on element #2 to see that both the top and bottom of the element are within the failure curve. This
problem requires a redesign of the cross-section in order to achieve a safe loading condition at the base of
the column.

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Figure 3.5.8 Changing Mast Arm Properties

Figure 3.5.9 Interaction Diagram for Sound Wall


The 3D results are given in Figure 3.5.10.

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Figure 3.5.10 3D Results for Sound Wall

This completes Example 5.

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3.6

STIFFNESS FORMULATION
FB-Pier can be used to determine an equivalent foundation stiffness that can be exported to other

analysis programs. This option creates a 6x6 foundation stiffness.


The default stiffness problem that FB-Pier provides is shown in Figure 3.6.1. The problem
consists of a pile cap supported on a 3x3 pile group. A combination of forces and moments in applied to
a node in the first pile. FB-Pier will apply these loads to determine the equivalent 6x6 stiffness matrix of
the foundation.

Reese Sand
= 119 lb/ft3
= 35o

80 ft

Figure 3.6.1 Stiffness Example


The equivalent foundation stiffness is determined by applying all of the loads in the first load
case at once. After an equilibrium solution has been obtained, unit loads are independently applied by the
program for each of the six degrees of freedom while the structure is in the equilibrium position. The
displacements obtained from each of the unit load applications are used to fill the 6x6 equivalent
foundation stiffness matrix. Because FB-Pier applies the unit loads in the equilibrium position, a coupled
behavior between the degrees of freedom is expected.
To begin a stiffness formulation problem, select New from the File menu. Select Stiffness as
shown in Figure 3.6.2. The program screen with the default problem is shown in Figure 3.6.3.

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Figure 3.6.2 New Stiffness Formulation Problem


For this example there is no need to modify any of the problem parameters. To run the stiffness
formulation analysis, click on the Analysis button in the toolbar. The equivalent stiffness matrix is
written at the bottom of the output file for the analysis. The quickest way to view the output file is from
the Control menu. Selecting View Analysis Data from the Control menu launches Microsoft Notepad or
WordPad depending on the size of the output file.

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Figure 3.6.3 Default Stiffness Formulation Problem

The results from the stiffness formulation analysis are shown in Table 3.6.1 below:
COL#
ROW1

0.8239E+02 -0.3019E+00 -0.1509E+02

ROW2 -0.3019E+00

0.4986E+02

0.2006E+05

0.6112E+01

0.1074E+03 -0.1490E+01 -0.2366E+05 -0.4765E+02 -0.1278E+03

ROW3 -0.1509E+02 -0.1490E+01

0.1434E+05 -0.3899E+03 -0.1663E+05 -0.4393E+01

ROW4

0.4986E+02 -0.2366E+05 -0.3899E+03

0.5802E+08

0.1300E+06

0.7197E+05

ROW5

0.2006E+05 -0.4765E+02 -0.1663E+05

0.1300E+06

0.5652E+08

0.6097E+04

ROW6

0.6112E+01 -0.1278E+03 -0.4393E+01

0.7197E+05

0.6097E+04

0.2388E+07

Table 3.6.1 Equivalent Stiffness Matrix


For the stiffness matrix in Table 3.6.1, the 1, 2, and 3 headings correspond to the x, y, and z
translations and the 4, 5, and 6 headings correspond to the rx, ry, and rz rotations. As explained earlier,
the stiffness matrix is fully populated.

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Before using the equivalent stiffness matrix in another analysis programs, it is important to
understand the coordinate system used by FB-Pier. The following explanation shows how to convert a
6x6 stiffness matrix from the FB-Pier global coordinate system to a standard coordinate system defined
below.
Y
x
Z

z
FB-Pier Coordinate
System

Standard Coordinate
System

Figure 3.6.4 FB-Pier and Standard Coordinate Systems

A 3x3 transformation matrix (T) is first defined to show how the two coordinate systems are related.

x 1 0 0 X
y = 0 0 1 Y


z 0 1 0 Z

Which can be stated as [d] = [T][D]

This shows that x maps to X, y maps to Z, and z maps to Y.


This transformation matrix is then used to transform the stiffness matrix from the FB-Pier coordinate
system to the standard coordinate system as follows.
[K STANDARD] = [T] T [KFBPIER][T]

[K STANDARD ]6 x 6

1
0

0
=
0
0

1 0
0 0

0 1
[K FBPIER ]6 x 6
1 0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0 1

0 1 0
0 0

0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
1 0 0 0
0
0

0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0 1 0 0
0 0 0 1

0 0 1 0

0 0
1 0
0 0

0
0
0

This requires 2 matrix multiplications to obtain the transformed stiffness matrix. This can be easily
done using either Excel or MathCad.

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As a result, to convert the FB-Pier stiffness to a standard coordinate system, use the following.
K11
K12
K13
K14
K15
K16
K11
0
0
0
0
K15
K21
K22
K23
K24
K25
K26
0
K33
0
-K34
0
0
K31
K32
K33
K34
K35
K36
0
0
K22
0
0
0
K41
K42
K43
K44
K45
K46
0
-K43 0
K44
0
0
K51
K52
K53
K54
K55
K56
0
0
0
0
K66
0
K61
K62
K63
K64
K65
K66
K51
0
0
0
0
K55
FB-Pier Stiffness Matrix
Standard Coordinate Stiffness Matrix
Note: Both the locations and signs change for some of the stiffness terms.
Example
The FB-Pier stiffness matrix is given by
20
0
0
0
0
20
0
-6500
0
0
26000
0
0
-6500
0
1.00E+08
6500
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

6500
0
0
0
1.00E+08
0

0
0
0
0
0
1

Then the stiffness matrix in the standard coordinate system would be.
20
0
0
0
0
6500
0
26000
0
0
0
0
0
0
20
-6500
0
0
0
0
-6500
1.00E+08
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
6500
0
0
0
0
1.0E+08
This completes Example 6.

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3.7

MULTIPLE PILE SETS


Shown in Figure 3.7.1 is the pile group with geometry and soil conditions, which will be

modeled in Example 7. The problem represents a pile group that is expanded due to increasing demands
from the superstructure. The original foundation consisted of 9-24 inch prestressed piles (60 ft long),
embedded in a 5 ft thick pile cap. The revised foundation will add 30 inch piles around the perimeter
with a depth of 80 ft. The pile cap thickness will also be increased to 8 ft. The properties of the sand and
rock are given in Figure 3.7.1.

500 kip
200 kip
3'
Reese Sand
t = 109 pcf
= 32

15'

Reese Sand,
t = 119 pcf
= 35

45'

24
30

24

24

20'
30

Figure 3.7.1 Example 7, Revised Pile Group

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Figure 3.7.2 Select New from the File Menu


From the File menu in Figure 3.7.2, select New. Choose Pile and Cap Only and enter the general
information shown in Figure 3.7.3. Be sure to choose the English systems of units to load the correct
default data set.

Figure 3.7.3 Select Pile and Cap Only and Enter Project Information

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After clicking OK at bottom of dialog, the default data set is loaded. Figure 3.7.4 shows the
general-purpose input, which is split into 4 separate screens. The top left is referred to as the Model Data
window. The Model Data window contains tabbed dialogs that control all soil, geometry, loads, analysis
and problem types input. The top right is the plan view of the piles, cap and coordinate system. By right
clicking the mouse in this window, the user can delete, batter, and change the spacing of the piles. The
bottom left window is the Soil Edit window. This window shows the elevation of all soil layers, water
table, pile top and tip elevations, and general soil information. Right clicking the mouse in this window
will also allow the users to insert, delete, and split layers. The bottom right window is the 3D View of the
piles, cap and structure, if there is one. Right clicking the mouse in this window allows the user to view
the structure in thin elements mode, and rotate the structure with the mouse (3D rotate). The latter is
useful for placing loads, springs, etc. on different nodes in the structure.

Figure 3.7.4 Default Data Set (2x2 Pile Group)


To model the example problem, click the Pile & Cap tab in the Model Data window. Change the
number of grid points in the X and Y-direction to 7, clicking OK to add piles to the new grid points. Now

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there are 25 piles arranged in a 5x5 pile group with an overhang. Next, enter 60 ft for the pile Tip
Elevation. The default problem has 18 precast piles. To change the pile type click on the yellow
Pile/Shaft Type list and select a Precast 24 standard prestressed pile. The Model Data window should
now look like Figure 3.7.5.

Figure 3.7.5 Pile & Cap Tab Dialog Adjusted for Number of Piles and 24 Piles
The next step is to edit the pile cap properties. To do this, click on Edit Pile Cap in the Pile Cap
Data section. The Cap Properties dialog should appear as shown in Figure 3.7.6. Change the cap
Thickness to 8 ft and then click OK to confirm the change and exit the dialog.

Figure 3.7.6 Pile Cap Properties

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The four split screen inputs should look like Figure 3.7.7. Note the Pile Edit window (top right)
shows 25 piles.

Figure 3.7.7 General Input Screen for Pile Group


The different pile types shown in Figure 3.7.1 can now be specified in the Pile & Cap tab dialog.
Click the Edit Cross Section button to edit the pile types. The Full Cross Section Pile Properties dialog
appears, allowing the user to change the pile properties.
Different pile sets must be used in order to assign different pile types to the pile group. For this
problem, two pile sets will be used: one for the 24 piles (with a length of 60 ft) and one for the 30 piles
(with a length of 80 ft). Note that if all the piles were the same (in cross-section and length) then only
one pile set is needed. This pile set is assigned to all piles by default.
To create the second pile set, click the Add button below the Pile Set Info list in the upper right
portion of the dialog as shown in Figure 3.7.8.

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Figure 3.7.8 Adding a Pile Set


To change the pile section for the second pile set, select Set 2 from the pile set list. Now that
pile set 2 is selected, click the Retrieve Section button and select 30 Square FDOT Standard prestressed
pile. Change the pile length to 80 feet. The dialog should now look like Figure 3.7.9. Click OK to
update the changes and exit the dialog.

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Figure 3.7.9 Specifying Pile Set 2


The Pile Edit window is used to assign the pile sets to the piles. By default, all of the piles are
assigned to pile set 1. This example problem calls for changing the perimeter piles to 30, which are
specified in pile set 2. The pile set is specified while in the Pile Data/Batter mode. Right click the mouse
button in the Pile Edit window and check that this mode is selected. Click on Pile 1 in the bottom left of
the group. The pile data dialog is displayed with the pile information for Pile 1. Select Pile Set 2 from
the list as shown in Figure 3.7.10 and click OK. Notice that a different pattern is shown on the pile head
to indicate the different pile set. Repeat this for process for all of the perimeter piles. When done the Pile
Edit window should look like Figure 3.7.11.

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Figure 3.7.10 Apply Pile Set 2 to Pile 1

Figure 3.7.11 Pile Edit Window Showing Both Pile Sets


For this problem it is not necessary to change the soil properties. However, the top soil layer
elevation needs to be change from 10 ft to 0 ft. In the Soil tab, change the top layer elevation. Now
select Layer 2 from the Soil Layer list. Change the bottom elevation to 90 ft. This elevation is deep
enough for the new piles added with pile set 2. The Soil tab dialog should now look like Figure 3.7.12.

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Figure 3.7.12 Soil Tab Data


Now click the Load tab to apply the prescribed loads to the pile group. First delete Load Case 2
with the Del button. Now there should only be one load case. Now delete the existing loads at node 135
with the right Del button. The loads in this example will be applied to the center of the pile cap. Click on
the center node (Node 13) in the 3D Edit window. The node should turn orange to indicate that it has
been selected. Click the right Add button and enter 200 kips for the X Load and 500 kips for the Z Load.
The Load tab dialog should now look like Figure 3.7.13.

Figure 3.7.13 Load Tab Data


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This completes the data entry portion of the example. To analyze the new pile group click the
Analysis button in the toolbar. When the analysis is complete, click on the Pile Results button in the
toolbar. The forces in the different pile sections can be compared. As an example, select Piles 2 and 7.
Select the Shear, Moment, Axial, and Demand/Capacity Ratio for plotting. Click Apply to plot the
applicable values. The plots should look Figure 3.7.14.
The load moment interaction and 3D results can also be viewed for further investigation of the
pile group behavior.

Figure 3.7.14 Force Results for the Pile Group


This concludes Example 7.

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3.8

PILE BENTS
Shown in Figure 3.8.1 is a pile bent model with geometry and soil conditions, which will be

modeled in Example 8. The problem consists of a single row of battered piles connected directly to a
bent cap. The 9 square precast piles are 14 inches in width and are spaced 4 diameters apart. The square
bent cap is 48 inches in width and 36 feet long. The foundation is subjected to the 3 longitudinal 30 kip
concentrated loads shown in Figure 3.8.1.

36'

30
kip

30
kip

30
kip

30'

Reese Sand
t = 119 pcf
= 35

45'

Figure 3.8.1 Pile Bent Model

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Figure 3.8.2 Select New from File Menu


From the File menu in Figure 3.8.2, select New. Choose Pile Bent and enter the general
information shown in Figure 3.8.3. Be sure to choose the English systems of units to load the correct
default data set.

Figure 3.8.3 Select Pile Bent and Enter Project Information

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After clicking OK at bottom of dialog, the default data set is loaded. Figure 3.8.4 shows the
general-purpose input, which is split into 4 separate screens. The top left is referred to as the Model Data
window. The Model Data window contains tabbed dialogs that control all soil, geometry, loads, analysis
and problem types input. The top right is the plan view of the piles, cap and coordinate system. By right
clicking the mouse in this window, the user can delete, batter, and change the spacing of the piles. The
bottom left window is the Soil Edit window. This window shows the elevation of all soil layers, water
table, pile top and tip elevations, and general soil information. Right clicking the mouse in this window
will also allow the users to insert, delete, and split layers. The bottom right window is the 3D View of the
piles, cap and structure, if there is one. Right clicking the mouse in this window allows the user to view
the structure in thin elements mode, and rotate the structure with the mouse (3D rotate). The latter is
useful for placing loads, springs, etc. on different nodes in the structure.

Figure 3.8.4 Default Data Set (Pile Bent)


To model the example problem, click the Pile & Cap tab in the Model Data window. Change the
number of grid points in the X-direction to 9, adding piles at the new grid locations. Notice that the Ydirection grid points edit box is disabled since it is assumed that pile bents only have one row of piles.
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Leave the pile Tip Elevation at 75 ft. Change the X-pile spacing to 4d. The Model Data window should
now look like Figure 3.8.5.

Figure 3.8.5 Pile & Cap Tab Dialog Adjusted for Number of Piles and 14 Piles
The pile batter can be specified now that the correct number of piles and pile spacing has been
select. The example problem calls for battering the first two and last two piles in the row. To batter the
first pile, click on pile 1 in the Pile Edit window. The Pile Data dialog is displayed. The pile batter in
specified in terms of the slope. For this example, enter 0.2 for the Y pile batter as shown in Figure
3.8.6. Click OK when done to apply the batter changes and close the Pile Data dialog.

Figure 3.8.6 Entering the Pile Batter Data


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To batter the second pile, click on pile 2 in the Pile Edit window. This pile will be battered in the
positive direction. Enter +0.2 for the Y pile batter and click OK to exit the dialog. Follow the same
procedure for battering piles 8 and 9. Assign a 0.2 Y batter for pile 8 and a +0.2 Y pile batter for pile 9.
When done the 3D Edit window should look like Figure 3.8.7.

Figure 3.8.7 3D View of the Battered Piles


The final modeling step is to apply the prescribed concentrated loads to the pile bent. To do so,
first click on the Load tab in the Model Data window. The concentrated loads will be applied in the
negative y direction at the pile heads for piles 3, 5, and 7. Click on node 3 in the 3D View window or
select node 3 in the Load tab. Click the right Add button then enter 30 kips for the Y load. Do the same
for nodes 5 and 7. Finally, delete the loads applied to nodes 1 and 40 with the right Del button. The
Load tab dialog should now look like Figure 3.8.8.
For this example, leave the Self Weight and Buoyancy Factors as zero. These values can be
specified to included self weight and buoyancy in the analysis.

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Figure 3.8.8 Applied Concentrated Loads


This completes the data entry portion of the example. To analyze the new pile bent click the
Analysis button in the toolbar. When the analysis is complete, click on the Pile Results button in the
toolbar. To compare the pile forces for this example, click on piles 1, 2, and 3 in the Pile Selection
window. Select the Shear, Moment, Axial, and Demand/Capacity Ratio for plotting. Click Apply to plot
the applicable values. The plots should look Figure 3.8.9.

Figure 3.8.9 Pile Load Results


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Notice that the Demand/Capacity Ratio for pile 1 is 0.702, representing a safe loading condition
for the exterior pile. This can also be confined by examining the biaxial load interaction diagram for the
pile. The 3D results can also be examined to understand the 3D behavior of the pile bent.
This concludes Example 8.

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3.9

COLUMN ANALYSIS
Shown in Figure 3.9.1 is a single column model, which will be analyzed in Example 9. This

type of problem allows the user to perform a biaxial bending analysis for a single column. This is done
internally by taking a single pile and treating it as a single column. The single column has the ability to
put springs at the top and bottom of the column. It also allows loads at the top and bottom. The column
properties are input as normal pile properties.

200 kip
1200 kip-in

Column:
30 Square
Spring Stiffness:
20 ft

1x1016 kip/in (kip-in/rad)


Loads:
200 kips concentrated
1200 kip-in moment

Figure 3.9.1 Column Analysis Model

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Figure 3.9.2 Select New from File Menu


From the File menu in Figure 3.9.2, select New. Choose Column Analysis and enter the general
information shown in Figure 3.9.3. Be sure to choose the English systems of units to load the correct
default data set.

Figure 3.9.3 Select Pile Bent and Enter Project Information

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After clicking OK at bottom of dialog, the default data set is loaded. Figure 3.9.4 shows the
general-purpose input, which is split into 4 separate screens. The top left is referred to as the Model Data
window. The Model Data window contains tabbed dialogs that control all soil, geometry, loads, analysis
and problem types input. The top right is the plan view of the piles, cap and coordinate system. By right
clicking the mouse in this window, the user can delete, batter, and change the spacing of the piles. The
bottom left window is the Soil Edit window. This window shows the elevation of all soil layers, water
table, pile top and tip elevations, and general soil information. Right clicking the mouse in this window
will also allow the users to insert, delete, and split layers. The bottom right window is the 3D View of the
piles, cap and structure, if there is one. Right clicking the mouse in this window allows the user to view
the structure in thin elements mode, and rotate the structure with the mouse (3D rotate). The latter is
useful for placing loads, springs, etc. on different nodes in the structure.

Figure 3.9.4 Default Data Set (Column Analysis)


To model the example problem, click the Pile & Cap tab in the Model Data window. Notice that
the number of X and Y grid points are one for this type of problem. Change the pile/shaft type to 30

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Square FDOT Standard prestressed for the column cross-section. Also, change the Tip Elevation to 20
feet. The Model Data window should now look like Figure 3.9.5.

Figure 3.9.5 Pile & Cap Tab Dialog Adjusted 30 Pile (Column)
The next modeling step is to apply the prescribed concentrated loads to the column model. To do
so, first click on the Load tab in the Model Data window. The concentrated loads will be applied to the
top of the column. First, delete Load Case 2 since this example only has one load case. Now, enter the
load values shown in Figure 3.9.6 for node 1.

Figure 3.9.6 Applied Loads to the Top of the Column


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Next, click on the Springs tab in the Model Data window to inspect the spring stiffness values at
the top and bottom of the column. The values shown in Figure 3.9.7 do not need to be changed since the
values from the default input file are fine.

Figure 3.9.7 Spring Stiffness Values at the Ends of the Column


The 3D view of the column system now should look like Figure 3.9.8.

Figure 3.9.8 Spring Stiffness Values at the Ends of the Column


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This completes the data entry portion of the example. To analyze the new column click the
Analysis button in the toolbar. When the analysis is complete, click on the Pile Results button in the
toolbar. To examine the force results for the pile (column), click on the pile in the Pile Selection window.
Select the Shear, Moment, Axial, and Demand/Capacity Ratio for plotting and uncheck the soil forces
since they are not applicable. Click Apply to plot the applicable values. The plots should look Figure
3.9.9.

Figure 3.9.9 Pile (Column) Load Results


Notice that the moment at the top of the column matches the moment applied to the column,
therefore indicating force equilibrium. Also notice that the axial load is 200 kips in compression when
matches the applied concentrated load.
As a last step, click the Pile Interaction toolbar button to view the biaxial load-moment
interaction. Doing so shows the plot presented in Figure 3.9.10. The figure shows that the applied
loading is well within the failure envelope. In other words, this example represents a safe application of
the specified loading.
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Figure 3.9.10 Pile (Column) Biaxial Interaction


This concludes Example 9.

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CHAPTER 4 SOIL THEORY


4.1

SOIL-PILE INTERACTION
FB-Pier incorporates both the axial and lateral soil-pile interaction. The axial soil-pile interaction

is modeled through hyperbolic t-z curves. The lateral soil-pile interaction is modeled with nonlinear p-y
curves. The user has the option of picking from one of six different p-y models. Four of the p-y models
are the same as those given in FHWA's COM624P manual (1993).

4.2

LATERAL SOIL-PILE INTERACTION

The following lateral soil models (p-y) are incorporated into FB-Pier:
4.2.1

O'Neill's Sand

SOIL=1, is O'Neill (1984) recommended p-y curve for sands:

kz
y
p = Ap u tanh
Ap u

where

A
D
pu
k

(1)

= a factor used to describe pile shape;


= 1.0 for circular piles;
= 0.9 for cyclic loading;
= 3-0.8 z/D 0.9 for static loading;
= diameter of pile;
= ultimate soil resistance per unit of depth;
= modulus of lateral soil reaction (lb/ft3 or N/m3).

The ultimate soil resistance pu in Eqn. 1 is determined from the lesser value given by Equations 2 and 3.

[(

p u = z D K p K a + zK p tan tan

p u = Dz K p 3 + 2 K 0 K p 2 tan + tan K a
where z

Ka

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(2)

(3)

= depth in soil from ground surface;


= effective unit weight of soil;
= Rankine active coefficient;
= (1 - sin )/(1 + sin );

4-1

Kp
Ko

= Rankine passive coefficient;


= 1/ K a ;
= at-rest earth pressure coefficient;
= 1 - sin ;
= angle of internal friction;
= 45o + /2 .

The p-y relationship given in equation 1 depends on the soil parameters k (lb/in3 or N/m3) and
(deg), which may be obtained from insitu SPT data. For sand, use SPT to find (Figure 4.1) and to
find k (F/L 3 ) (Figure 4.2). Comparison between O'Neill's p-y curve for sand and Reese et al. curve
(SOIL=2) is shown in the figure below. O'Neill's curve fits Reese's curve very closely, but has better
numerical attributes (it's smooth).

PU

O'Neill (1984)
Reese, Cox and Koop (1974)
SAME , DEPTH
AND SOIL UNIT WEIGTH

Figure 4.1 Comparison of ONeills and Reese, Cox, and Koops P-Y Curves

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4-2

100

N UM B E R S O N C UR VE S
IN D IC A T E E F F E C T IVE
O VE R B UR D E N P R E S S UR E

40 psi

80

60

20 psi

40
0 psi

20

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

Dr (%)
VE R Y
LO O S E

R E LA T IVE
D E N S IT Y

28 o

LO O S E

29 o

M E D IUM

36 o

30o

VE R Y
D EN S E

D EN S E

41o

45o

Figure 4.2 SPT Blow Count vs. Friction Angle and Relative Density

V ER Y
LOOS E

300

LOOS E

M ED IU M
D EN S E

V ER Y
D EN S E

D EN S E

250
S A N D A B OV E
THE W A TER
TA B LE

k ( lb / inch

200

150
100

S A N D B ELOW
THE W A TER
TA B LE

50
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

D r (%)

Figure 4.3 K vs. Relative Density

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4-3

4.2.2

Reese, Cox, and Koops Sand

SOIL=2, Reese, Cox, and Koop (1974) developed p-y curves for static and cyclic loading of sands based
on an extensive testing of pipe piles in Texas. The p-y curve is shown below and a complete description
of curve is available in FHWA's COM624P manual. User must supply the soil's angle of internal friction,
, subgrade modulus, K, and the sand's buoyant unit weight, '.

x = x4
x = x3
x = x2

p
pu
m

pk

x = x1

m
pm

yu

ym

yk

x=0

k sx

3b/80

b/60
y

Figure 4.4 P-Y Curves for Static and Cyclic Loading of Sand (after Reese, et al, 1974)
4.2.3

O'Neill's Clay

SOIL=3, is O'Neill's P-Y method for static and cyclic loading of clays. Shown in the figures below are
both the static and cyclic curves. The user must supply the clay's undrained strength, c, the strain (in/in)
at 50% failure, 50 and 100% of failure 100 from an unconfined compression test.

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4-4

RATIO OF SOIL RESISTANCE, P/ PU

1.0

P = 0 .5 P
U
PU

FOR X XCr

0.5

P
PU

0.0

P
PU

= 0 .5 ( YY ) 0 . 387
C

10
RATIO OF DEFLECTION,

= 0 .5 F C

X
Xr

Y
YC

RATIO OF SOIL RESISTANCE, P/ PU

Figure 4.5 O'Neill's Integrated Method for Clay (b) Cyclic Loading Case

P = PU

F O R X X Cr

1.0

P
PU

= 0 .5 ( YY ) 0 . 387
C

0.5

P
PU

0.0

= FS + (1 FS )

20
RATIO OF DEFLECTION,

X
X Cr

Y
YC

Figure 4.6 ONeills Integrated Method for Clay (b) Static Loading Case

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4-5

4.2.4

Matlock's Soft Clay Below Water Table

SOIL=4 is Matlock's (1970) p-y representation of soft clays below the water table. The p-y curves for
both the static and cyclic response are shown below. The user must supply the soil's unit weight, ,
undrained strength, c, and the strain, 50 at 50% of the failure stress in an unconfined compression test. A
complete description of the curves is given in the FHWA's COM624 manual, as well as recommended
soil values.

1.0

P
PU

p
y

= 0.5

pu
y 50

0.5

0.0

8.0

1.0

1/ 3

y
y 50

Figure 4.7 a) P-Y Curve for Soft Clay Below Water Surface (Static Loading)

For x xr, (depth where flow around


failure governs)

1.0

0.72
P
PU

0.5

0.72 XX

0.0

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y
y 50

15

4-6

Figure 4.7 b) P-Y Curve for Soft Clay Below Water Surface (Cyclic Loading)
4.2.5

Reese's Stiff Clay Below Water Table

SOIL=5 is Reese et al. (1975) p-y model for stiff clays located below the water table. The p-y curves for
both the static and cyclic response are shown below. The user must supply the soil's subgrade modulus,
k, unit weight, , undrained strength, c, the strain, 50 at 50% of the failure stress in an unconfined
compression test, and the average undrained strength cavg for the whole clay layer. A complete description
of the curves is given in the FHWA's COM624 manual, as well as recommended values if no triaxial tests
are performed.

p = A c p c (1

Ac pc

y 0 .45 y p
0 .45 y p

0 .25

Soil Resistance, p ( l b / in )

CYCLIC

Esc =

Esi = k cx

0.085pc
y50

y p = 4 .1 A c y 5 0

y 50 = 50 b
0.45 yp

0.6 yp

1.8 yp

Deflection, y ( in )

Figure 4.8 Reese et al (1975) Cyclic P-Y Curve for Stiff Clay Located Below the Water Level

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4-7

S TATIC

Soil Resistance, p (lb/in.)

P = 0 .5 P c ( y ) 0 . 5
50

P offset = 0 .055 p c (

y A s y 50 1 . 25
)
A s y 50

0.5Pc

E ss =

0 .0625 p c
y 50

Esi = k s x
0

Asy50

y50

6Asy50

Deflection, y (in.)

18Asy50

Figure 4.9 Reese et al (1975) Static P-Y Curve for Stiff Clay Located Below the Water Table

4.2.6

Reese and Welch's Stiff Clay Above Water Table

SOIL=6 is Reese and Welch's (1975) p-y model for stiff clays above the water table. The p-y curves for
both the static and cyclic response are shown below. The user must supply the soil's unit weight, ,
undrained strength, c, the strain, 50 at 50% of the failure stress in an unconfined compression test, and the
average undrained strength cavg for the whole clay layer. Since this model is a function of the number of
load cycles, the variable, KCYC on line 7 of the input is used. A complete description of the curves is
given in the FHWA's COM624 manual, as well as recommended values if no triaxial tests are performed.

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4-8

p = pu

pu

y 1
p
= 0.5( s ) 4
pu
y 50

p
ys

16 y50

Figure 4.10 a) Welch and Reese (1972) Static P-Y Curve for Stiff Clay Above Water Table

pu
N1

N3

N2

yc = ys + y50 . C . logN3

yc = ys + y50 . C . logN2

yc = ys + y50 . C . logN1
p
yc

16 y50

16 y50

+
9.6 (y50 ) logN2

9.6 (y50 ) logN1

16 y50

+
9.6 (y50 ) logN3

Figure 4.10 b) Welch and Reese (1972) Cyclic P-Y Curve for Stiff Clay Above Water Table

4.2.7

User Defined

See the section labeled User defined P-Y data of soil information of the input file.

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4-9

4.3

AXIAL SOIL-PILE INTERACTION

Axial pile capacity is comprised of side friction and tip resistance. Respective component forces
are obtained from the following curves:

4.3.1

Axial T-Z Curve for Side Friction

Axial T-Z curves for modeling the soil-pile interaction are categorized for the following cases:

4.3.1.1

Driven Piles

The axial T-Z curves used in modeling the pile-soil interaction along the length of the driven pile
is shown in following figure (McVay, 1989) and given as

Z=
where

o ro
Gi

( rm )
( rm ro )
ln

+
( ro ) ( rm )( ro )

r
= o o
f

At a particular location on the pile/shaft, 0 is the shear stress being transferred to the soil for a
given z displacement, where r0 is the radius of the pile/shaft and rm is the radius out from the pile/shaft
were axial loading effects on soil are negligible, assumed equal to pile length times (1- soil's Poisson's
ratio) times the ratio of the soil's shear modulus at the pile's center to the value at its tip. The user must
supply Gi, the initial shear modulus of soil, , Poisson's ratio of soil, and f, the maximum shear stress
between the pile and soil at the depth in question. Evident from the equation above, the side springs are
highly nonlinear.

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4-10

Figure 4.11 Axial T-Z Curve for Pile/Shaft

4.3.1.2

Drilled and Cast Insitu Piles/Shafts

The t-z curves used for drilled and cast insitu piles/shafts are based in the recommendations found
in FHWA (1988). They are based in the trend lines and are computed for each node. Trend lines of stress
transfer for axial end bearing and side resistance are provided for the following materials:
4.3.1.2.1

Sand

Valid for 30

f sz = K 'z tan = 'z 2.0 tsf (1915


. kPa )
= 15
. 0135
.
z( ft )

0.25 < 12
.
valid for depths ranging from 5 to 87.5 ft (1.5 to 26.7 m)
The immediate settlements are computed using non-linear t-z springs, with the shape presented in Figure
4.12. The equations are provided but it should be noted that there is a considerable scatter around the
trend line.
Side friction mobilization (trendline)

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4-11

fs/fsmax = -2.16*R4+6.34*R3-7.36*R2+4.15*R

for R 0.908333

fs/fsmax = 0.978112
where

R=

for R > 0.908333

y3
* 100
D
Load Transfer in Drilled
Trend Lines for Sand for Side Friction

1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
Markers: FHWA (1988)
Lines: DEEP.

0.2
0.0
0

10

Settlement / Diameter (%)

Figure 4.12 Load Transfer in Drilled Shafts in Sand

4.3.1.2.2

Clay

f sz = z c u 2.75 tsf (263 kPa )

unless tests prove otherwise

From ground surface to depth of 5 ft (1.5 m)

=0

Bottom 1x diameter of drilled shaft or 1x stem diameter above top of bell

=0

All other points along the sides of the drilled shaft

= 0.55

The immediate settlements are computed using non-linear t-z springs, with the shape presented in Figure
4.13. The equations are provided but it should be noted that there is a considerable scatter around these
trend lines.

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

4-12

Side friction mobilization (trendline)


fs/fsmax = 0.593157*R/0.12

for R 0.12

fs/fsmax = R/(0.095155+0.892937*R)

for R 0.74

fs/fsmax = 0.978929-0.115817*(R-0.74) for R 2.0


fs/fsmax = 0.833

for R > 2.0

where

R=

y3
* 100
D
Load Transfer in Drilled
Trend Lines for Clay for Side Friction

1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
Markers: FHWA (1988)
Lines: DEEP.

0.2
0.0
0

10

Settlement / Diameter (%)

Figure 4.13 Load Transfer in Drilled Shafts in Clay

4.3.1.2.3

Intermediate Geomaterial

The design of drilled shafts founded in intermediate Geomaterials is directly from FHWAs
Load Transfer for Drilled Shafts in Intermediate Geomaterials, Publication No. FHWA-RD-95-172.
Intermediate Geomaterials are characterized as one of the following 3 Types:

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4-13

1. (Type 1)
2. (Type 2)
3. (Type 3)

Argillaceous geomaterials: Heavily overconsolidated clay,


clay shale, saprolite and mudstone.
Calcareous Rock: Limestone and Limerock
Very Dense Granular Geomaterials: residual, completely decomposed
rock, and glacial till.

Note:

Types 1 and 2 are considered to be cohesive materials with an undrained strength, qu in the range of 0.5
to 5.0 Mpa.
Type 3 is primarily cohesionless and has Nspt from 50 to 100
Method 1 proposed by FHWAs Load Transfer for Drilled Shafts in Intermediate Geomaterials, for
Type 1 and 2 materials has been coded herein.

Valid for IGM Type 1 and 2; 0.5 < qu < 5.0 Mpa; Recovery > 50 %;
Appropriate for very short sockets (L/D <2) or very long sockets (L/D>20);
Where there is strong layering in the formation, or where part of the socket is artificially roughened
and part is smooth

Required Data:
Number of Layers
Type of surface (rough or smooth)
qu (Mpa)
core recovery (%)
, unit weight
Mass Modulus - Em
Thickness
drilled shaft diameter
Youngs modulus of drilled shaft
unit weight of concrete in drilled shaft
pumping rate of concrete placement

4.3.1.3

User Defined

See the section labeled user defined t-z data of soil information of the input file.

4.3.2 Axial T-Z (Q-Z) Curve for Tip Resistance


Axial Q-Z curves for tip resistance are categorized for the following cases:

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4-14

4.3.2.1

Driven Piles

The nonlinear pile/shaft's tip spring, i.e. Q-Z curve for driven pile is shown in the following figure
and given as (McVay 1989):

z=

Q b ( 1 )

Q
4 r0 G i 1 b
Qf

where Qf is the ultimate tip resistance (force), Gi and are the initial shear modulus and Poisson's ratio of
the soil at the pile tip. r0 is again the radius of the pile/shaft, and Qb is the mobilized tip resistance.

Figure 4.14 Axial T-Z (Q-Z) Curve for Driven Pile

4.3.2.2

Drilled and Cast Insitu Piles/Shafts

The Q-Z curves used for drilled and cast insitu piles/shafts are based on the recommendations found
in FHWA (1988). They are based on the trend lines and are computed for each node. Trend lines of stress
transfer for axial end bearing and side resistance are provided for the following materials:

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4-15

4.3.2.2.1

Sand

Valid for NSPT > 10

NSPT

qb

qb

(uncorrected)

(tsf)

(kPa)

0 - 75

0.60 NSPT

57.5 NSPT

> 75

45

4300

if Bb > 50 in (1.27 m):

q br =

50
127
.
qb =
q
B b (in)
B b ( m) b

The immediate settlements are computed using non-linear Q-Z springs, with the shape presented in Figure
4.15 shown below. The equation is provided but it should be noted that there is considerable scatter
around the trend line.
End bearing mobilization (trendline)
qb/qbmax = -0.0001079* R4+0.0035584* R3-0.045115* R2+0.34861*R

Load Transfer in Drilled


Trend Lines for Sand for End Bearing
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
Markers: FHWA (1988)
Lines: DEEP.

0.4
0.2
0.0
0

10

Settlement / Diameter (%)

Figure 4.15 Load Transfer in Drilled Shafts with Sand End Bearing
FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

4-16

4.3.2.2.2

Clay

q b = N c c ub 40 tsf (383
. MPa )

unless tests prove otherwise

L
9
N c = 61 + 0.2
Bb

where cu = average undrained shear strength of the clay (computed 1 to 2 diameters below the shaft)
for Bb > 75 in (1.90 m) q br = Fr q b

Fr =

[a B

2.5
b

(in) + 2.5b

10
.

L
a = 0.0071 + 0.0021 0.015
Bb

b = 0.45 c u ( ksf )

0.5 b 15
.

Immediate Settlements (trendline)


The reference curve is presented in Figure 4.16. The marks represent the values proposed by FHWA
(1988) and the solid line is the adopted curve. It should be observed that considerable scatter is present
around the curve.
Reference curve (trendline)
qb/qbmax = 1.1823E-4*R5-3.7091E-3* R4+4.4944E-2* R3-0.26537* R2+0.78436*R
for R 6.5
qb/qbmax = 0.98

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

for R > 6.5

4-17

Load Transfer in Drilled


Trend Line for Clay for End Bearing
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
Markers: FHWA (1988)
Lines: DEEP.

0.2
0.0
0

10

Settlement / Diameter (%)

Figure 4.16 Load Transfer in Drilled Shafts with Clay End Bearing

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

4-18

4.3.2.2.3

Intermediate Geomaterial

The design of drilled shafts founded in intermediate Geomaterials is directly from FHWAs Load
Transfer for Drilled Shafts in Intermediate Geomaterials, Publication No. FHWA-RD-95-172.
Intermediate Geomaterials are characterized as one of the following 3 Types:
1. (Type 1)
2. (Type 2)
3. (Type 3)

Argillaceous geomaterials: Heavily overconsolidated clay,


clay shale, saprolite and mudstone.
Calcareous Rock: Limestone and Limerock
Very Dense Granular Geomaterials: residual, completely decomposed
rock, and glacial till.

Note:
Types 1 and 2 are considered to be cohesive materials with an undrained strength, qu in the range of 0.5
to 5.0 Mpa.
Type 3 is primarily cohesionless and has Nspt from 50 to 100

Method 1 proposed by FHWAs Load Transfer for Drilled Shafts in Intermediate Geomaterials, for
Type 1 and 2 materials has been coded herein.

Valid for IGM Type 1 and 2; 0.5 < qu < 5.0 Mpa; Recovery > 50 %;
Appropriate for very short sockets (L/D <2) or very long sockets (L/D>20);
Where there is strong layering in the formation, or where part of the socket is artificially roughened
and part is smooth

Required Data:
Number of Layers
Type of surface (rough or smooth)
qu (Mpa)
core recovery (%)
, unit weight
Mass Modulus - Em
Thickness
drilled shaft diameter
Youngs modulus of drilled shaft
unit weight of concrete in drilled shaft
pumping rate of concrete placement
slump of concrete in drilled shaft

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

4-19

4.3.2.3

User Defined

See the section labeled user defined q-z data of soil information of the input file.

4.4

TORSIONAL SOIL-PILE INTERACTION

The torsional stiffness of a pile embedded in soil is modeled using T- springs, where T is the
torque applied to the pile and is the angle of twist, in radians. The springs are located at the nodal
points. T- springs can be represented by any of the following ways:
4.4.1

Hyperbolic Curve

The non-linear T- behavior of the soil is modeled using an hyperbolic curve, with initial slope as
a function of the shear modulus G. The ultimate value is based on the ultimate shear stress at the contact
pile/soil.

T (F*L)
Tult

(rad)

Figure 4.17 Hyperbolic representation of T- curve


For a length of pile L, the torque is given by

T = 2 r02 0 L
where:
r0 = radius of the pile
0 = shear stress along L

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

4-20

For a long rigid pile embedded in a soil with shear modulus G, Randolph (1981) deduced the expression
for the torque per unit length

T
= 4 G r02
L

This expression does not consider the pile tip stiffness. For a long pile the tip contribution may be
considered negligible.
Using an hyperbolic curve defined by

T=

a + b

where the coefficients a and b are given by

1
dT
= initial slope = = 4 r02 G i L
d i
a

1
= Tult = 2 r02 ult L
b
The ultimate shear stress can be obtained with the same procedures as for axial skin friction. As for the
initial shear modulus, it should be determined from in-situ tests.

4.4.2

User Defined

See the section labeled User defined T- data of soil information of the input file.
References

1. Randolph, M.F., Piles Subjected to Torsion, Journal of the Geotechnical Division, ASCE, Vol. 107,
No. GT8, August, 1981, pp. 1095-1111

2. Stoll, U.W., Torque Shear Test of Cylindrical Friction Piles, Civil Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 42,
No. 4, April., 1972, pp.63-64

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

4-21

CHAPTER 5 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS THEORY


5.1

NONLINEAR BEHAVIOR
The discrete element is used to model the nonlinear behavior of the piles in FB-Pier. The discrete

element models the nonlinear material and geometric behavior of the piles. The nonlinear material
behavior is modeled by using input or default stress strain curves which are integrated over the crosssection of the piles. The nonlinear geometric behavior is modeled using the P-delta moments (moments of
the axial force times the displacements of one end of element to another) on the discrete element. And
since the user subdivides the pile into a number of sub-elements, the P-y moments (moments of axial
force times internal displacements within members due to bending) are also modeled.

5.2

DISCRETE ELEMENT MODEL

The discrete element model (Mitchell 1973 and Andrade 1995) can be represented as a
mechanical model as shown in Figure 5.1. The center bar can both twist and extend but is otherwise
rigid. The center bar is connected by two universal joints to two rigid end blocks. The universal joints
permit bending at the quarter points about the y and z axes Discrete deformational angle changes 1, 2,
3, 4 occur corresponding to the bending moments M2, M1, M4, M3 , respectively. A discrete axial
shortening

corresponds to the axial thrust T and the torsional angle 5 corresponds to the torsional

moment in the center bar M5.

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

5-1

y
h
2

h
2

53
w1
2

w8

51
1

w1

w6

w7

x
Side View

h
2

z
End Vie w

h
2

54

w9

w1
0

w1
1

w3
52
w4

w5

f5

2

f1
1

Top View

f4

f2

f1
f3

f6

f8
f9

f 7 f1
0

f1
2

Figure 5.1 Discrete Element Model


5.2.1

Element Deformation Relations

In Figure 5.1, w1 - w3 and w7 - w9 represent displacements in the x, y and z directions at the left
and right ends respectively, w4 and w10 represent axial twists (twists about the x -axis) at the left and right
ends, respectively, and w5-w6 and w11- w12 represent the angles at the left and right end blocks about the x
and z axes, respectively. Based on a small displacement geometric analysis:

h
n = w 3 w 9 ( w 5 + w 11 )
2
h
s = w 8 w 2 ( w 6 + w 12 )
2
The elongation of the center section of the element is calculated as follows:

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

5-2

= w 7 w1
The angle changes for the center section about the z and y axes are then defined below:

1 =
2 =

w 8 w 2 ( w 6 + w 12 )
s
=

h
h
2

w 3 w 9 ( w 5 + w 11 )
n
=

h
h
2

The discretized vertical and horizontal angle changes at the two universal joints are then:

1 = 1 w 6 ;
3 = w 12 1 ;

2 = w 5 2
4 = 2 w 11

and the twist in the center part of the element is defined as:

5 = w 10 w 4
Thus, the internal deformations of the discrete element model are uniquely defined for any combination
of element end displacements.
The curvature for small displacements at the left and right universal joints about the y and the z axes are
defined as follow :
At the left joint,

1 =

1
;
h

2 =

2
h

3
;
h

4 =

4
h

At the right joint,

3 =

The axial strain at the center of the section is given by:

c =

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

2h

5-3

5.2.2

Integration of Stresses

Consider a beam subjected to both bending and axial loads. It is assumed that the strains vary
linearly over the area of the cross-section. This assumption enables the strain components due to bending
about the z and y axes, and the axial strain, to be separated or combined using superposition. Examples
of these three components are represented separately in Figures 5.2 (a-c) and combined in Fig. 5.2 d. Also
shown in figure 5.2 d is a differential force, dFi, acting on a differential area, dAi. Finally, Figure 5.2 e
represents the stress-strain relationship for the material.

N2
N1

a) Strain due to
z-axis bending

b) Strain due to
y-axis bending

c) Strain due to
axial thrust

F
y
x

Fi

z
dAi

,
i

dFi

e) Stress-strain relationship
d) Combined strains

Figure 5.2 Linear Strain Distribution over Square Cross-Section

Then
FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

5-4

dFi = i dA i
And, to satisfy equilibrium :

M Z = A dFi Yi = A i Yi dA
M Y = A dFi Z i = A i Z i dA
T = A dFi = A i dA
The relationship for strain at any point in the cross-section is:

= c 1 Y 2 Z
The stress at any location in the section is found using the appropriate material stress-strain curve
described subsequently.
Numerical integration of equations is done using Gaussian Quadrature. To use the method of
Gaussian Quadrature, the function being integrated must be evaluated at those points specified by the
position factors. These values are then multiplied by the appropriate weighting factors and the products
accumulated. Figure 5.3 a shows a square section with 25 integration points (a 5x5 mesh). The number of
defaults integration points for square pile is set at 49 (a 7 by 7 mesh). Users may change this to a NPTS x
NPTS mesh by inserting a value for NPTS as the last input item in data line 6A. For circular sections, the
section is divided into circular sections (12 radial divisions and 5 circumferential divisions as shown in
Figure 5.3 b. The sections are integrated at the centroid of each sector using weighting factors of 1.0. The
stress in all steel bars is evaluated at the centroid and a weighting factor of 1 is used for each bar.

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

5-5

a) Cross Section of square pile showing integration points

b) Circular pile cross section showing steel rebars


Figure 5.3 Rectangular and Circular Section Integration Divisions

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

5-6

When a circular void is encountered in a square section, the force is first computed on the unvoided section and then the force that would be acting on the voided circular area is computed and
subtracted from the force computed for the non-void section. Circular sections with voids are divided into
sectors omitting the voided portion.

Even for nonlinear material analysis, the torsional moment M5 is assumed to be a linear function
of the angle of twist, 5. and the torsional stiffness GJ, where J is the torsional constant and G is the shear
modulus as shown next

M5 = G J

5.2.3

5
2h

Element End Forces

From equilibrium of the center bar (see Figure 5.1):

M4 M2
T 1
h
M M3
V2 = 1
T 2
h
V1 =

And from equilibrium of the end bars :

f1 = T; f 2 = V1 ; f 3 = V2 ; f 4 = M 5
h
h
f5 = M 1 + V2 + T w 5 ;
2
2

h
h
f 6 = M 2 + V1 + T w 6
2
2

f 7 = T; f8 = V1 ; f 9 = V2 ; f10 = M 5
h
h
h
h
f11 = M 3 + V2 + T w 11 ; f12 = M 4 + V1 + T w 12
2
2
2
2
where f1- f3 and f7 - f9 are the acting end forces, and f4 - f6 and f10 - f 12 are the end moments.

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

5-7

5.2.4

Element Stiffness

Using the standard definition, the stiffness of an element having n degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) is a
square matrix [K] of order n in which Kij is the force necessary in the i-th d.o.f. to produce a unit
deflection of the j-th d.o.f. The secant stiffness computed is the stiffness that the members would have if
each of the integration points had the secant stiffness defined by dividing the present stress by the present
strain as shown in the following figure.

Ei+1

i
Figure 5.4 Secant Stiffness for Nonlinear Stress-Strain
During the iteration process the element stiffness matrix is reevaluated in each new deformed
position. For each iteration, initially the secant stiffness is stored at all integration points within an
element. Then on 12 subsequent passes a unit displacement is applied to each element degree of freedom
in turn keeping all other displacements as zero and the forces corresponding to that unit displacement are
calculated by integrating the stresses over the cross-section of the element as described earlier. The
previously stored secant moduli at each of the Gaussian integration points are used in this integration of
stresses. The element end forces thus computed will be the nth column of the stiffness matrix
corresponding to a case where the nth degree of freedom has a unit displacement imposed , all other
displacements being held to zero.

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

5-8

5.2.5

Stress-Strain Curves

The user may define their own stress strain curves for concrete and steel or use the default values
described below:

5.2.5.1

Concrete

The figure below shows the default value of stress-strain curve supplied by the program and is a
function of f'c and Ec input by the user. The compression portion of the concrete curve is highly nonlinear and is defined by the Modified Hogenstead parabola and straight line as shown in the figure. For
the tension portion the curve is assumed linear up to a stress of fr and then has a tension softening portion
as shown. The tension softening portion attempts to account for the uncracked sections between cracks
where the concrete still carries some stress. The value of fr is based on the fixed value of er shown in the
figure and the modulus of elasticity Ec input by the user. For English units this will give a value of fr of
7.5f'c.

fc

u = 0.0038
u

2 f
0 = c
Ec

fr
0.5fr

0.002

r = (7.5/57000) = 0.000131578

Straight Line
0.85f c

r stf

Ec

stf = 0.0003

1
f c = 0.85f c

2
f c = f c2
o o
Figure 5.5 Default Stress-Strain Curve for Concrete

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

5-9

5.2.5.2

Mild Steel

For mild steel reinforcement the stress-strain relationship is assumed to be elastic-plastic and
similar in both tension and compression. A yield strain ey is computed based on the yield stress, fy and the
modulus of elasticity input Es,

y =

fy
Es

The default relations for the mild steel stress-strain curve are given by,

fs = f y

fs = E s

y < < y

fs = f y

The default stress -strain curve generated for steel with f'y=60 ksi and Ec=29600 ksi is shown in the figure
below.

60

40

20

-20

-40

-60
-0.05

-0.04

-0.03

-0.02

-0.01

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

Strain

Figure 5.6 Mild Steel Stress-Strain Curve for Fy = 60 ksi

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

5-10

0.05

5.2.5.3

High Strength Prestressing Steels

The figure in mild steel shows reinforcing as rebars. However, the user may select high strength
reinforcing strands as well as rebars. The stress-strain curves for prestressing steels generally do not have
a definite yield point as illustrated by the curve for fsu = 270 ksi in the figure below. The most common
values of fsu used in prestressing practice are fsu = 250 ksi and 270 ksi. For these two input values when
using standard (English) Units, the curves defined by the PCI design handbook (PCI 1992) will be used.
For other strengths or when using nonstandard units, the default curves will be obtained by using
nondimesional equations based on curve fitting the two cited curves. These curves are not recommended
for use for values of fsu much different than the standard values.

300

200

100

-100

-200

-300
-0.05

-0.04

-0.03

-0.02

-0.01

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

Strain

Figure 5.7 Prestressing Steel Stress-strain Curve for fsu = 270 ksi

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

5-11

0.05

5.2.5.4

Adjustment for Prestressing

When piles are prestressed prior to installation, there are stresses and strains existing at the time of
installation cue to the prestressing. the program shifts the origin of the stress-strain curve for the steel by
the amount of the prestressing stress in the steel and the corresponding steel strain. also, the program
shifts the origin of the concrete stress-strain curve by the amount of compression in the concrete and the
corresponding concrete strain. it is assumed that the prestressing is symmetrically placed and thus only a
constant compressive stress is developed in the concrete due to the prestressing.

5.2.6

Nonlinear Solution Strategies


A program such as FB-Pier that considers the nonlinear response of the soil and piles can be used

to provide some very good models of physical behavior. However, the use of nonlinear analysis programs
implies that the user understand the nonlinear models very thoroughly. The nonlinear models are
described in the program documentation and it is assumed that the user is familiar with these. However,
the user should also understand that the use of the nonlinear characteristics of the program may cause the
program to be unable to converge on a solution for a particular loading and that in some cases described
later, nonlinear programs may converge on a mathematical solution that isnt physically reasonable.
A novice user may then be tempted to say that one should stick to linear programs and avoid such
difficulty. However, the counter argument can be made that a linear analysis will almost always find a
solution even if the user puts in a totally unreasonable loading.
For the sake of discussion, assume that a relatively simple structure is being modeled by FB-Pier,
perhaps even a single pile cap with one or two piles with some vertical load applied which is held
constant and then a lateral load is applied gradually. Several different scenarios of lateral load versus
lateral displacement are possible as shown in Figure 5.8.

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

5-12

Force/Load

d
b

Displacement
Figure 5.8 Different Types of Load Displacement Response
The most desirable nonlinear response of the structure is shown as case 1. The load displacement
response starts to soften at about point a or b, reaches a peak load at c and has an essentially flat top that
show very good ductility. This is typical of a failure due is primarily due to yielding of the structure at
several locations in the piles possibly combined with similar action in some of the supporting soil layers.
However, if the user should put in a load above that corresponding to point c, it is obvious that a solution
will not be found. Likewise if a load near c is tried, it is possible that the solution will be very slow to
converge and may fail if a large number of iterations are not allowed.
This failure to converge can be avoided by doing a preliminary linear pile analysis and then
checking the strength ratios of the pile to see if they are all less than 1. However, the capacities of the
soils springs should be considered as well. It should also be noted that solutions may be found where the
pile strength ratios are greater than 1.0. This is primarily because the analysis program does not use
capacity reduction factors as are used in generating the strength ratios.
The response indicated by case 2 is not as good as shown in case 1. The difference is that some
element in the soil or the pile has a very limited ductility and causes the collapse of the structure before
sufficient ductility is obtained. As examples, a section of the pile could be a way under reinforced and fail
when cracking or a section could be very over reinforced and fail when the concrete fails in compression
without adequate yielding of the steel. Numerous other causes are possible such as premature shear
failure and the designer must insure that these failure modes do not prevent adequate ductile response,

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

5-13

since they are not considered in the analysis. As in the type 1 response the user may encounter difficulties
when trying to apply loads near the level of the capacity.
Suppose the designer wants to demonstrate that the behavior is indeed type 1 versus type 2. A
push over analysis could be done and this requires a displacement controlled solution. A large spring
would be placed at the node where the lateral load is applied and then a series of large loads would be
applied. The spring would take the larger amount of the load but by properly choosing the spring stiffness
and load, the displacements could be controlled and the load absorbed by the structure could be found and
the pushover results plotted.
In rare instances the response of a structure may be like that shown as case 3. Here at a load near
d the curve flattens and may even decrease. However, for increasingly large displacements the load may
start to rise again. It will be very difficult to obtain converged solutions for loads near d. However, if a
much larger load is applied a solution may be found on the curve well above d. This type of behavior
generally occurs when some type of local failure occurs. If the structure has sufficient ductility it may
then be able to find a new path to distribute the forces and carry some additional load, albeit with a
considerable reduction in stiffness. An example of this type of behavior is when the gravity loading is
small and because of a large lateral load a pull out occurs on one of the piles. The question then arises,
should the design based on the post pull out behavior be used?
Clearly the use of nonlinear analysis program does not remove the responsibility of the designer
to monitor the local responses of the structure. Fortunately the program outputs detailed information
about the behavior of the soil and pile that can and must be reviewed before a structure can be said to be
adequate.
Finally, case 4 in which the structure appears to move against the loads must be considered. For
very slender structures with very large gravity loading, the stiffness of the structure will go negative when
the elastic buckling loading of the structure is exceeded. Again this is a rare case and would almost never
happen for a designer evaluating a real structure. However, someone trying the program out with arbitrary
dimensions and loads might create such a condition and then be disturbed that the program is giving
obvious unreasonable results. A linear analysis program would of course produce even more possibly
dangerous results, it would indicate a positive displacement which would then not give any indication that
something was wrong with the structure.

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

5-14

CHAPTER 6 SUGGESTED INSITU SOIL PARAMETERS


6.1

SOIL PROPERTIES

Following are the important soil properties required as input parameters.


Young's Modulus
Poisson's Ratio
Shear Modulus
Angle of Internal Friction
Undrained Strength
Subgrade Modulus
Water Table
6.1.1

Shear Modulus

The shear modulus, G of soils, is a function of soil type, past loading, and geological history. It
is recommended that G be obtained from insitu tests such as dilatometer, CPT and SPT.
G can be computed from Young's Modulus, E and Poisson's ratio, , from the following correlation:

G =

E
2(1 + )

In the case of no insitu data is available the following guide is provided:


G=
=

0.5 * k * z / (1+RNU) for sand


50 * Cu / (1+RNU)
for clay

k=
z=
Cu =

soil modulus (F/L3)


depth below ground surface (L)
undrained shear strength (F/L2)
or a spatial average, for the values of GM should be used for any
soil profile.

where

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

6-1

6.1.2

Young's Modulus
The following recommendation is given by Kulhways and Mayne (1990) for Young's Modulus,

E, for sands:
Normally Consolidated Clean Sands:
E (psf) = 20,000 N60
Over Consolidated Clean Sands:
E (psf) = 30,000 N60
Sand with fines:
E (psf) = 10,000 N60
where N60 is the corrected SPT blow count.
6.1.3

Poisson's Ratio

The following typical values may be used for the Poisson's ratio RNU for soils:
RNU

6.1.4

= 0.2 to 0.3 for sand


= 0.4 to 0.5 for clay
or a spatial average, for the values of RNU over depth may be used for
soils consisting of both sand and clay.

Angle of Internal Friction

Angle of internal friction, ', can be computed from SPT N values using the following empirical
correlation:

25-30

10

30

50

27-32

30-35

35-40

38-43

N' = CN N
Where
CN = correction for overburden pressure

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

6-2

FHWA 96 uses the correction by Peck, et al. (1974):

20
19152
.
C N = 0.77 log 10
= 0.77 log 10

' v ( tsf )
' v ( kPa)
valid only for v 0.25 tsf (24 kPa) (Bowles, 1977)
Normalizing for atmospheric pressure (pa): (1 atm = 101.3 kPa = 1.06 tsf )

pa

C N = 0.77 log 10 20
' v
Larger values should be used for granular material with 5% or less of fine sand and silt.
For numerical implementation, the average correlation can be expressed as
= a N + b
where

6.1.5

0 - 10

0.50

27.5

10 - 30

0.25

30.0

30 - 50

0.15

33.0

50 -

40.5

Undrained Strength

Estimates of undrained shear strength, cu can be made using the correlations of qu with SPT Nvalues (see the figure below).

cu =

qu
2

qu = unconfined compressive strength

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

6-3

30

SPT Blow Count, N

25

Sower's:
Clay of low plasticity and
clayey silt

20

Terzaghi & Peck

15
10
Clay of high plasticity

Clay of medium plasticity

0
0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

Unconfined Compressive Strength, qu (tsf)


Figure 6.1 Correlations between SPT N-value and Unconfined Compressive Strength
6.1.6

Subgrade Modulus

Subgrade modulus, k (F/L3) of cohesionless soil can be estimated from empirical correlations. For
sand, use SPT N-value to find and to find k.

6.1.7

Water Table

The user has the option of specifying a water table for each soil layer. The latter may be used to
model flowing water, perched water or continuous static water. Each soil layer must have a water table
associated with it in order to compute effective stresses. In the case where the total stress is equal to the
effective stress (i.e. no pore pressure), the user needs to place the water table for the layer at or below the
layers bottom boundary, i.e. specify a water elevation at or below the bottom of the layer.

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

6-4

CHAPTER 7 PROGRAM USAGE GUIDE


7.1

DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAM MENUS

The general control of the FB-Pier program can be found in the menus at top of the screen. A
description of each menu item follows.

7.1.1 File Menu


The File menu handles the problem creation, file access, printing, and exiting the program.
Create a new problem
Open an existing problem
Close current problem
Save current problem
Save current problem as different name
Prints the active window
Access the printer setup

Previously opened files

Exit the program

7.1.2 View Menu

The View menu controls the appearance of the toolbar at the top of the screen and the status bar
at the bottom of the screen.

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

7-1

Show/hide toolbar
Show/hide status bar
Show/hide 3D control (zoom) bar

7.1.3 Control Menu

The Control menu allows the user to access the output data from the program, enable multiple
water tables, and control the appearance of the fonts used in the dialogs, graphics, and plots.

View result data from analysis


Enable multiple water tables
Set font for dialogs
Set font for graphics
Set font for plots

Update the software license

7.1.4 Help Menu

The Help menu provides access to the online help manual. An about option is also provided to
list the version number of the program and current system settings.

Access help manual


Show program information

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7-2

7.2

DESCRIPTION OF TOOLBAR ICONS

The buttons in the toolbar at the top of the screen control the access to different modules within
the program. Some of the menu items can also be accessing using the buttons instead for convenience.
The purpose of each button in the toolbar is described below.

Print active window


Save file
Open file
New problem

View 3D results
View structure interaction diagrams
View pile interaction diagrams
Plot structure forces
Plot pile forces
Run analysis
Edit model data

Load case toggle box

3D Control Bar (if activated)


Move view down
Move view right
Move view up
Move view left
Zoom out
Zoom in

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

7-3

7.3

DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAM MODELING WINDOWS

The editing module of the main program is divided into 4 windows that are used to create and
display the model of the deep foundation. A description of each window follows.

7.3.1 Model Data Window

The Model Data window in the upper left portion of the screen is used for all of the data entry for
the problem. The data is entered in tabbed dialogs, which categorize the different aspects of the problem
modeling. The number of tabbed dialogs needed for data entry depends on the type of problem that is
modeled. If the information on a particular tab is not needed, a red X appears next to the tab title.

7.3.1.1

Problem Tab

The Problem tab is used to enter textual information about the project. This tab can also be used
to change the type of problem being modeled as well as the system of units.

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7-4

7.3.1.2

Analysis Tab

The Analysis tab is used to set analysis parameters. These parameters include whether the pile
and pier behavior are linear or nonlinear, the number of iterations and iteration tolerance, the extent of the
output print, and various other parameters.

7.3.1.3

Pile Tab

The Pile tab is used to enter the pile and cap data. This data includes the pile spacing, the pile tip
elevation, the pile section type, and various other parameters.

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7-5

7.3.1.4

Soil Tab

The Soil tab is used for entering the soil layer data. Various soil types and soil layer models are
available. The soil layer water table elevation data is also entered in this tab.

7.3.1.5

Pier (Wall) Tab

The Pier tab is used for entering the structural parameters for the pier. This tab is not used for the
Pile and Cap Only and Column Analysis problem types. Note that the tab title will be Wall Structure
for retaining wall and sound wall problems.

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7-6

7.3.1.6

Members Tab

The Members tab is used for applying addition structural members to a pier. This option
provides the flexibility to model unique pier configurations.

7.3.1.7

Load Tab

The Load tab is used for applying loads to the foundation and structural nodes.

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7-7

7.3.1.8

Springs Tab

The Springs tab is used for applying springs to any pile cap or pier node. The spring stiffness can
be applied in any of the six degrees of freedom.

7.3.1.9

Retaining Tab

The Retaining tab is only activated for retaining wall problems.

The tab is used to enter

information specific to the wall structure, load, and soil retaining layers.

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7-8

7.3.1.10 Pushover Tab


The Pushover tab is used to specify a loading increment for a static pushover analysis. The loads
applied to the structure will be incremented by this amount until the structure fails.

7.3.2 Soil Edit Window


The Soil Edit window shows an elevation view of the soil strata. Basic soil properties and color
codes are given for each layer.

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7-9

7.3.3 Pile Edit Window

The Pile Edit window shows a plan view of the pile group. The geometry of the pile group can
be changed in this window.

7.3.4 3D View Window

The 3D View window shows a three-dimensional view of the problem that is being modeled.
The model can be viewed from any orientation in real time.

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7-10

7.4

DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAM RESULTS WINDOWS


The results module of the main program uses different windows to display the results of the

model analysis. A description of each window follows.

7.4.1 Pile Selection Window


The Pile Selection window is used to select piles for plotting force and interaction diagrams. For
force plots, multiple piles can be selected at one time. For interaction diagrams, only one pile can be
selected at a time.

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7-11

7.4.2 Pier Selection Window


The Pier Selection window is very similar to the Pile Selection Window and is used to select
structural elements for plotting force and interaction diagrams. For force plots, multiple pier columns can
be selected at one time. For interaction diagrams, only one portion of the pier structure can be selected at
a time.

7.4.3 Plot Display Control Window

The Plot Display Control window is used to view any combination of force plots. The window
also provides information about the location and magnitude of the minimum and maximum forces.

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7-12

7.4.4 Force Plot Window

The Force Plot window is used to view forces in either pile or structure components. A plot of
the axial force along the pile is shown as an example.

7.4.5 Segment Selection Window


The Segment Selection window is used to select a segment to view the interaction diagram. This
window is used for both pile and pier component interaction diagrams, provided that full cross-section
properties are specified for the segment.

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7.4.6 Interaction Diagram Window


The Interaction Diagram window is used to view the interaction diagram for a pile or pier
component.

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7-14

7.4.7 3D Display Window


The 3D Display window is used to control the type of 3D plot presented in the 3D Results
window. It is also used to view the nodal displacement results for a given load case.

7.4.8 3D Results Window


The 3D Results window is used to view the displaced shape of the model after loading.

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7-15

7.5

STATUS BAR
The status bar is located at the bottom of the screen (if turned on from the Control menu). The status

bar provides information provides the current date and time.

7.6

ADDITIONAL PROGRAM ISSUES


There are several items concerning the usage of the program that are explained here for clarity.

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7-16

7.6.1 Reopening a Window


If the user closes one or more of the four main windows while editing the problem, the windows
can be reopened at any time by clicking on the Model Edit button in the toolbar. This is also true for
windows that have been minimized and a hidden behind the other windows.

7.6.2 Changing Fonts


Because FB-Pier will run on machines with different display resolutions, graphics cards, and
graphics drivers, the fonts may need to be adjusted to suit the individual needs of the client. A common
situation that arises is the appearance of incomplete words in the tabbed dialogs. If this is the case, the
dialog font needs to be adjusted. The fonts can be changed with the Control menu. Once the font is set
for a particular user, the same font will be used the next time the program is run. The fonts can be
changed for the dialogs, graphics, and plots.

7.6.3 Changing p-y Multipliers


When adding pile rows to a problem, p-y multipliers need to be assigned to those rows. The
Group button in the Soil tab will bring up a dialog to assign the p-y multipliers to the rows. The Default
button can be used to set default p-y multipliers to all of the rows. P-y multipliers can also be set to 1.0 at
this point.

7.6.4 Pile Number and the Pile Edit Window


The Pile tab in the Properties window defines the number of pile grid locations in the x and y
direction to establish a pile grid. The actual piles on this grid are shown in the Pile Edit window. Since
FB-Pier allows for missing piles, the number of actual piles doesnt have to match the number of grid
points, but will always be less than or equal to the number of grid points.

7.6.5 Deleting Load Cases


FB-Pier currently does not allow the user to delete Load Case 1. This option forces the user to
have at least one load on the foundation and/or structure so that an analysis can be done.

APPENDIX A EXAMPLE PROBLEM INPUT FILES


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7-17

The input files generated by FB-Pier are presented below for further study.

A.1 Example 1 Single Pile Problem


PROBLEM
opening...
FHWA
Pile and Cap Problem
01/12/01
Example 1
:
PRINT
L=1 M=1 D=1 O=1 S=1 P=1 T=1 F=1 C=1 B=1 I=1 R=0 N=0
:
CONTROL
1 U= 1 D= 0 S= 0 R= 0 N= 17 V=1.0 : NUMLC
S= 0 T= 0 0 P= 2
I= 60 T= 1
:
PILE
S= 0 M= 0 NSEG= 1
C 0.760 M Square FDOT Standard prestressed
C T=1 D=2 U=1 : PreCast - nonlinear
K= 2 L= 19 M= 1 C= 41370 , 3.04414e+007 \
S= 0,1.86165e+006,0,0,0,1.96508e+008,0,0
W= 0.76 V= 0.457 N= 2 P= 0 S= 23.6 : (square)
NG= 4 HPI= 0
0.00010774 0.291 0.291 999775 N= 8 D= 2
0.00010774 0.291 -0.291 999775 N= 8 D= 2
0.00010774 0.291 0.2079 999775 N= 6 D= 3
0.00010774 -0.291 0.2079 999775 N= 6 D= 3
E= 0 H= 1 A= 1 S= 5 G= 0 C= 0
1 1 : NPX, NPY
1
1
:
SOIL
L= 2 C= 0 W= 0 O= 0 S= 0 : Nlayers,kcyc
32 16286 16 25 0 0 24132 0.3 34.5 3 \
4 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 \
E=0,-3 B=0
32 16286 16 25 0 0 24132 0.3 34.5
35 27155 19 0 0 0 24132 0.3 55.2 17 \
2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 \
E=-3,-20 B=0
35 27155 19 0 0 0 24132 0.3 55.2
24132 0.35 2846.7 1 : soil tip stiffness info
:
LOAD
1 L= 1 F= 15 0 0 0 0 0

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A-2

A.2 Example 2 General Pier Problem

PROBLEM
Default Pier Structure
Units are Kips and Inches
FHWA
General Pier Problem
01/13/01
Example 2
:
PRINT
L=0 M=0 D=1 O=1 S=0 P=1 T=0 F=1 C=1 B=0 I=1 R=0 N=0
:
CONTROL
1 U= 0 D= 0 S= 0 R= 0 N= 17 V=1.0 : NUMLC
S= 0 T= 0 0 P= 3 F= 0
I= 50 T= 1
:
PILE
NSET= 1 S= 0 M= 0 NSEG= 1
C 54" Drilled Shaft
C T=2 D=2 U=0 : Drilled Shaft - nonlinear
K= 1 L= 80 M= 1 C= 5 , 4030 \
S= 60,0,0,0,29000,0,0,0
NL= 1 D= 54 V= 0 S= 150 TH= 0 IC= 0 T= 1 HPI= 0 : (round)
0 24 D= 48 A= 1 : prest, # bars, diam, area
E= 0 H= 1 A= 1 S= 5 G= 0 C= 0
5 4 : NPX, NPY
54 162 162 54
54 162 54
0.3 0.4 0.8
0.4 0.8
:
MISSING
14 : number of missing piles
1 1
2 1
3 1
4 1
5 1
1 2
5 2
1 3
5 3
1 4
2 4
3 4
4 4
5 4
:

(Continued on next page)


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A-3

SOIL
L= 2 C= 0 W= 0 O= 0 S= 0 : Nlayers,kcyc
35 150 120 0 0 0 3.5 0.3 1152 35 \
2 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 \
E=-15,-50 B=0 S=0
35 150 120 0 0 0 3.5 0.3 1152
35 150 140 403200 0.01 0 3.5 0.3 1152 30 \
4 4 1 1 35 0 20 0.5 40320 \
E=-50,-80 B=0 S=2
35 150 140 403200 0.01 0 3.5 0.3 1152
3.5 0.35 300 4 : soil tip stiffness info
:
STRUCTURE
N= 2 S= 16.7 H= 30 O= 9.65 C= 5 B= 4, 3 W= 13.7 F= 3 A= 0, 0 \
T= 0, 0 R= 60, 0, 0 J= 3
C Custom
C T=1 D=1 U=0 : PreCast - linear
K= 2 L= 0 M= 1 C= 5 , 4200 \
S= 60,0,0,0,29000,0,0,0
W= 60 V= 0 B= 0 N= 2 P= 0 S= 0 : (square)
NG= 4 HPI= 0
1.56 -26 -26 0 N= 12 D= 3
1.56 -21.27 26 0 N= 10 D= 2
1.56 26 26 0 N= 12 D= 3
1.56 21.27 -26 0 N= 10 D= 2
C Custom
C T=1 D=1 U=0 : PreCast - linear
K= 2 L= 0 M= 1 C= 5 , 4200 \
S= 60,0,0,0,29000,0,0,0
W= 60 D= 48 V= 0 B= 0 N= 2 P= 0 S= 0 : (rectangular)
NG= 4 HPI= 0
1 -16 -26 0 N= 6 D= 2
1 -16 26 0 N= 6 D= 2
1.56 -21 26 0 N= 12 D= 3
1.56 21 26 0 N= 12 D= 3
C Custom
C T=1 D=1 U=0 : PreCast - linear
K= 2 L= 0 M= 1 C= 5 , 4200 \
S= 60,0,0,0,29000,0,0,0
W= 60 D= 48 V= 0 B= 0 N= 2 P= 0 S= 0 : (rectangular)
NG= 4 HPI= 0
1 -16 -26 0 N= 6 D= 2
1 -16 26 0 N= 6 D= 2
1.56 -21 26 0 N= 12 D= 3
1.56 21 26 0 N= 12 D= 3
:
CAP
E= 4400 U= 0.2 T= 10 S= 0
:

(Continued on next page)

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A-4

SPRING
1
89 S= 5000
:
LOAD
71 L= 1 F=
70 L= 1 F=
85 L= 1 F=
89 L= 1 F=
38 L= 1 F=
:
SWFACT
1 F= 0 0
:

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 150 0 0 0
0 0 250 0 0 0
0 0 250 0 0 0
0 0 150 0 0 0
1000 0 0 0 0 0

(End of Example 2)

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A-5

A.3

Example 3 Retaining Wall Problem

PROBLEM
Default Retaining Wall File
Units are Kips and Inches
FHWA
Retaining Wall Problem
01/13/01
Example 3
:
PRINT
L=0 M=0 D=0 O=0 S=0 P=0 T=0 F=0 C=0 B=0 I=0 R=0 N=0
:
CONTROL
1 U= 0 D= 0 S= 0 R= 0 N= 17 V=1.0 : NUMLC
S= 0 T= 0 0 P= 3 F= 0
I= 50 T= 1
:
PILE
NSET= 1 S= 0 M= 0 NSEG= 1
C 12x84 H-Pile
C T=0 D=2 U=0 : H-Pile - nonlinear
K= 3 L= 60 M= 1 C= 5 , 4030 \
S= 0,0,60,0,0,0,29000,0
OR= 2
D= 12.28 TW= 0.685 B= 12.295 TF= 0.685 S= 490
E= 0 H= 1 A= 1 S= 5 G= 0 C= 0
4 11 : NPX, NPY
48 49.18 48
48 36.885 36.885 36.885 36.885 36.885 36.885 36.885 36.885 48 \
0.4 0.8
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.8
:
MISSING
26 : number of missing piles
1 1
2 1
3 1
4 1
1 2
4 2
1 3
4 3
1 4
4 4
1 5
4 5
1 6
4 6
1 7
4 7

(Continued on next page)


FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

A-6

1 8
4 8
1 9
4 9
1 10
4 10
1 11
2 11
3 11
4 11
:
SOIL
L= 1 C= 0 W= 0 O= 0 S= 0 : Nlayers,kcyc
36 50 107 900 0.03 0.08 3.2 0.3 432 80 \
3 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 \
E=0,-80 B=0 S=1
36 50 107 900 0.03 0.08 3.2 0.3 540
50 0.3 6000 1 : soil tip stiffness info
:
RETAIN
N= 1 S= 20 H= 13.5 O= 6 C= 5 B= 2, 2 W= 0 F= 1 A= 0, 0 \
T= 0, 0 J= 1
C 12" Square FDOT Standard prestressed
C T=1 D=2 U=0 : PreCast - nonlinear
L=60 E=4200 I=116640,2.0736e+007 J=200000 G=1800 \
A=4320 W=65.7267 S=0 K=2
O= 2 S= 3 L= 1
A= 90 S= 10 H= 3 G= 62.3981 Q= 5 , 4 , 500
T= 12 S= 5 P= 0 , 34 , 0 G= 110 , 120
L= 1
:
CAP
E= 4400 U= 0.2 T= 3 S= 0
:
LOAD
:
SWFACT
1 F= 0 0
:

(End of Example 3)

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

A-7

A.4 Example 4 High Mast Lighting Problem


PROBLEM
High Mast Default File
System is Kips/Inches
FHWA
Mast Arm Lighting Problem
01/12/01
Example 4
:
PRINT
L=0 M=1 D=1 O=0 S=1 P=1 T=0 F=0 C=0 B=0 I=1 R=0 N=0
:
CONTROL
1 U= 0 D= 0 S= 0 R= 0 N= 17 V=1.0 : NUMLC
S= 1 T= 0 0 P= 1
I= 50 T= 1
:
PILE
NSET= 1 S= 0 M= 0 NSEG= 1
C Custom Linear Round Section
C T=0 D=0 U=0 : H-Pile - linear
L=25 E=4400 I=27648,27648 J=50000 G=0 \
A=576 D=27.0815 S=0 K=1
E= 0 H= 1 A= 1 S= 5 G= 0 C= 0
1 1 : NPX, NPY
:
SOIL
L= 1 C= 0 W= 0 O= 0 S= 0 : Nlayers,kcyc
35 150 119.923 0 0 0 3.5 0.3 1152 30 \
2 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 \
E=0,-30 B=-30 S=0
35 150 119.923 0 0 0 3.5 0.3 1152
3.5 0.35 640 1 : soil tip stiffness info
:
MAST
N= 1 S= 0 H= 8.3333 O= 0 C= 5 B= 0, 10 W= 10 F= 0 A= 0, 0 \
T= 0, 0 J= 1
C Custom Linear Square Section
C T=0 D=0 U=0 : H-Pile - linear
L=10 E=29000 I=1728,1728 J=2400 G=11154 \
A=144 W=12 S=0 K=2
C Custom Linear Square Section
C T=0 D=0 U=0 : H-Pile - linear
L=10 E=29000 I=1728,1728 J=2400 G=11154 \
A=144 W=12 S=0 K=2
LC= 0
LA= -0.167
:
LOAD
:

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A-8

A.5 Example 5 Sound Wall Problem


PROBLEM
Default Sound Wall Problem
Units are Kips and Inches
FHWA
Sound Wall Problem
01/12/01
Example 5
:
PRINT
L=0 M=0 D=0 O=0 S=0 P=0 T=0 F=0 C=0 B=0 I=0 R=0 N=0
:
CONTROL
1 U= 0 D= 0 S= 0 R= 0 N= 17 V=1.0 : NUMLC
S= 0 T= 0 0 P= 3
I= 50 T= 1
:
PILE
NSET= 1 S= 0 M= 0 NSEG= 1
C 12" Square FDOT Standard prestressed
C T=1 D=2 U=0 : PreCast - nonlinear
K= 2 L= 25 M= 1 C= 6 , 4415 \
S= 0,270,0,0,0,28500,0,0
W= 12 V= 0 N= 2 P= 0 S= 0 : (square)
NG= 4 HPI= 0
0.115 2.5 2.5 145 N= 3 D= 2
0.115 2.5 -2.5 145 N= 3 D= 2
0.115 2.5 0 145 N= 1 D= 3
0.115 -2.5 0 145 N= 1 D= 3
E= 0 H= 1 A= 1 S= 5 G= 0 C= 0
2 2 : NPX, NPY
36
36
0 1
0 1
:
SOIL
L= 1 C= 0 W= 0 O= 0 S= 0 : Nlayers,kcyc
36 50 114.048 0 0 0 1 0.3 432 41.667 \
2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 \
E=0,-41.667 B=-10 S=0
36 50 114.048 0 0 0 3.2 0.3 540
50 0.3 6000 1 : soil tip stiffness info
:
SOUND
N= 1 S= 4 H= 15 O= 1.5 C= 5 B= 2, 2 W= 0 F= 0 A= 0, 0 \
T= 0, 0 R= 12, 0, 0 J= 2
C Custom Rectangular Section with Properties
C T=0 D=0 U=0 : H-Pile - linear
K= 2 L= 0 M= 1 C= 5 , 5500 \
S= 60,0,0,0,29000,0,0,0

(Continued on next page)


FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

A-9

W= 12 V= 0 N= 2 P= 0 S= 0 : (square)
NG= 4 HPI= 0
0.115 2.5 2.5 0 N= 3 D= 2
0.115 2.5 -2.5 0 N= 3 D= 2
0.115 2.5 0 0 N= 1 D= 3
0.115 -2.5 0 0 N= 1 D= 3
L= 50
:
CAP
E= 4400 U= 0.2 T= 4 S= 0
:
LOAD
:
SWFACT
:

(End of Example 5)

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

A-10

A.6 Example 6 Stiffness Formulation Problem


PROBLEM
Default Stiffness Structure
Units are Kips and Inches

01/12/01

:
PRINT
L=0 M=0 D=1 O=0 S=0 P=1 T=0 F=1 C=1 B=0 I=1 R=0 N=0
:
CONTROL
1 U= 0 D= 0 S= 1 R= 0 N= 17 V=1.0 : NUMLC
S= 0 T= 0 0 P= 2
I= 50 T= 1
:
PILE
NSET= 1 S= 0 M= 0 NSEG= 1
C Custom Rectangular Section with Properties
C T=0 D=0 U=0 : H-Pile - linear
K= 2 L= 80 M= 1 C= 6 , 4415 \
S= 0,270,0,0,0,28500,0,0
W= 24 V= 0 N= 2 P= 0 S= 0 : (square)
NG= 4 HPI= 0
0.167 9.5 9.5 145 N= 7 D= 2
0.167 9.5 -9.5 145 N= 7 D= 2
0.167 9.5 5.6666 145 N= 5 D= 3
0.167 -9.5 5.6666 145 N= 5 D= 3
E= 0 H= 1 A= 1 S= 9 G= 0 C= 0
5 5 : NPX, NPY
24 72 72 24
24 72 72 24
0.3 0.4 0.8
0.3 0.4 0.8
:
MISSING
16 : number of missing piles
1 1
2 1
3 1
4 1
5 1
1 2
5 2
1 3
5 3
1 4
5 4

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

A-11

1 5
2 5
3 5
4 5
5 5
:
SOIL
L= 1 C= 0 W= 0 O= 0 S= 0 : Nlayers,kcyc
35 150 119.232 0 0 0 3.5 0.3 1152 70 \
2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 \
E=-30,-100 B=-30 S=0
35 150 119.232 0 0 0 3.5 0.3 1152
3.5 0.35 300 1 : soil tip stiffness info
:
CAP
E= 4400 U= 0.2 T= 5.4167 S= 0
:
LOAD
82 L= 1 F= 123 12 100 1.9167 1 0.58333
:
SWFACT
1 F= 0 0
:

(End of Example 6)

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

A-12

A.7 Example 7 Multiple Pile Sets Problem


PROBLEM
opening...
FHWA
Pile and Cap Only - Retrofit
01/12/01
Example 7
:
PRINT
L=0 M=0 D=1 O=1 S=0 P=1 T=0 F=0 C=1 B=0 I=1 R=0 N=0
:
CONTROL
1 U= 0 D= 0 S= 0 R= 0 N= 17 V=1.0 : NUMLC
S= 0 T= 0 0 P= 2
I= 60 T= 1
:
PILE
NSET= 2 S= 0 M= 0 NSEG= 1 1
C 24" Square FDOT Standard prestressed
C T=1 D=2 U=0 : PreCast - nonlinear
K= 2 L= 60 M= 1 C= 6 , 4415 \
S= 0,270,0,0,0,28500,0,0
W= 24 V= 0 N= 2 P= 0 S= 150 : (square)
NG= 4 HPI= 0
0.167 9.5 9.5 145 N= 7 D= 2
0.167 9.5 -9.5 145 N= 7 D= 2
0.167 9.5 5.6666 145 N= 5 D= 3
0.167 -9.5 5.6666 145 N= 5 D= 3
C 30" Square FDOT Standard prestressed 2
C T=1 D=2 U=0 : PreCast - nonlinear
K= 2 L= 80 M= 1 C= 5 , 5500 \
S= 0,270,0,0,0,28500,0,0
W= 30 V= 0 N= 2 P= 0 S= 0 : (square)
NG= 4 HPI= 0
0.167 11.5 11.5 150 N= 8 D= 2
0.167 11.5 -11.5 150 N= 8 D= 2
0.167 11.5 8.2143 150 N= 6 D= 3
0.167 -11.5 8.2143 150 N= 6 D= 3
E= 0 H= 1 A= 1 S= 5 G= 0 C= 0
7 7 : NPX, NPY
32 72 72 72 72 32
32 72 72 72 72 32
0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.8
0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.8
:
MISSING
24 : number of missing piles

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

A-13

1 1
2 1
3 1
4 1
5 1
6 1
7 1
1 2
7 2
1 3
7 3
1 4
7 4
1 5
7 5
1 6
7 6
1 7
2 7
3 7
4 7
5 7
6 7
7 7
:
SOIL
L= 2 C= 0 W= 0 O= 0 S= 0 : Nlayers,kcyc
32 60 108.864 0 0 0 3.5 0.3 720 15 \
2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 \
E=0,-25 B=-25 S=0
32 60 108.864 0 0 0 3.5 0.3 720
35 150 119.232 0 0 0 3.5 0.3 1152 50 \
2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 \
E=-25,-90 B=-25 S=0
35 150 119.232 0 0 0 3.5 0.3 1152
3.5 0.35 640 1 : soil tip stiffness info
:
PILESET
1 2
2 2
3 2
4 2
5 2
6 2
10 2
11 2
15 2
16 2
20 2
21 2
22 2
23 2
24 2
25 2
:

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

A-14

CAP
E= 4400 U= 0.2 T= 8 S= 0
:
LOAD
13 L= 1 F= 200 0 500 0 0 0
:
SWFACT
1 F= 0 0
:

(End of Example 7)

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

A-15

A.8 Example 8 Pile Bent Problem


PROBLEM
PILE BENT PROBLEM
UNITS ARE KIPS AND INCHES
FHWA
Pile Bent
1/12/01
Example 8
:
PRINT
L=1 M=0 D=1 O=0 S=0 P=1 T=1 F=1 C=1 B=0 I=1 R=0 N=0
:
CONTROL
1 U= 0 D= 0 S= 0 R= 0 N= 17 V=1.0 : NUMLC
S= 1 T= 0 0 P= 2
I= 50 T= 1
:
PILE
NSET= 1 S= 0 M= 0 NSEG= 1
C 14" Square FDOT Standard prestressed
C T=1 D=2 U=0 : PreCast - nonlinear
K= 2 L= 75 M= 1 C= 5 , 5500 \
S= 0,270,0,0,0,28500,0,0
W= 14 V= 0 N= 2 P= 0 S= 0 : (square)
NG= 4 HPI= 0
0.167 3.5 3.5 150 N= 3 D= 2
0.167 3.5 -3.5 150 N= 3 D= 2
0.167 3.5 0 150 N= 1 D= 3
0.167 -3.5 0 150 N= 1 D= 3
E= 0 H= 1 A= 1 S= 5 G= 0 C= 0
9 1 : NPX, NPY
56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56
:
SOIL
L= 1 C= 0 W= 0 O= 0 S= 0 : Nlayers,kcyc
35 150 119 0 0 0 3.5 0.3 1152 70 \
2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 \
E=-30,-100 B=-100 S=0
35 150 57.024 0 0 0 3.5 0.35 1152
3.5 0.35 640 1 : soil tip stiffness info
:
BATTER
1 X= 0 Y= -0.2
2 X= 0 Y= 0.2
8 X= 0 Y= -0.2
9 X= 0 Y= 0.2
:

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

A-16

BENT
N= 9 S= 2.5 H= 0 O= 0 C= 3 B= 4, 4 W= 2.5 F= 1 A= 0, 0 \
P= 7, 5, 0 T= 0, 0 J= 1
C Linear Square Section
C T=0 D=0 U=0 : H-Pile - linear
L=10 E=29000 I=1152,1152 J=2304 G=11154 \
A=452.16 W=21.2641 S=0 K=2
C Linear Square Section
C T=0 D=0 U=0 : H-Pile - linear
L=10 E=29000 I=1152,1152 J=2304 G=11154 \
A=452.16 W=21.2641 S=0 K=2
:
:
LOAD
3 L= 1 F= 0 -30 0 0 0 0
5 L= 1 F= 0 -30 0 0 0 0
7 L= 1 F= 0 -30 0 0 0 0
:
SWFACT
1 F= 0 0
:

(End of Example 8)

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

A-17

A.9 Example 9 Column Analysis Problem


PROBLEM
opening...
FHWA
Column Analysis
01/12/01
Example 9
:
PRINT
L=1 M=1 D=1 O=1 S=1 P=1 T=1 F=1 C=1 B=1 I=1 R=0 N=0
:
CONTROL
1 U= 0 D= 0 S= 0 R= 0 N= 17 V=1.0 : NUMLC
S= 2 T= 0 0 P= 2
I= 60 T= 1
:
PILE
NSET= 1 S= 0 M= 0 NSEG= 1
C 30" Square FDOT Standard prestressed 2
C T=1 D=2 U=0 : PreCast - nonlinear
K= 2 L= 20 M= 1 C= 5 , 5500 \
S= 0,270,0,0,0,28500,0,0
W= 30 V= 0 N= 2 P= 0 S= 0 : (square)
NG= 4 HPI= 0
0.167 11.5 11.5 150 N= 8 D= 2
0.167 11.5 -11.5 150 N= 8 D= 2
0.167 11.5 8.2143 150 N= 6 D= 3
0.167 -11.5 8.2143 150 N= 6 D= 3
E= 0 H= 1 A= 1 S= 1 G= 0 C= 0
1 1 : NPX, NPY
:
COLUMN
1 S= 1e+016 1e+016 0 0 0 0
17 S= 1e+016 1e+016 1e+016 0 0 0
1 L= 1 F= 0 0 200 0 1200 0
:

(End of Example 9)

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

A-18

FB-Pier References
Gazioglu, S. M., and ONeill, M. W., Evaluation of P-Y Relationships in Cohesive Soils, from Analysis
and Design of Pile Foundations, proceedings of a symposium sponsored by the ASCE Geotechnical
Engineering Division, ASCE National Convention, San Francisco, CA, pp. 192-213.
Georgiadis, M., Development of P-Y curves for Layered Soils, Proceesings, Geotechnical Practice in
Offshore Engineering, American Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 536-545.
Kulhawy, F. and Mayne, P. Manual for Estimating Soil Properties for Foundation Design. Electric
Power Research Institute (EPRI) Report. EPRI EL-6800. Project 1493-6. Aug. 1990. p.5-17.
Matlock, H., Correlations for Design of Laterally Loaded Piles in Soft Clay, Paper No. OTC 1204,
Proceedings, Second Annual Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, Vol. 1, 1970, pp. 577594.
McVay,M. C., O'Brien, M., Townsend, F. C., Bloomquist, D. G., and Caliendo, J. A., "Numerical
Analysis of Vertically Loaded Pile Groups," ASCE, Foundation Engineering
Congress, Northwestern University, Illinois, July, 1989, pp. 675-690.
Murchison, J. M. and ONeill, M. W., Evaluation of P-Y Relationships in Cohesionless Soils, from
Analysis and Design of Pile Foundations, proceedings of a symposium sponsored by the ASCE
Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE National Convention, San Francisco, CA,pp. 174-191.
Reese, L. C., W. R. Cox, and F. D. Koop, Analysis of Laterally Loaded Piles in Sand, Paper No. OTC
2080, Proceedings, Fifth Annual Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, 1974 (GESA Report
No. D-75-9).
Reese, L. C., W. R. Cox, and F. D. Koop, Field Testing and Analysis of Laterally Loaded Piles in Stiff
Clay, Paper No. OTC 2312, Proceedings, Seventh Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas,
1975.
Reese, L. C. and R. C. Welch, Lateral Loading of Deep Foundations in Stiff Clas, Journal of the
Geotechnical Engineering Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 101, No. GT7,
Proceedings Paper 11456, 1975, pp. 633-649 (GESA Report No. D-74-10).

FB-PIER USERS MANUAL

B-1