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1 Possessive adjectives



her its our


What is Seoul like? : It is a very exciting city.

What are your classmate like? : They are really nice
-What would he like to do?: He would like to have a holiday.
-What does he like?: He likes goin to the theater
-What does he look like? He is dark, he is handsome --fsico---What is he like?: He is generous, he is friendly.
Where are you from?: Im from Brazil.
2 Are you free? : Yes I am sin contraccin.

No, Im not

5 Where do you go to school?: I go to the University of Texas

6 I get up at 6:00 a.m. in the morning on Saturdays on weekdays/on
weeknights/on weekends
I get home late at night
I stay up until midnight on Saturday. In the
morning, in the evening, in the afternoon
On Sunday afternoon

In:months,years,seasons, part of the day


On Friday nights
10 Its $10 Theyre $10
11 short adjetives -----er than(comparative)

est fastest (superlative)

consonante-vocal-consonante: big bigger sad sadder(comparative)

de dos silabas terminadas en y fun funnier
Good: better, best

bad: worse, worst


far: farther/ further furthest

Long adjetives: more adjetive than terminados en ing ed



the longest

dry drier


the biggest
famous / the most famous

famous: more

Beautiful : more beautiful / the most beautiful

good: better/ the best

Bad: worse / the worst

14 object pronouns: me, you, him, her, it, us, them
15 Would you like to go out on Friday? Yes, I would
but No contraction
19 cousin: primo, prima niece:sobrina
ta great-grand parents:bisabuelos

Yes, Id love to. Thanks,


aunt: ta


20 All, nearly all, most,many,a lot of, some, not many, few, no one plural
No one : before verb
23 always, almost always, usually, often, sometime, hardly ever, almost never,
24 How well do you play tennis? Pretty well, about average, not very well
How good are you at sports? Pretty good, O.K., not so good.

Im terrible at

She never plays tennis.///I am always late.

Usually I walk to work.

Sometimes I exercise in the morning.

Good with verb be and well with other verbs: How good are you at soccer?//
How well do you play soccer.
25 she never plays
sometimes I exercise

I am always late

usually I walk to work

29 Were you in Hawaii? How was your vacation.

Do my homework, the laundry, the dishes
Go online, dancing, shopping
Have a party, a good time, a lot of fu
Make a phone call, a video, the bed
Take a day off, a vacation, a trip
32 next to, near/close to, across from/opposite .------------.
back of

In fromt of.--. In

33 Count nouns Are there many restaurants? Yes, there are a lot
are a few
No, there arent many

No, there arent any

Yes, there

No, there are none.

How many restaurants are there?

Noncount nouns Is there much crime? Yes, theres a lot
No, there isnt much
No, there isnt any

No, there is none

Yes, theres a little

How much crime is there?

No contraction: yes, there is.

Some in affirmative statements and any in negative statements: there are
some grocery stores in my neighborhood///there arent any restaurants////Are
there any nice stores around here?
A lot with both count and noncount nouns: Are there many traffic lights on First
Avenue? Yes, there are a lot.//Is there much traffic?Yes, theres a lot.
34 Is there much traffic in your city? : well, theres a little.
Are there many public telephones around here? No, there arent many.
How much noise is there in your city?: theres none. Its very quiet.
37 General appearance : What does she look like?: she is tall, with red hair
She is gorgeous
Age: How old is she?: She is about 32

Shes in her thirties

Height: How tall is she?: she is 1 meter 88

How tall is he? : he is pretty short

Hair: How long is her hair? Its medium length

dark/light brown

What color is his hair?: Its

38 Modifiers with participles and prepositions

Who is Raul? He is the man wearing a green shirt
Which one is Raoul? Hes the one talking to Liz
Who is Liz? She is the woman with short black hair
Which one is Julia? She is the tall one in jeans
Who are the Smiths? Theyre the people next to the window
Which ones are the Smiths? Theyre the ones on the couch

Dont confuse How and What in questions: How tall are you?/What color is your
Dont use a form of be in modifiers with participles: Sylvia is the woman
standing near the window
Y no Sylvia is the woman is standing near the window
41 Have you been to a jazz club? Yes, I have been to several/No, I havent been
to one.
Have they eaten dinner yet? Yes, they have already eaten/ No, they havent
eaten yet.
42 How long did you live in Thailand? I lived there for two years. It was
How long have you lived in Miami? Ive lived here for six months. I love it
here./Ive lived here since last year. Im really happy here.
Expressions with for: two weeks, a few months, several years, a long time
Expressions with since: 6:45, last weekend, 1997, elementary school
43 have you checked your email yet?: No, I havent turned on my computer
Ive already checked my email.
46 Adverbs before adjectives: extremely, very, really, pretty, fairly, somewhat,
Its a big city. Its not too big, though.
Its a big city. Its not too big, however.
47 Modal verbs can and should
What can I do in Mexico City?: You can go to outdoor markets
What should I see there?: You should visit the Palace of Fine Arts/You shouldnt
miss the Museum.
48 But, though and however for contrasting information.
Can Should sin to
are good to do.

can: things are possible//should to suggest things that

50 What should you do for a cold?: Its important to get a lot of rest/ Its
sometimes helpful to eat garlic soup./Its a good idea to take some vitamin C.

51 Modal verbs for requests; suggestinons

Hi, May I help you?Yes, please. Could(can or may) I have something for a
-O.k. May I have three large bottles, please?
Can/May I help you Answer: Can I have a box of cough drops?/Could I have
something for a cough?/May I have a bottle of aspirin?
52 With a cold, its important not to exercise too hard.

May is a little more formal than can and could.

55 -I work
Me too/so do I/ I do, too.

I dont

-I worked
So did I / I did, too

I didnt

-I will work
I will, too / so wil I /

I wont

-I can work
So can I / I can, too

I cant

-I dont work
Neither do I / I dont either

I do

-I didnt work
Neither did I/

I didnt either

I did

-I wont work
Neither will I / I wont either

I will

-I cant work
Neither can I / I cant either

I can

-I am not happy
Neither am I / I am not either

I am

-my sister is a teacher

Mine is too

56 what would you like? Id like the fish and rice/I will have a small salad
No, thank you. Thatll be all.
59 which country is larger, Canada or China? Canada is larger than China
Which city has the largest population Tokio, Mexico or Sao Pablo? Tokio has the
largest population of the three
60 how far is New Zealand from Australia? Its about 2000 kilometers
How big is Singapore? Its 710 square kilometers(K 2)
How high is Mount Cook? Its 3740 meters high
How deep is the Grand Canyon? Its about 1900 meters deep
How long is Mississippi River? Its about 5970 kilometers long
How hot is Auckland in the summer? It gets up to about 23 o Celsius
How cold is it in the winter? It goes down to about 10 o Celsius
Use high to describe mountains and waterfalls: how high is Mount Fuji?
Use tall to describe buildings: how tall is the Empire State Building?
65 Messages with tell and ask
Statement: the meeting is on Friday
Messages with a statement: Please tell her (that) the meeting is on Friday/
Could you tell her (that) the meeting is on Friday?/Would you tell her (that) the
meeting is on Friday?
Request: Call me this afternoon
Messages with a request: please ask him to call me this afternoon/ Could you
ask him to call me this afternoon?/ would you ask him to call me this
afternoon?//could you ask him not to be late?
66 please ask her to meet me at noon. Please ask her meet me at noon.
Could you ask him not to be late?

Could you ask him to not be late?

70 Who do you think the article was written for?: para quin
Who do you think the article was written by?: por quin
1 Where were you born? I was born in Bogot

He died last year.

Were you born in Bogot? Yes, I was/ No, I wasnt. I was born in Crdoba.
When did you move to Los Angeles? I moved here ten years ago.
Did you take Englis classes in Argentina? Yes, I did./ No, I didnt. My aunt
taught me at home.
2 Did you use to collect things? Yes, I used to collect comic books./ No, I didnt
use to collect anything
I never used to play sports.
5 Count nouns:
There are too many cars. There should be fewer cars. We need more subway
lines. There arent enough buses.
Noncount nouns:
There is too much traffic. There should be less pollution. We need more public
transportation. There isnt enough parking
Are there any parking garages around here?/ Is there any parking around here?
6 Indirect questions from Wh-questions
Verb be
Where is the nearest ATM?>>Could you tell me where the nearest ATM is?
Where are the restrooms?>>Do you know where the restrooms are?
With do
How often do the buses run?>> Can you tell me how often the buses run?
What time does the bookstore open?>> Do you know what time the bookstore
With can
Where can I catch the bus?>> Do you know where I can catch the bus?
10 Evaluations and comparisons


Apartments arent big enough for families

parking spaces

Apartments dont have enough

Apartments are too small for pets.

Houses cost too much money


Houses arent as convenient as apartment.

rooms as houses
Houses are just as convenient as apartments.
much privacy as houses.

Apartments have just as many

Apartments dont have as

11 Wish (como ojal) Con todos los pronombres were

I live with my parents>>I wish I didnt live with my parents./ I wish I had my
own apartment
I cant move out >> I wish I could move out
Life is difficult>> I wish it were easier/ I wish it werent so difficult
My parents wont stop worrying about me>>I wish they would stop worrying
about me.
I dont like my neighborhood. I wish I liked my neighborhood.
My landlord wont paint my apartment, but I wish he would.
15 first, then, after that, finally.

One second third

19 be going to >>decided on
t go anywhere.

will + verb>> possible plan: I probably won

20 Modals for necessity and suggestions

Describing necessity:

Giving suggestions

You must have a drivers license

stalls on the street

You had better avoid the

You need to be 21 or over


you ought to pack a first aid

You have to get a passport


You should try some local

You dont have to get vaccinations


you shouldnt carry a lot of

Weak: for advices or an opinion> should, aught to

Stronger: for a warning> had better
Strongest: for an abligation> must, need to , have to
23 two part verbs
Turn down the TV

Turn it down

Turn the TV down

NOT: turn down it

Pick up your things

Pick them up

Pick you things up

Put in: entregar

NOT: Pick up them

Put away: guarder, poner a un lado

Take off: quitarse/ despegar/ imitar

Hang up/off:colgar

Take out: quitar/ invitar a una fiesta

let out: dejar salir/soltar

turn down: bajar el volume,rechazar,poner boca abajo

turn off/out: apagar/desconectar
throw out: arrojar

turn up: aparecer/subir el volume

heat up:calentar

pick up: recoger.

24 requests with modals and would you mind?

Can you turn the music down?
Could you close the door, please?
Would you please take your garbage out?
Would you mind turning the music down?
Would you mind not putting your garbage here?
28 I use my computer to send emails

I use my computer for sending

29 Imperatives and infinitives for giving suggestions

Be sure to press these keys
back up your files.

Make sure to save your work

Dont forget to include my favorite song.

Try to not

Remember to

Try not to be late for the party.

38 If you get a high-paying job > youll have more cash to

In a few years, movies theaters might not exist=In a few years, maybe movie
theaters wont exist.
Ill feel healthier if I change my eating habits.
Future of must, use will have to.
Future of can: will be able: you will be able to buy a car.

41 I love traveling

I hate working on weekends

I dont mind working long hours


Im good at using a

Im not good at selling

I cant stand

46 Passive with by (simple past)

The president opened the building in 1931>>It was opened by the president in
An American architect designed the building>> I was designed by an American
In 1964, the buildings owners added colored lights to the top>Colored lights
were added to the top by the buildings owners in 1964
47 Passive with by (simple present)
They use the euro in most of Europe>>The euro is used in most of Europe
They speak English in many European countries>>English is spoken in many
European countries.
They manufacture a lot of cars in Europe>>A lot of cars are manufactured in
Both the Olympics and the World Cup are held every four years.
50 I was watching a good movie, but I fell asleep before the end.
51Whaat have you been doing lately?: Ive been working two jobs for the last
six months.
How long have you been modeling?: Ive been modeling since I graduated.
Have you been saving money?: No, I havent been saving money. Ive been
spending it.
Ive been working here for five years./ Ive been working here since 2010
55 Participles as adjectives: Adjectives ending in ing are present participles.
They are things that cause a feeling. Adjectives ending in ed are past
participles. They express the feeling.
Present participles

Past participle

Stephen Kings books are fascinating

Kings books.

Im fascinated by Stephen


The last Star Trek film was boring

Trek film

I was bored by the last Star

The new Sandra movie sounds interesting

Sandra movie.

Im interested in the new

56 Relatives pronouns for people and things. Hes an actor that won two
Use who or that for people
Hes an actor. He often plays unusual characters>> Hes an actor who/that
often plays unusual characters.
Use which or that for things
Its a movie. It stars DiCaprio>> Its a movie which/that stars DiCaprio
Hes an actor that won two Oscars. Hes an actor that the won two Oscars
59 Modals and adverbs
Slight possibility: might, may, maybe, perhaps
Possibility: could, possibly, probably
Strong possibility: must, definitely


It migh/may mean he doesnt understand you

doesnt understand you

Maybe/perhaps it means he

It could mean he doesnt agree with you

doesnt agree with you

It possibly/probably means he

That must mean he agrees with you.

with you.

That definitely means he agrees

60 Permission
You can camp here
cant camp here

You have to camp here

You are allowed to take

Youve got to take off your shoes.
arent allowed to
off your shoes.
Off your shoes.


61 use have/has with got to: You have got to keep the door closed. You got to
keep the door closed.

64 Unreal conditional sentences with if clauses

If I won the lottery, Id share the money with my family/Id share the money
with my family if I won the lottery.
If I found $750.000:
I would spend it/I wouldnt return it so fast/I could buy
lots of nice clothes and jewelry/ I might go to the police.
What would you do if you found $750.000?
65 Past modals: would have or should have + past participle to give opinions or
suggestions about actions in the past.
What should I have done?: you should have told them about it./ You shouldnt
have hidden it.
What would you have done?: I would have called him/I wouldnt have sent him
a text.
He should have called sooner.
68 Reported speech: requests
Bring a dictionary tomorrow>> He said to bring a dictionary tomorrow./He told
me to bring a dictionary tomorrow
Dont stay out past midnight>>She said not to say out past midnight
Can you play your music more quietly?>>He asked me to play my music more
69 She said/She told me/She said to me/She told me not to leave my wet towel
on the
present simple

Past simple

He is American >>>>
Are you busy tonight? >>>>

She said he was American

He asked me if I was busy that night

Present continuous
Dan is living in San Francisco

Past continuous
She said Dan was living in San

Past simple
We went to the movies last night
before the movie

Past perfect Simple

He told me they had gone to the night


I didnt go to work

Greg said that he hadnt gone to

Did you buy a car?

the day before

She ask me if I had bought a new car

Past continuous

Past perfect continuous

I was working

She told me she had been working

Present perfect simple

Past perfect simple

I have already eaten

She told me that she had eaten

Present perfect continuous

past perfect continuous

Ive been studing

He said he had been studing

Have you been waiting long?


He said whether Id been waiting

Past perfect simple

Id been to Chicago

past perfect simple


He said hed been to

Past perfect continuous

Past perfect continuous

Id been dancing =

= She said she had been dancing

Algo que no ha cambiado o del futuro, no es necesario cambiar:

Im 30 years old>>>He said she is 30 years old
Kim is sick>>>He said Kim is sick
I wont>>> He said that he wouldnt
Ill go to the movies tomorrow>>He said he would go to the movie the next
He can work tomorrow>> she said he could work the next day
You must wear>> She said I had to wear
Shall we go to the beach today>> He asked if we should go to the beach that
I may not be in class room>> He said she might not be in the classroom


Today>> that day


Tonight>that night

Tomorrow>>the next day

This week>>>that

Next week>>the following week/year

Yesterday>>the day before/the previous day

Lost week>>the week before o the previous day.



1 Relatives pronouns
As the subject of a clause
of a clause

As the object

I like guys who/that arent too serious

(who/that) I have fun with

Id prefer someone

I like guys who/that have a sense of humor.

can talk to easily

Id prefer someone(who/that) I

2 I like it when a teacher is helpful and supportive

I dont mind it when a friend visits without calling me firt
I cant stand it when a child screams in a restaurant
It makes me happy when people do nice things for no reason
It bothers me when my doctor arrives late for an appointment
It upsets me when a close friend forgets my birthday
3 A relative pronoun who/that- is necessary when the pronoun is the subject
of the clause: Id love to meet some who/that is considerate. NOT: Id love to
meet someone is considerate
When the pronoun is the object of the clause, who and that can be left out: Id
like a roommate who/that I have a lot in common with. OR: Id like a roommate
I have a lot in common with.
5 Gerund phrases as subject
Being a flight attendant sounds exciting
Designing clothes is not a mans job
Working as a veterinarian could be rewarding

Directing a TV show would be interesting

Gerund phrases as objects
Hed love being a flight attendant
He wouldnt like being a fashion designer
Shed enjoy working with animals
Shed be good at directing a TV show
6 comparisons
With adjectives:
is more/less interesting than

is harder than

With nouns: has better/worse hours than


/is not as hard

has more education

isnt as much work as

With verbs: earns more/less than
doesnt earn as much as

earns as much as

With past participles: is better paid than

isnt as well paid as

is as well paid as

7 A gerund phrases as a subject takes a singular verb: Taking care of children is

a rewarding job.
(Not: Taking care of children are a rewarding job)
Dream about, feel like, talk about, think about + ING
Good/bad at, excited by/about, interested in, tired of, used to + ING
Im thinking about looking for a new job.

Im tired of working long hours

A pilot earns more than a flight attendat. / Pilots earn more than flight
10 Requests with modals, if clauses, and gerunds
Can I borrow your pen, please?
Could you lend me a jacket, please?
Is it O.K. if I use your phone?
Do you mind if I use your laptop?

Less formal

Would it be all right if I compared our homework?

Would you mind if I borrow you new camera?
Would you mind babysitting my kids on Saturday night?
I was wondering if I could borrow some money?

More formal

11 Indirect requests
Jeff, Tony is having a party>>>>>> Could you tell Jeff (that) Tony is having a
Jeff, dont be late>>>>>Can you tell/ask not to be late?
Yes/Not questions:
Sofia, are you free on Friday?>>>>Can you ask Sofia if she is free on Friday?
Sofia, do you have my number?>>>Could you ask Sofia/her whether or not she
has my number?
Jeff, when does the party start?>>>>Can you ask Jeff when the party starts?
Sofia, what time should I pick you up?>>>>Could you ask Sofia what time I
should pick her up?
14 Past continuous Vs. simple past
While he was escaping from the bank, the robber got caught in the revolving
As Jake was running toward the ball, he tripped and kicked it into the wrong
The planets were performing a song when the lights went out.
15 Past perfect
I was working out, and I had put my stuff in my locker.
When I came back, someone had stolen my wallet.
They were able to steal it because I had forgotten to lock the locker.


I wanted to stop, but I couldnt. (NOT: I was wanting to stop)

One thing (that) Id really miss is my moms cooking/ My moms cooking is one
things (that) I would really miss.
Something (that) Id be nervous about is communicating in a new language./
Communicating in a new language is something (that) Id be nervous about.
Two people (who/that) Id call every week are my parents./ My parents are two
people (who/that) Id call every week.
When you visit someone, its the custom to bring a small gift.
You arent supposed to arrive early.
If you want to bring someone, youre expected to call first and ask.
Youre supposed to check with the host
Its not acceptable to arrive without calling
After this expression for expectation: Be the custom to, be supposed to, be
acceptable to.
21 One thing Id be nervous about is getting lost= One thing that Id be
nervous about is getting lost= Getting lost is one thing Id be nervous about. =
Getting lost is one thing that Id be nervous about.
23 Describing problems 1
The jacket lining is torn.

I has a tear in it/There is a hole in it.

The tabletop is damaged.

There is some damage on the top.

That vase is chipped.

There is a chip in it.

My pants are stained.

They have a stain on them.

Her sunglasses are a little scratched.

The sink is leaking.

There are a few scratches on them.

It has a leak.

24 Describing problems 2
The oven needs adjusting.

It needs to be adjusted.


Everything keeps

The alarm needs fixing.

going off.

It needs to be fexed

The alarm keeps

28 Passive with prepositions.

The air is being polluted by fumes from cars and trucks.
City streets are being damaged as a result of heavy traffic.
Potholes arent being repaired due to a lack of fundig.
Many parks have been lost through overbuilding.
The homeless have been displaced because of overcrowding in city shelters.
29 Infinitive clauses and phrases.
One way to change things is to talk to the companys management.
The best ways to reduce homelessness are to build more public housing and
provide free health care.
32 Rather Vs. Prefer
Would you rather take a business or communications class?
Id rather take a communications class./ Id rather not take either./ Id rather
take another course
than study business or
Would you prefer to study business or communications?
Id prefer to study business.

Id prefer not to study either.

Id rather not join a club

Id prefer not to join a club.

Id rather not.

Id prefer not to.

33 ver 29
You could improve your accent by listening to language CDs.
I learn new words best by writing them on pieces of paper and sticking them on
The best way to learn slang is not by watching the news but by watching
A good way to improve your accent is by not imitating non-native speakers.


37 I clean my apartment every week.>>I get my apartment cleaned (by Hazel)

every week.
He is washing his car.>> He is having his car washed.
They fixed their computer>>They got their computer fixed at Compuarreglo.
Did you repair your watch?>>Did you have your watch repaired?
Where can I print these pictures?>> Where can I get these pictures printed?
38 Making suggestions
Maybe you could go to a chat room.
What about taking a dance class?
Have you thought about asking your friends to introduce you to their other
Why dont you join an online dating service?
One option is to join a club.
It might be a good idea to check out those discussion groups at the bookstore.
41 Past: During the 1970s. / In the 1970s. / Over 70 years ago.
From 1960 to 1970. For ten years.
Continues into the present: Since 1945. Since World War II ended. For about the
last 70 years.
Since with a particular time. For with a duration of time. In and during with a
specific period of time. From and to to describe when something began and
42 Future
Computers will recognize any voice command. You wont need a keyboard.
People will be living in cities under the ocean.
Within 20 years, scientists will have discovered a cure for baldness.
By 2050, we will have set up human communities on Mars.
About time by means not later than. Within means some time during.
Use by with points in time; use within with periods of time.
By 2050, we
will have eliminated starvation around the world.(NOT: Within 2050)


Within the next five years, people will have invented mobile phone applications
for nearly everything. (NOT: By the next fve)
46 Time clauses.
Before I had my first job, was really immature.
After I got my first job, I became more mature.
Once I had a job, I become totally independent.
The moment I moved away from home, I felt like a different person.
As soon as I got my own bank account, I started to be more responsible.
Until I graduated, Id never had any important responsibilities.
By the time I graduated from high school, I had already started working.


47 Expressing regret and describing hypothetical situations.

-Should have + past participle to express regret.
I should have studied something more practical when I was in college.
I shouldnt have waited so long to choose a major.
-Would have + past participle to express probable outcomes in hypothetical
If Id listened to my mother, I would have learnt to play a musical instrument.
-Could have + past participle to express possible outcomes.
If I hadnt been so irresponsible, I could have gotten better grades.
48 If I had finished college, Id have a better job now.


50 Describing purpose
To run a popular Internet caf, its a good idea to have plenty of computers.
(In order) to establish a trendy restaurant, its important to have fashionable
For an athletic center to be profitable, it needs to have modern exercise


(In order) for a language school to succeed, it has to have a convenient

51 Since its always so packed, theres a long wait outside the club.
I like the Casablanca because its always packed.
Its popular because of the fashionable people.
The Soul Club is famous for its fantastic music.
Due to the crowds, the Casablanca is difficult to get in to.
The reason (that/why) people go there is just to be seen.
To have a successful business, you need a lot of luck. (NOT: For to have a
Because/Since: begin or end a sentence.
55 Past modals for degrees of ceretainty
Its almost certain: She must have left already./ She must not have turned on
her phone.
Its not possible: She couldnt have been at home
Its possible: She may/might have forgotten the time.//She may/might not
have remembered the time.//Her car could have broken down.
56 Past modals for judgments and suggestions.
Judging past actions: You should have called her on the phone./ She shouldn
t have kept your notes this long.
Suggestions alternative past actions: You could have been more
understanding.//I wouldnt have lent them to her.
59 The passive to describe process: A scene isnt filmed just once./Only the
best shots are used.
Modal +be+ past participle: One scene may be shot from five or six
different angles./Lost of different shots have to be taken.
60 Defining and non-defining relative clauses
Defining relative clauses are used to identify people.


A dialect coach is a language specialist/She works with actors on their

accents.>>A dialect coach is a language specialist who/that works with
actors on their accents.
Non-defining relative clauses give further information about people.
A location scout finds places to shoot scenes. He travels all over the world.>>
A location scout, who finds places to shoot scene, travels all over the world.
64 Giving recommendations and opinions
When you think something is a good idea.
Cyclist should be required to wear a helmet.
Pet owners shouldnt be allowed to walk dogs without a leash.
People ought not to be required to end parties at midnight.
When you think something is absolutely necessary.
Laws must be passed to control the noise from car alarms.
People mustnt be permitted to park motorcycles on the sidewalks.
A rule has to be made to require cycling lanes on city streets.
Something has got to be done to stop littering.
65 Tag questions for opinions
Health insurance is really expensive, isnt?
There are lots of criminals in the city, arent there?
Graffiti makes everything look ugly, doesnt?
College should provide day care, shouldnt they?
Child care isnt cheap, is it?
There arent enough police, are there?
People dont care about our city , do they?
You cant find affordable child care, can you?
It may rain tonight, mightnt it?
Jane mightnt help me with the cleaning, may she?
I am on the list of those who have passed the test, arent I?


They have got a dog, havent they?

They have a dog, dont they?
They havent been to the World Cup, have they?
I have chosen the cake you like, havent I?
66 Ought to (more formal)= should
68 Complex noun phrases containing gerunds
The most rewarding thing about helping them is learning from their years of
One of the most difficult aspects of working abroad is being away from my
One of the rewards of working with them is experiencing their youthful energy.
One of the most challenging things about being a teacher is not becoming
impatient with difficult students.
Thing about,,,challenge of,, reward of,, aspect of,, part of/about,,
69 Accomplishments : present perfect or simple past.
Ive managed to get good grades.
I managed to
Ive been able to accomplish a lot in college.
I was able to
Goals: future perfect or would like to have + past participle
What do you hope youll have achieved?
I hope Ill have seen more of the world.
Id like to have made a good start on my career.
I expect to have bought a home within five years.
When talking about past accomplishments and including a specific time, use
the simple past, not the present perfect: I was able to complete my degree last
year.(NOT: Ive been able to complete my degree last year.)
One of the most challenging things about being a teacher is not becoming
impatient with difficult students.

Thing about ING

reward of ING

aspect of ING challenge of ING

Part about/for ING

Accomplishments and goals
When talking about past accomplishments and including a specific time, use
the simple past no the present perfert: I was able to complete my degree last
year. (NOT: Ive been able to complete my degree last year)
2-3 Use the gerund form after these verbs.
Deny, discuss, finish, mention, practice, quit, resist, suggest.
I enjoy going to

I avoid expressing my

I dont mind giving up my time

Common expressions are always followed by gerunds.
She had fun/a good time arranging the party.
He has trouble/a tough time getting his assignments in on time.
Hes busy cooking dinner right now.
She never worries about cleaning up after herself.
Use the gerund or infinitive
I cant stand being/to be in messy room.
I love taking/to take my friends to cool new clubs.
I hate getting up/to get up for early morning classes.
Use the gerund form after these expressions containing prepositions
I insist on making my own decisions.
I always feel like going danding.
Im into going out to new foreign restaurants.
Gerunds or infinitives, but the meaning changes
I stopped to drink some coffee. (I ended one activity and began another)
I stopped drinking coffe.(I dont do that activity anymore)

I stopped running when I got tired.(I temporarily ended the activity)

Im not afraid of giving speeches in front of the class.

I always feel like going dancing.
I cant stand being in a messy, disorganized room
I prefer telling people how I feel, even if its embarrassing.
A noun clause is a part of a sentence that has both a subject and a predicate.
That is opcional after be.
The only trouble with being a two-income family is (that) we dont spend as
much time together.
The big advantage of having Grandma at home is (that) she can baby-sit
more often.
The downside of sharing a bedroom is (that) its hard to have any privacy.
The hard part about being a twin is (that) people are always calling you
by the wrong name.
The trick to living in a crowded house is (that) you have to have a private
space of you own.
One difficulty with being the youngest is (that) everyone is always telling
you what to do.
The phrases ending with a preposition can be followed by a gerund phrase,
not+a gerund phrase or a noun phrase.
The secret to getting along with your siblings is (that) you have to respect
their privacy.
The good thing about not being in a big family is( that) you always get to
choose whats on TV.
The upside of a large family is t(hat) you always have someone to spend time
The only thing about working moms is (that) they have less time to spend
with you.
10-11 past modals and phrasal modals of obligation
I should have stayed home and studied. (It was a good idea, but I didnt do it)


I was supposed to be studying this weekend. (It was required, but I didnt do
I didnt have to go with my friends, but I did. (There was no obligation)
I had to wear a uniform. (We were forced to do this)
I thought I needed to have more clothes. (I thought this was necessary)
Strong obligation: use : was/were to, hard to. NOTE THAT must is not used in
the past. Instead, use had to.
Expectation: action required or prohibited: was supposed to , wasnt supposed
Advisability : good action or idea in a particular situation, but it was or was not
done: should have, shouldnt have.
Necessity: it was considered necessary or unnecessary, but there is a choice
about doing or not doing the action: I needed to make an appointment
didnt need to buy the textbook, but I thought it looked interesting.
No obligation: choice: I didnt have to take piano lessons, but I wanted to.
To express degrees of certainty: must (not), cant, could (not), might,
or may (not)
Im certain the flashing lights must have caused the seizures.
The seizures might have been caused by stress.
- Very certain: to show that you think something was probable in the
past, use must have, must not have, cant have, or couldnt have.
Jake had a stomachache last night after dinner. He must have eaten too much.
Sofia was at a movie with me last night. You couldnt have seen her at the
-Uncertain. To show that you think something was possible in the
past, use could have, may have, might have, may not have, or might
not have.
Jun Ho is usually here by now. He could/may/might have missed the bus this
Tanya was supposed to meet me before school. She may/might not have
gotten the message.
-Opinions or advices, +present or future


--Present or future: use must (not), have to, have got to, had better
(not), or should (not)
Parents have got to monitor the shows their children watch.
The kids had better not spend so much time indoors playing computer
--Past . use should (not) have
I should have listened to the advice my parents gave me about having a
healthy lifestyle.
We shouldnt have ignored the scientist warnings about global warming.
To express obligation, advice, or opinions, use should (not). Do not
use must (not) have for obligations, advice, or opinions about the
The TV network should have been more careful. (obligation)
The networks should think of issuing a health warning. (advice)
The children shouldnt have been sitting so close to the TV! (Opinion)
CERTAIN: be certain, be sure, be positive, know for a fact
NO CERTAIN: assume, doubt, figure, guess, have a hunch, suppose, suspect,
Defining defines or gives essential inf. About a noun.
The Myeong-dong area has dozens of shops that sell the latest fashions
The spring and fall are the seasons when most people come to visit.
That can be used for people or things in DC . However, it cannot be
used as a replacement for where.
Many of the people that live in Paris leave the city in August to vacation in
other places.
A statue of ducks that can be found in Boston is a popular tourist attraction
for children


Pamplona is the city in Spain where the bulls run through the streets
during a summer festival.
ND give optional inf. About a noun and cannot begin with the pronoun
that. Comas.
That cannot be used in ND. Use who, which, or where.
The restaurants here stay open until midnight, when many locals are still
enjoying dinner.
Beijing has many popular tourist attractions, which include the Great Wall
of China.

























To begin an adverb clause, use although ore ven though







That has

Id like to live in a small town someday even though I love all the
opportunities in big cities.
Although I love all the opportunities in big cities, Id like to live in a small town
To begin an independent clause, use however, nevertheless, on the
other hand. Punctuation.
I love big cities. However/On the other hand, Id like to live in a small town
I love big cities; nevertheless/however, Id like to live in a small town
To begin a noun phrases, use the prepositions despite, in spite of.
Despite all the opportunities in big cities, Id like to live in a small town
Id like to live in a small town someday in spite of all the opportunities in big
After I finish / After finishing my workout, I head to the office.
While I take / While taking my lunch break at work, I often sneak a fiveminute nap.
Im not very approachable right after I wake up / right after waking up.
Before I go to sleep / Before going to sleep, I like to read.
Other time clauses cannot usually be reduced.
Once, every time, till, until, as, while, the last time.
Ever since I was a kid, Ive had trouble getting up early.---desde que
As soon as I get up in the morning, I race off to the gym.---tan pronto como
Until Ive had my coffee, Im such a grouch.---hasta que
Whenever you have to work with numbers, plan to do it around noon.--siempre que
Ive been a night person from the moment I started college.


Even if: aunque, aun cuando
que, con tal que
Unless: a menos que
Now that

Considering that,

(just) in case: por si acaso

As long as: siempre


Whether or not/ whether its bad weather or not

Provided/providing that: a condicin de que/siempre que

ll my schoolwork done, my weekend will be free.

Provided that I geta

Providing that I get a promotion, Ill stay with my company a few more years.
Be fast asleep

be sound asleep

Drift off: caer como una piedra

night: no dormir
Nod off: cabecear
Toss and turn

be wide awake:bien despierto

feel drowsy: sooliento

sleep llike a log: dormir como un tronco

lie awake: despertarse

nap: siesta

bet by: sobrevivir, arreglarselas

As many many as 11 hours: como mximo

Breakthroughts: avances

have a sleepless

As few as three hours: como

accurately: exactamente


Braggart, wandering eye
It + be +adjective/noun + infinitive phrase is often used to comment on
Its rude to ignore your conversation partner.
conversation partner is rude
Its a good idea to try out different topics.
good idea.

Ignoring your

Trying out different topics is a

In a sentence with Its + adjective +infinitive, it is possible to follow the

adjective with for and a pronoun/noun.
Its difficult for her to talk about her feelings openly.
Its customary for North Americans to make frequent eye contact.
For sentences in the negative, use not + infinitive or not + gerund
Its considered rude not to thank people who give you gifts.

Not thanking people who give you gifts is considered rude.

The word considered may also follow be in this kind of sentence
Its considered impolite to interrupt people.
considered impolite.

Interrupting people is

These sentences can also include the phrase for + person/pronoun

Its customary for the complimenter to say nice
about others is customary

Saying nice things

Things about others.


for the

Adjetives of feeling (glad,happy,sad,pleased) cannot be used with the It

s+adjective+infinitive structure. Instead, the sentence needs to say who has
or (doesnt have) these feelings.
Most parents are both happy and sad to see their children grow up.
People are always delighted(encantado) to get compliments.

Greet: saludar

Amuse: diverter

Usher: acomodador/hacer entrar

Accountant: contador
Account: cuenta
Wool: lana
Silver: plata
Rubber: caucho
Thief/Robber:ladrn Thieves:ladrones
Toad: sapo
Hen: gallina
Parrot: loro
Donkey: burro
Cow: vaca
Crocodile: cocodrilo Pulga:flea
Louse: piojo
Duck: pato
Whale: ballena
Shark: tiburn Pulp: pulpo

Rooster: gallo
Eagle: guila
Dolphin: delfn

Strawberry: fresa
Raspberry: frambuesa
Abocado: aguacate
Fig: breva
Plum: ciruela
Blackberry: mora
Tangerine: mandarina
Melon: meln
Pear: pera
Pineapple: pia
Uva: grape
Custard apple: cherimoya
Coconut: coco


Scarf: bufanda
Trouser/Pants: pantaln
Skirt: falda
mediasTennis/Sneakers: tenis
Strap/Belt: correa
Shirt: camisa
Tshirt: camiseta Hat: sombrero
Cap: gorra/tapa
Tie/Nicktie: corbata
Suit: traje Coat: abrigo/chaqueta
de un traje.
Dress: vestido mujer.