Anda di halaman 1dari 43

A.C.

Generators or Alternators
Most of the electrical power used aboard
Navy ships and aircraft as well as in civilian
applications is ac.
As a result, the ac generator is the most
important means of producing electrical
power.
Ac generators, generally called alternators,
vary greatly in size depending upon the load
to which they supply power.

Regardless of size, all electrical generators, whether


dc or ac, depend upon the principle of magnetic
induction.
An emf is induced in a coil as a result of
(1) a coil cutting through a magnetic field, or
(2) a magnetic field cutting through a coil.
ROTATING-ARMATURE ALTERNATORS
The rotating-armature alternator is similar in construction
to the dc generator in that the armature rotates in a
stationary magnetic field
the generated ac is brought to the load unchanged by means of
slip rings.
The rotating armature is found only in alternators of low power
rating and generally is not used to supply electric power in large
quantities.

ROTATING-FIELD ALTERNATORS
The rotating-field alternator has a stationary armature
winding and a rotating-field winding.
The advantage of having a stationary armature winding
is that the generated voltage can be connected directly to
the load
A rotating armature requires slip rings and brushes to
conduct the current from the armature to the load.
The armature, brushes, and slip rings are difficult to
insulate, and arc-overs and short circuits can result at
high voltages.
For this reason, high-voltage alternators are usually of
the rotating-field type.

Since the voltage applied to the rotating field is low


voltage dc, the problem of high voltage arc-over at the
slip rings does not exist.
The stationary armature, or stator, of this type of
alternator holds the windings that are cut by the rotating
magnetic field.
The stator consists of a
laminated iron core with
the armature windings
embedded in this core as
shown in figure. The core
is secured to the stator
frame.

FUNCTIONS OF ALTERNATOR COMPONENTS


A typical rotating-field ac generator consists of
an alternator and a smaller dc generator built into
a single unit.
The output of the alternator section supplies
alternating voltage to the load.
The only purpose for the dc generator is to
supply the direct current required to maintain the
alternator field.
This dc generator is referred to as the exciter.

PRIME MOVERS
source of mechanical power to turn their rotors.
Two classes:
1. high-speed --- Steam and gas turbines
2. low-speed ---- while internal-combustion
engines, water, and electric motors

ALTERNATOR ROTORS
Types of rotors used in rotating-field alternators.
1. Smooth cylindrical (or turbine-driven)
- for high speed
- 2 or 4 poles
2. Salient (or projecting)
- for low to medium speed
- With 6 or more poles

Smooth-cylindrical

Salient - pole

36-pole rotor

4-pole rotor

ALTERNATOR CHARACTERISTICS AND LIMITATIONS

Alternators are rated according to the voltage


they are designed to produce and the maximum
current they are capable of providing.
The maximum current that can be supplied by an
alternator depends upon the maximum heating loss
that can be sustained in the armature.
This heating loss (which is an I2R power loss)
acts to heat the conductors, and if excessive,
destroys the insulation.
Thus, alternators are rated in terms of this current
and in terms of the voltage output the alternator
rating in small units is in volt- amperes; in large
units it is kilovolt-amperes

SINGLE-PHASE ALTERNATORS
A generator that produces a single, continuously
alternating voltage.
The stator (armature) windings are connected in
series.
They are most often used when the loads being driven
are relatively light.

TWO-PHASE ALTERNATORS
A two-phase alternator is designed to produce two
completely separate voltages.
Each voltage, by itself, may be considered as a
single-phase voltage.
Note that the windings of the two phases are physically
at right angles (90 ) to each other.
The graph shows the two phases to be 90 apart, with A
leading B.

THREE-PHASE ALTERNATOR
Has three
single-phase
windings
spaced such
that the
voltage
induced in any
one phase is
displaced by
120 from the
other two.

Three-Phase Connections
The stator coils of three-phase alternators may be
joined together in either wye or delta connections,
as shown in the figure.
With these connections only three wires come out
of the alternator

FREQUENCY
The output frequency of alternator voltage
depends upon the speed of rotation of the rotor and
the number of poles.

NP
f
120

where, N - speed in rpm, P - number of poles

Note:
A machine that runs at a fixed or constant speed is called
a SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE
Synchronous speed, NS, is computed as

120 f
NS
P
Synchronous machine can be operated as a synchronous
generator (alternator) or as a synchronous motor.

INDUCED or GENERATED EMF


Let Z - no. of conductors per phase
T no. of turns per phase
f frequency, in Hz
- flux/pole in Weber
kd distribution factor
kp pitch or coil span factor
E - rms value of generated emf per phase

E 4.44k p kd fT 2.22k p kd fZ

ARMATURE WINDINGS

The single layer winding will have one coil side


per slot, while double layer winding will have
two coil sides/slot.
If one slot per pole or slots equal to number of
poles are employed, then concentrated winding
is obtained. Such windings give maximum
induced emfs.

If the conductors are placed in several slots


under one pole, the winding is known as
distributed winding.

When the two coil sides forming a complete coil of a


winding are 180 electrical space degrees apart, the
winding is known as the full pitch winding.
When the coil span of the winding is less than 180
electrical space degrees i.e. the two coil sides forming a
complete coil are less than 180 electrical space degrees
apart, the winding is known as fractional pitch winding.

In this type of winding, the induced emfs in the two coil


sides is not in phase, so the resultant emf, which is equal
to the vector sum of induced emfs in the coil sides, is less
than their arithmetic sum and so the emf induced in short
pitch coil is less than that in full pitch coil under the same
conditions.

Pitch or chording Factor, kp


vector sum of induced emf' s per coil
kp
cos
2
arithmetic sum of induced emf' s per coil
where,
-- angle (in electrical degrees)by which the coil span
falls short of full pitch

Es

Es

Algebraic sum
2Es

E
Es

Es

Vector sum

Distribution or Breadth Factor, Kd


sin n

vector sum of coil emf ' s with distributed winding


2
kd

arithmetic sum of coil emf ' s with concentrated winding n sin


2

Where
n no. of slots per pole per phase
180

no. of slots per pole

Algebraic sum

Vector sum

1. Calculate the pitch factor for the under-given windings:


a) 36 stator slots, 4 poles, coil span 1-8; b) 72 stator
slots, 6 poles, coil span 1-10; c)96 stator slots, 6 poles,
coil span 1-12.
2. Calculate the distribution factor for a 36 -slot, 4- pole,
single layer three-phase winding.
3. Find the value of kd for an alternator with 9 slots per pole
for the following cases: a)one winding in all the slots, b)one
winding using only the first 2/3 of the slots per pole, c)three
equal windings placed sequentially in 60 group.
4. A three phase, 16-pole alternator has a star-connected
winding with 144 slots, 10 conductors per slot. The
sinusoidally distributed flux per pole is 0.03Wb and the
speed is 375rpm. Find the frequency; and the phase and line
emf. Assume full-pitched coil.

5. Find the no-load phase and line voltage of a starconnected 3, 6-pole alternator which runs at
1200rpm, having flux per pole of 0.1Wb. Its stator
has 54 slots having double layer winding. Each coil
has 8 turns and the coil is chorded by 1 slot.
6. The stator of a 3 phase, 16-pole alternator has 144
slots and there are 4 conductors per slot. If the
speed of the alternator is 375 rpm, calculate the
induced emf per phase. Resultant flux in the air gap
is 0.05Wb/pole. Assume the coil span is 150.

Alternator on Load
Fig. (1) shows Y-connected alternator supplying inductive load
(laggingp.f.).
When the load on the alternator is increased (i.e., armature
current Ia is increased), the field excitation and speed being kept
constant, the terminal voltage V (phase value) of the alternator
decreases.

This is due to
(1) Voltage drop IaRa where Ra is
the armature resistance per phase.
Fig. (1)
(2) Voltage drop IaXL
where XL is the armature leakage
reactance per phase.
(3) Voltage drop because
of armature reaction.

(1) Armature Resistance (Ra)


Since the armature or stator winding has some resistance, there
will be an IaRa drop when current (Ia) flows through it.
The armature resistance per phase is generally small so that IaRa
drop is negligible for all practical purposes.
(2) Armature Leakage Reactance (XL)
When current flows through the armature
winding, flux is set up and a part of it does
not cross the air-gap and links the coil sides
as shown in Fig. (2). This leakage flux
alternates with current and gives the
winding self-inductance. This is called
armature leakage reactance. Therefore,
there will be IaXL drop which is also
effective in reducing the terminal voltage.
Fig.(2)

(3) Armature reaction


As in dc generators, armature reaction is the effect of armature
flux on the main field flux.
Its effect is of the nature of an inductive reactance.
Therefore, armature reaction effect is accounted for by
assuming the presence of a fictitious reactance XAR in the
armature winding.
The quantity XAR is called reactance of armature reaction.
The value of XAR is such that Ia XAR represents the voltage drop
due to armature reaction.

For the same field excitation, terminal voltage


decreases from its no-load value E to V (for
lagging pf) due to:
1. Drop due to armature resistance, IRa
2. Drop due to leakage reactance, IXL
3. Drop due to armature reaction, IXar

E
E

NOTATIONS
Ra effective value of the armature resistance per phase
XL leakage reactance per phase
XAR reactance due to armature reaction per phase
Xs synchronous reactance per phase
Xs=XL+XAR
Zs synchronous impedance per phase
I=Ia RMS armature current per phase
V terminal voltage per phase
E RMS induced or no load emf per phase
E RMS Load induced e.m.f. It is the induced e.m.f. after
allowingfor armature reaction. It isequal to phasor difference of E
and IaXAR

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT

E V I a ( Ra jX L )
E E I a ( jX AR )



E V I a Z S V I a ( Ra jX S )
X S X L X AR
Zs= Ra+ j Xs

Phasor Diagram of a Loaded Alternator


Fig. (4) shows the phasor diagram of an alternator for the
usual case of inductive load.
Fig.(4)

The armature current Ia lags the


terminal voltage V by p.f. angle
The phasor sum of V and drops
IaRa and IaXL gives the load
induced voltage E. It is the
induced e.m.f. after allowing for
armature reaction.

The phasor sum of E and IaXAR gives the no-load e.m.f. E0


Note that in drawing the phasor diagram either the
terminal voltage (V) or armature current (Ia) may be
taken as the reference phasor.

A phasor diagram of a synchronous generator with


a unity power factor (resistive load)

Leading power factor (capacitive load).

Voltage Regulation
The voltage regulation of an alternator is defined as the
change in terminal voltage from no-load to full-load (the
speed and field excitation being constant)divided by full-load
voltage.
EO V
No load voltage Full load voltage
%VR
x100
x100
Full load voltage
V

Note that (E0V) is the arithmetic difference and not the


phasor difference.

For leading load p.f., the no-load voltage is less than the
full-load voltage.
Hence voltage regulation is negative in this case.
The effects of different load power factors on the change
in the terminal voltage with changes of load on the
alternator are shown in Fig. (5).
Since the regulation of an alternator depends on the
load and the load power factor, it is necessary to mention
power factor while expressing regulation.

Fig. (5)

Practice Problem
A 381-V, 60-Hz, Y-Connected synchronous
generator, having the synchronous reactance of
0.8 ohm and negligible armature resistance, is
operating alone.
1. Determine the induced emf
a. If load current is 100A at 0.8 PF lagging
b. If load current is 100A at 0.8 PF leading
c. If load current is 100A at unity PF

2. Calculate the real and reactive power delivered


in each case.
3. Calculate the %VR at each case.

PARALLEL OPERATION OF ALTERNATORS


Alternators are connected in parallel to
(1) increase the output capacity of a system
beyond that of a single unit,
(2) serve as additional reserve power for
expected demands, or
(3) permit shutting down one machine and
cutting in a standby machine without interrupting
power distribution.

The machines must be synchronized as closely as


possible before connecting them together.
The generators are synchronized when the
following conditions are set:
1. Equal terminal voltages. This is obtained by
adjustment of the incoming generators field
strength.
2. Equal frequency. This is obtained by adjustment
of the incoming generators prime-mover speed.
3. Phase voltages in proper phase relation.