EE153

© All Rights Reserved

49 tayangan

EE153

© All Rights Reserved

- End Winding Vibration Solutions
- SistemKelistrikanKapal.docx
- Amplidyne Generator
- Genarator (Final)
- Generator Testing Project Report
- Kerala Electricals & allied engineering-Organization study
- Tech Spec-D G 5kVA to 50kVA
- Design of Brushless Generator Using Matlab
- Ch2DCMot
- Ens
- Chapter 21 LectureNotes
- AC MOTOR
- Pipper Navajo ElectricSystem.pdf
- Full Text 01
- 风力发电
- Excitation System
- Components of Wind Machines
- Emd June 2012
- Us 3337785
- hui_joanne_cy_200812_Masters.pdf

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Generators or Alternators

Most of the electrical power used aboard

Navy ships and aircraft as well as in civilian

applications is ac.

As a result, the ac generator is the most

important means of producing electrical

power.

Ac generators, generally called alternators,

vary greatly in size depending upon the load

to which they supply power.

dc or ac, depend upon the principle of magnetic

induction.

An emf is induced in a coil as a result of

(1) a coil cutting through a magnetic field, or

(2) a magnetic field cutting through a coil.

ROTATING-ARMATURE ALTERNATORS

The rotating-armature alternator is similar in construction

to the dc generator in that the armature rotates in a

stationary magnetic field

the generated ac is brought to the load unchanged by means of

slip rings.

The rotating armature is found only in alternators of low power

rating and generally is not used to supply electric power in large

quantities.

ROTATING-FIELD ALTERNATORS

The rotating-field alternator has a stationary armature

winding and a rotating-field winding.

The advantage of having a stationary armature winding

is that the generated voltage can be connected directly to

the load

A rotating armature requires slip rings and brushes to

conduct the current from the armature to the load.

The armature, brushes, and slip rings are difficult to

insulate, and arc-overs and short circuits can result at

high voltages.

For this reason, high-voltage alternators are usually of

the rotating-field type.

voltage dc, the problem of high voltage arc-over at the

slip rings does not exist.

The stationary armature, or stator, of this type of

alternator holds the windings that are cut by the rotating

magnetic field.

The stator consists of a

laminated iron core with

the armature windings

embedded in this core as

shown in figure. The core

is secured to the stator

frame.

A typical rotating-field ac generator consists of

an alternator and a smaller dc generator built into

a single unit.

The output of the alternator section supplies

alternating voltage to the load.

The only purpose for the dc generator is to

supply the direct current required to maintain the

alternator field.

This dc generator is referred to as the exciter.

PRIME MOVERS

source of mechanical power to turn their rotors.

Two classes:

1. high-speed --- Steam and gas turbines

2. low-speed ---- while internal-combustion

engines, water, and electric motors

ALTERNATOR ROTORS

Types of rotors used in rotating-field alternators.

1. Smooth cylindrical (or turbine-driven)

- for high speed

- 2 or 4 poles

2. Salient (or projecting)

- for low to medium speed

- With 6 or more poles

Smooth-cylindrical

Salient - pole

36-pole rotor

4-pole rotor

they are designed to produce and the maximum

current they are capable of providing.

The maximum current that can be supplied by an

alternator depends upon the maximum heating loss

that can be sustained in the armature.

This heating loss (which is an I2R power loss)

acts to heat the conductors, and if excessive,

destroys the insulation.

Thus, alternators are rated in terms of this current

and in terms of the voltage output the alternator

rating in small units is in volt- amperes; in large

units it is kilovolt-amperes

SINGLE-PHASE ALTERNATORS

A generator that produces a single, continuously

alternating voltage.

The stator (armature) windings are connected in

series.

They are most often used when the loads being driven

are relatively light.

TWO-PHASE ALTERNATORS

A two-phase alternator is designed to produce two

completely separate voltages.

Each voltage, by itself, may be considered as a

single-phase voltage.

Note that the windings of the two phases are physically

at right angles (90 ) to each other.

The graph shows the two phases to be 90 apart, with A

leading B.

THREE-PHASE ALTERNATOR

Has three

single-phase

windings

spaced such

that the

voltage

induced in any

one phase is

displaced by

120 from the

other two.

Three-Phase Connections

The stator coils of three-phase alternators may be

joined together in either wye or delta connections,

as shown in the figure.

With these connections only three wires come out

of the alternator

FREQUENCY

The output frequency of alternator voltage

depends upon the speed of rotation of the rotor and

the number of poles.

NP

f

120

Note:

A machine that runs at a fixed or constant speed is called

a SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE

Synchronous speed, NS, is computed as

120 f

NS

P

Synchronous machine can be operated as a synchronous

generator (alternator) or as a synchronous motor.

Let Z - no. of conductors per phase

T no. of turns per phase

f frequency, in Hz

- flux/pole in Weber

kd distribution factor

kp pitch or coil span factor

E - rms value of generated emf per phase

E 4.44k p kd fT 2.22k p kd fZ

ARMATURE WINDINGS

per slot, while double layer winding will have

two coil sides/slot.

If one slot per pole or slots equal to number of

poles are employed, then concentrated winding

is obtained. Such windings give maximum

induced emfs.

under one pole, the winding is known as

distributed winding.

winding are 180 electrical space degrees apart, the

winding is known as the full pitch winding.

When the coil span of the winding is less than 180

electrical space degrees i.e. the two coil sides forming a

complete coil are less than 180 electrical space degrees

apart, the winding is known as fractional pitch winding.

sides is not in phase, so the resultant emf, which is equal

to the vector sum of induced emfs in the coil sides, is less

than their arithmetic sum and so the emf induced in short

pitch coil is less than that in full pitch coil under the same

conditions.

vector sum of induced emf' s per coil

kp

cos

2

arithmetic sum of induced emf' s per coil

where,

-- angle (in electrical degrees)by which the coil span

falls short of full pitch

Es

Es

Algebraic sum

2Es

E

Es

Es

Vector sum

sin n

2

kd

2

Where

n no. of slots per pole per phase

180

Algebraic sum

Vector sum

a) 36 stator slots, 4 poles, coil span 1-8; b) 72 stator

slots, 6 poles, coil span 1-10; c)96 stator slots, 6 poles,

coil span 1-12.

2. Calculate the distribution factor for a 36 -slot, 4- pole,

single layer three-phase winding.

3. Find the value of kd for an alternator with 9 slots per pole

for the following cases: a)one winding in all the slots, b)one

winding using only the first 2/3 of the slots per pole, c)three

equal windings placed sequentially in 60 group.

4. A three phase, 16-pole alternator has a star-connected

winding with 144 slots, 10 conductors per slot. The

sinusoidally distributed flux per pole is 0.03Wb and the

speed is 375rpm. Find the frequency; and the phase and line

emf. Assume full-pitched coil.

5. Find the no-load phase and line voltage of a starconnected 3, 6-pole alternator which runs at

1200rpm, having flux per pole of 0.1Wb. Its stator

has 54 slots having double layer winding. Each coil

has 8 turns and the coil is chorded by 1 slot.

6. The stator of a 3 phase, 16-pole alternator has 144

slots and there are 4 conductors per slot. If the

speed of the alternator is 375 rpm, calculate the

induced emf per phase. Resultant flux in the air gap

is 0.05Wb/pole. Assume the coil span is 150.

Alternator on Load

Fig. (1) shows Y-connected alternator supplying inductive load

(laggingp.f.).

When the load on the alternator is increased (i.e., armature

current Ia is increased), the field excitation and speed being kept

constant, the terminal voltage V (phase value) of the alternator

decreases.

This is due to

(1) Voltage drop IaRa where Ra is

the armature resistance per phase.

Fig. (1)

(2) Voltage drop IaXL

where XL is the armature leakage

reactance per phase.

(3) Voltage drop because

of armature reaction.

Since the armature or stator winding has some resistance, there

will be an IaRa drop when current (Ia) flows through it.

The armature resistance per phase is generally small so that IaRa

drop is negligible for all practical purposes.

(2) Armature Leakage Reactance (XL)

When current flows through the armature

winding, flux is set up and a part of it does

not cross the air-gap and links the coil sides

as shown in Fig. (2). This leakage flux

alternates with current and gives the

winding self-inductance. This is called

armature leakage reactance. Therefore,

there will be IaXL drop which is also

effective in reducing the terminal voltage.

Fig.(2)

As in dc generators, armature reaction is the effect of armature

flux on the main field flux.

Its effect is of the nature of an inductive reactance.

Therefore, armature reaction effect is accounted for by

assuming the presence of a fictitious reactance XAR in the

armature winding.

The quantity XAR is called reactance of armature reaction.

The value of XAR is such that Ia XAR represents the voltage drop

due to armature reaction.

decreases from its no-load value E to V (for

lagging pf) due to:

1. Drop due to armature resistance, IRa

2. Drop due to leakage reactance, IXL

3. Drop due to armature reaction, IXar

E

E

NOTATIONS

Ra effective value of the armature resistance per phase

XL leakage reactance per phase

XAR reactance due to armature reaction per phase

Xs synchronous reactance per phase

Xs=XL+XAR

Zs synchronous impedance per phase

I=Ia RMS armature current per phase

V terminal voltage per phase

E RMS induced or no load emf per phase

E RMS Load induced e.m.f. It is the induced e.m.f. after

allowingfor armature reaction. It isequal to phasor difference of E

and IaXAR

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT

E V I a ( Ra jX L )

E E I a ( jX AR )

E V I a Z S V I a ( Ra jX S )

X S X L X AR

Zs= Ra+ j Xs

Fig. (4) shows the phasor diagram of an alternator for the

usual case of inductive load.

Fig.(4)

terminal voltage V by p.f. angle

The phasor sum of V and drops

IaRa and IaXL gives the load

induced voltage E. It is the

induced e.m.f. after allowing for

armature reaction.

Note that in drawing the phasor diagram either the

terminal voltage (V) or armature current (Ia) may be

taken as the reference phasor.

a unity power factor (resistive load)

Voltage Regulation

The voltage regulation of an alternator is defined as the

change in terminal voltage from no-load to full-load (the

speed and field excitation being constant)divided by full-load

voltage.

EO V

No load voltage Full load voltage

%VR

x100

x100

Full load voltage

V

phasor difference.

For leading load p.f., the no-load voltage is less than the

full-load voltage.

Hence voltage regulation is negative in this case.

The effects of different load power factors on the change

in the terminal voltage with changes of load on the

alternator are shown in Fig. (5).

Since the regulation of an alternator depends on the

load and the load power factor, it is necessary to mention

power factor while expressing regulation.

Fig. (5)

Practice Problem

A 381-V, 60-Hz, Y-Connected synchronous

generator, having the synchronous reactance of

0.8 ohm and negligible armature resistance, is

operating alone.

1. Determine the induced emf

a. If load current is 100A at 0.8 PF lagging

b. If load current is 100A at 0.8 PF leading

c. If load current is 100A at unity PF

in each case.

3. Calculate the %VR at each case.

Alternators are connected in parallel to

(1) increase the output capacity of a system

beyond that of a single unit,

(2) serve as additional reserve power for

expected demands, or

(3) permit shutting down one machine and

cutting in a standby machine without interrupting

power distribution.

possible before connecting them together.

The generators are synchronized when the

following conditions are set:

1. Equal terminal voltages. This is obtained by

adjustment of the incoming generators field

strength.

2. Equal frequency. This is obtained by adjustment

of the incoming generators prime-mover speed.

3. Phase voltages in proper phase relation.

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