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EXPREMENTAL STUDY ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOY/COTTON

BLENDED FABRIC TREATED WITH ACALYPHA FRUTICOSA PLANT


*Dr. S.Grace Annapoorani & **S. Divya
* Associate Professor, Department of Textile and Apparel Design, Bharathiar University,
Coimbatore 641 046; Email: grace_poorni@yahoo.com
** Assistant Professor, Department of Garment Designing, PSGR Krishnammal College for Women,
Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu -04; Email: divya16091988@gmail.com

Abstract
In the present scenario of environmental consciousness, the new quality requirements not only
emphasize on the intrinsic functionality and long service life of the product but also a production
process that is environment-friendly. Therefore, research on environment-friendly antimicrobial
agents based on natural products for textile application is gaining worldwide interest. The study
focused on the development of antimicrobial finish on Soy/cotton blend fabric using a natural
product. An antimicrobial agent extracted from the Arial part Birch-Leaved Cat Tail plant
(Acalypha fruticosa) was used for imparting antibacterial property to the blend fabric.
Quantitative analysis AATCC 100-2004 was carried out to measure the antimicrobial activity
against Staphylococcus aureus is a

Gram-positive and Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-

negative bacteria to enhance the durability of the finished fabric. The antibacterial activity was
higher against Klebsiella pneumoniae Gram-negative bacteria as compared to Staphylococcus
aureus Gram- positive bacteria. An attempt has been made through this research work to develop
medicinal herb extracts treated fabric.
Keywords: Environment -Friendly, Anti-Microbial finish, Soy/Cotton blend fabric, Birch-Leaved
Cat Tail plant, Medicinal herbs.

Introduction
Medicinal plants are plants containing inherent active ingredients used to cure disease. The use
of traditional medicines and medicinal plants mostly used in developing countries for maintained
of good health (UNESCO, 1996). Medicinal plants produce bioactive compounds used mainly
for medicinal purposes. These compounds either act on different system of animals and man and
act through interfering in the metabolisms of microbes infecting them. The microbe may be
pathogenic or symbiotic. The bioactive compounds play an important role in regulating host
microbe interaction in favor of the host. The medicinal properties of plants could be based on the
antioxidant, antimicrobial, antipyretic effect of the photochemical in them (Adesokan et al.,
2008).
The current trend deals with the potential of biotechnology in the textile industry. Now, there is a
good deal of demand for the fabrics having functional/speciality finishes in general but
antimicrobial finishes in particular to protect human being against microbes (Klaus, 2001).
The application of antimicrobial textile finishes include a wide range of textile products for
medical, technical, industrial, home furnishing and apparel sectors. Though a number of
commercial antimicrobial agents have been introduced in the market, their compliance to the
regulations imposed by International Bodies like EPU is still unclear.
Germs grow very rapidly by cell division, doubling their population every 20 minutes. They
require humidity and an organic medium for growth (Bohringer et al, 2000). Anti-microbial
finishing of textile fabrics can prevent the growth of various microorganisms and therefore,
contribute to deodorizing. Antimicrobial finishing products are divided into bactericides which
causing destruction of bacteria and bacteriostats which inhibiting bacterial growth. (Rouette, H.
K., 2001).
There are three categories of protection against biological attack:

Protection of the wearer or user of a textile material against micro-organ-isms for

aesthetic purposes (sup-pressing or killing odor-causing bacteria).


Protection of the textile itself from Bio-deterioration caused by mold, mildew, and rotproducing fungi.

Protection of textiles and wearer from insects and other pests. (Sun, G. and X. Xu, 1999)

The scientific name of Birch-leaved acalypha: Acalypha fruticosa Forssk.Acalypha fruticosa is a


strong smelling bushy shrub; it is used to treat dyspepsia, stomachache, skin diseases, wounds
and poisonous bites. is deciduous, erect, branched shrub; grow up to 2.4 m high. Leaves arranged
alternately oblong to ovate, more or less round or sub-acute and almost 5 nerved at the base,
toothed margin, on a slender glabrescent petiole 1.3-2.5 cm long, apex acuminate to acute or
rarely blunt while young, 2.5-5.0 cm long, membranous, roughish above, softly puberulous
beneath. Flowers are minute, greenish, clustered, sessile, forming slender, sessile spikes arising
singly or by 2 to 3 from above the scars of the fallen leaves, the females at the very base of the
spike or in separate small cluster-like few flowered spikes in the axis of the young leaves.
Medicinal uses: stomachic in dyspepsia and other ailment, skin diseases, wounds and poisonous
bites. Chemical content: alkaloids, triterpenoids, tannins, phenols, flavonoids, anthraquinones,
steroids and saponins, Medicinal properties: Anti-microbial, Anti bacterial, Anti-inflammatory,
Stomachic
Soybean protein fibers (SPF) are manufactured fibers, produced from regenerated soya Glycine
Max soybean proteins in combination with synthetic polymer (polyvinyl alcohol) as a
predominant component. According to textile fiber labelling (FTC, 2010), textiles from SPF can
be marked as azlons from soybean. Azlons are manufactured fibers in which the fiber forming
substance is composed of regenerated naturally occurring proteins (FTC, 2011). Soybeans are
very reach with proteins (about 3742% of dry bean) (Krishnan et al., 2007) in comparison to
milk (3.2%), corn (10%) and peanuts (25%). Soybean proteins are used for food and feed and in
many industries as adhesives, emulsions, cleansing materials, pharmaceuticals, inks, plastics and
also textile fibers.
Soy/cotton is the most beautiful mix it creates a distinctive, natural yarn with a luxurious drape
and an amazing softness touching the skin. Since, only the premium quality fibers are used, this
natural blend produce marvelously defined stitch detail and an exceptionally silky fabric.
Magnificent soy/cotton creates a splendidly exotic feel with spicy, rich shades and distinct chilly
and watery colors.

The present study aims at developing an eco-friendly and natural antimicrobial finish on
Soy/cotton fabrics using the extracts of Acalypha fruticosa. An extensive study was conducted to
assess the antimicrobial effectiveness using AATCC 100-2004 (Quantitative) method and the
fragrance efficacy are assessed using Organoleptic evaluation of odor control test (In-House
Method).
2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1 Collection of herbs
Acalypha fruticosa plant leaves were collected from Kutrallam hills, Western Ghats of South
India, Tamil Nadu. The medicinal herb Acalypha fruticosa aerial parts have a good antimicrobial
property. Moreover it has been proved that Acalypha fruticosa aerial has no side effect on
humans. Hence Acalypha fruticosa was chosen for this study.

Plate I : Acalypha fruticosa


2.2 Collection of material
For the purpose of the study, 50:50 Soy-cotton blended yarns of 30s count were circular knitted
Single Jersey structure was selected.
2.3 Preparation of the Extract
Acalypha fruticosa plant leaves were collected and washed with water and remove the dust
particle. The collected leaves are dried under shade and powdered in a mortar and pestle. The
extract were dissolved in solvent and screened for antimicrobial activity.

2.4 Application of Extracted Solution


The extract was finished on the Soy-cotton fabric using padding mangle. Herbs were padded on
the fabric with the three roll padding machine for five minutes. After padding, fabrics were dried
and cured.
2.5 Softeners
After finishing, the fabric was washed and treated with 3% cationic softener at 400C for 20 min,
and then the fabric was washed with cold water and dried.
2.6 Antibacterial Assessment method AATCC-100-2004
AATCC-100-2004 test method provides a quantitative procedure for the evaluation of the degree
of antibacterial activity. Assessment of antibacterial finishes on textile materials is determined
by the degree of antibacterial activity intended in the use of such materials. If only bacteriostatic
(inhibition of multiplication) is intended, a qualitative procedure which clearly demonstrates
antibacterial activity as contrasted with lack of such activity by an untreated specimen may be
acceptable. If bactericidal activity is intended or implied, quantitative evaluation is necessary.
Quantitative evaluation also provides a clearer picture for possible uses of such treated textile
materials.
Test and control swatches are inoculated with the test organisms. After incubation, the bacteria
are eluted from the swatches by shaking in known amount of neutralizing solution. The number
of bacteria present in this liquid is determined, and the percentage reduction by the treated
specimen is calculated.
Test Organisms:

Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538

Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 4352

The number of swatches to be used is dependent on the fiber type and fabric construction. Use
that amount of fabric which will absorb 1ml of inoculum, and leave no free liquid in the jar. In

the absence of an untreated negative control, quantitative method AATCC 100 can be run by
comparing start and end concentration of sample.
3. Results and Discussion
3.1 Antibacterial test by Bacterial Reduction Test (AATCC TM 100-2004)
Tests and analysis are done to check the efficiency of the process that has been carried
out. It helps in evaluating the success rate of any innovation. Anti-Bacterial Assessment the
antibacterial activities of the finished fabrics were tested according to (AATCC TM 100-2004)
against S.aureus and

K. pneum. The results show in the percentage reduction of bacteria in K.

pneum which is good compared to S.aureus bacteria. The details of the Acalypha fruticosa AntiBacterial Assessment are shown in below table I.
TABLE I: Bacterial Reduction Test (AATCC TM 100-2004)

Bacterial Reduction in %
S.NO

SAMPLE

S.AUREUS

K.PNEUM

(ATCC 6538)

(ATCC 4352)

Acalypha
1

fruticosa Finished

REMARKS

Good
55

soy/cotton fabric

68

antibacterial
activity

.Here the investigators that among the Soy-cotton blended material which were finished by
Antibacterial finishes by herbal methods was found to be higher in Klebsilla pneumoniae than
Staphylococcus aureus finished Antibacterial fabric.

4. Conclusion

In the present study, will lay a foundation for wealth out of waste materials from new innovative
products for different end uses. Acalypha fruticosa extracts are purely from the natural resources,
the finished fabric is eco-friendly and satisfies the social and the environmental needs. The
Acalypha fruticosa finish increases the durability and antibacterial activity of finished fabric to a
greater extend. From the test results, it concluded that among the Soy-cotton blended material
which were finished by Antibacterial finishes by herbal methods was found to be higher in
Klebsilla pneumoniae than Staphylococcus aureus finished Antibacterial fabric shows better
antimicrobial activity and it will be more suitable for developing hospital textiles.
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Rouette, H. K., Encyclopedia of Textile Finishing, Vols. 1 and 2, Springer-Verlag Berlin
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Sun, G. and X. Xu, Textile Chemist and Colorist, Vol. 29, No. 5, May 1999, p26.
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http://www.medicinalplantsindia.com/birch-leaved-acalypha.html