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2014 Global Marketing Conference at Singapore

2014 Global Marketing Conference at Singapore Proceedings: 2143-2148(July 2014)


http://dx.doi.org/10.15444/GMC2014.11.06.02

THE EFFECT OF PERSONAL VALUE AND SATISFACTION TO THE


TOURISTS LOYALTY OF SAUNG ANGKLUNG UDJO AS CULTURAL
HERITAGE TOURISM DESTINATION IN INDONESIA
Siddhiq Amarullah Ramadhani, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
Riandhita Eri Werdani, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
Fitri Aprilianty, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
Nurlia Balqish, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
Fitria Insi Aulani, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
Mustika Sufiati Purwanegara, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
ABSTRACT
Saung Angklung Udjo (SAU) is recognized as a cultural tourism destination in Indonesia.
The aim of this paper is to study the consumer personal value toward SAU. This research
reported that consumers perceived angklung as an unique and attractive musical
instrument and felt very satisfied to performance in SAU.
Keywords: Personal value, Tourists loyalty, Indonesia, Saung Angklung Udjo, musical
instrument
INTRODUCTION
Angklung is a bamboo traditional musical instrument in West Java, Indonesia. Since
1966, Saung Angklung Udjo (SAU) was opened to preserve and develop the legacy of
angklung (Angklung-udjo.co.id). The visitors are consisted of domestic and overseas
tourists. SAU has attractive features for the visitors. It provides West Java traditional
performance such as angklung music show, Sundanese traditional dance, and traditional
puppet show bamboo instrument workshop, and bamboo handicraft center shop (Hani, et
al., 2012).
The purpose of this study is to conduct a research to study the consumer satisfaction
from some factors which influence it. The contribution of the research can be divided into
two areas. In theoretical contribution area, this research could enrich the literature of
consumer personal value toward specific product/service and cultural tourism marketing
theory. Whereas in practical contribution area, in Marketing Management, the output of
this research can give a valuable insight execute a more effective business strategy
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Cultural Tourism
There are a varieties of subset in the tourism marketing, one of the subset is cultural
tourism. Cultural tourism deals with a country or region culture, specifically of the unique
value and lifestyle, its purpose is to share and enjoy physical and intangible heritage and
culture, including landscapes, buildings, collections, the arts, identity, tradition and
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language which shape their culture and way of life. Cultural tourism could attract tourist
from their homeplace in order to gain new informations and experiences to satisfy their
cultural needs by observing other culture (European Association Historic Towns &
Regions, 2009)
Consumer Personal Value
Value is defined as interests, pleasures, likes, preferences, duties, moral obligations,
desires, wants, goals, needs, aversions, attractions, and many other kinds of selective
orientations" (William, 1979). Value also can be divided into two categories: Global
values and Domain-Specific value. The central unit in global value is belief, as a guidance
across wide variety of experiences, whereas domain-specific value reflects the belief that
people acquire through a specific experience and cannot be effectively understood except
in specific experience (Vinson et al., 1977). Consumer personal value can be utilized for
predicting satisfaction (Tsiotsou, 2006). In turn, the satisfaction level could affect loyalty
(Yang and Peterson, 2004).
HYPOTHESIS
Before watching angklung performance, consumerd perceive angklung as a not so
attractive traditional musical instrument and hard to be played. After watching
performance, the consumers point of view changed, they perceive angklung as an
attractive and easy to be played musical instrument.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This research is conducted using quantitative research. The population on this research
is consumers in Angklung Saung Udjo and the sample on this research is consumers in
Angklung Saung Udjo who have already saw the Angklung performance. Questionnaire
was delivered to 450 tourists who visited SAU, including domestic and overseas tourists
by using simple random sampling technique. The questionnaire is analyzed by using non
parametric analysis, regression linear, paired t-test, crosstabulation, and factor analysis to
study various factors in order to deduct consumer personal value toward SAU.
The measured variables were: consumer perception about angklung before and after
watching performance, satisfaction of facility, and satisfaction of performance, and
loyalty. List of subvariables for consumer perception about angklung before and after
watching performance are: unique, ancient, and interesting musical instrument, easy to be
played, interesting to be watched, difficult to compete with modern musical instrument.
List of subvariables for satisfaction of facility are: how to get an information, location
accessibility, parking area, toilet, praying room, cafeteria, costumer service, cleanliness,
list of souvenirs, price of souvenirs and ticket. List of subvariables for satisfaction of
performance are: the place, the lighting, interaction with audiences, wayang (puppet)
show session, traditional dance session, angklung session. The variables of consumer
personal value are borrowed from Kahle (1983): Sense of belonging, excitement, warm
relationship with other, self-fulfillment, being well-respected, fun and enjoyment in life,
security, self-respected, and sense of accomplishment. The loyalty variable is referred to
recommendation, such as: tell other people to visit, giving information about SAU, and
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update to the social media network. Aside from variable of personal value, the source
from all variables are from observation and interview. The scaling type which is used is
Likert scale (1-7)
RESULT & DISCUSSION
Demographic characteristics of respondent
There are various characteristics of SAUs tourists: gender, origin, age, income, job.
Based on survey result, the number of female tourist (53%) is greater than male tourist
(47%). Based on the origin characteristic, SAU tourists mostly came from Java island
(65%), the other region of Indonesia beside Java (32%), and foreign country (3%). From
the age characteristic, SAU tourists were dominated by a teenager with the age 17 years
old (58%) and young people with the age 18-25 years old (16%). Because the age of the
tourists were dominated by young people, so most of them still a students (67%) and had
an income 2.000.000 (63%). Why the majority of tourist is teenager most likely
because the teenager visited from their school education tour program. The remaining has
already working (33%) and had an income above 2.000.000 (37%) Based on the tourists
hobbies, the sport was the most favourite hobby (33%), the another hobbies are listening
music (15%), reading (17%), travelling (13%), and others (22%)
However, through crosstabulation technique, we found that there were only two
characteristics which affected personal value of consumer. They were: origin (level of
significance = 0.038) and age (level of significance = 0.047). Whereas the other four
were: gender (level of significance = 0.641), income (level of significance = 0.237), and
job (level of significance = 0.914). An independent variable had a strong level of
significance toward dependent variable if the level of significance is below 0.05.
The consumer point of view towards Angklung
The consumers point of view toward angklung differ significantly after and before they
watch angklung performance, as can be seen in Figure 1. Based on the result of paired ttest analysis, the consumers point of view towards Angklung before and after watching
the angklung performance in SAU were significantly different. Before watching the
angklung show, the consumer point of view towards angklung were just the usual
traditional bamboo instrument that were not quite interesting to be watched and hard to
be played. After they had watched the Angklung show, they changed their perception,
they thought angklung was an unique traditional bamboo instrument (p=0,000(<0,05)),
very interesting to be seen (p=0,000(<0,05)), easy to be played (p=0,000(<0,05)), but
they still held their initial point of view that Angklung was one of dated traditional
instrument (p=0,673 (>0,05)) that could not be replaced by modern music instrument
(p=0, 980 (>0,05))
Influence of Consumer Personal Value toward Loyalty
The validity and reliability score can be seen in Table 1. The consumer satisfaction was
divided into two dimensions: performance and facility. As can be seen at Table 2, both
satisfaction dimensions and personal value are related significantly to the loyalty.
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However, respondents satisfaction to the performance affects more to the loyalty than
others dimensions. So, it can be concluded consumer response about performance in SAU
is really important to the loyalty, or tends to bring a positif word of mouth (WOM)
recommendations.
People have different dominant personal value in their life. In fact, their personal value
has relation to the loyalty of buying something or recommend something to their relatives.
In this study, we also found that consumer personal value affects their loyalty towards
SAU after they watched the performance. People who own sense of belonging value
highly has greater loyalty than people who do not have this value. From the
questionnaires, we could conclude that people who have sense of belonging is important
in their life like to share their experience to their friends because they want their friends
to feel what they feel. They share their feeling by updating their status in social media,
asking their friends to go there, and giving information about what they found there.
Actually, this action indirectly promoted SAU to other people. People even would be
more believe in testimonial they get from people who already experienced it. Beside
sense of belonging, people who hve high self-fulfillment, self-respect, and happiness
value were also have high loyalty to the things that they like.
CONCLUSION
This research tried to analyze the consumer personal value toward SAU, including their
loyalty and their perception to angkung, the traditional musical instrument which become
the main part of the performance. From this research, it can be concluded that the most
influential demography characteristics are origin and age. Before and after they watched
the angklung performance, the consumer still viewed angklung as a dated traditional
musical instrument, but cannot be replaced by modern music instrument. Satisfaction to
the performance presented by SAU, is the most influencing factor to the loyalty. Overall,
all of the findings and results presented in this research would give SAU an advantage to
market and introduce angklung with the better business strategy

References
Angklung-udjo.co.id. (2013). Saung Angklung Udjo - Nature, Culture in Harmony.
[online] Available at: http://www.angklung-udjo.co.id/ [Accessed: 9 Dec 2013].
European Association Historic Towns & Regions. (2009). Guidelines for Sustainable
Cultural Tourism in Historic Towns and Cities. Retrieved from: http://www.historictowns.org/documents/downloads/SustainableTourismGuidelines.pdf
Hani, U., Azzadina, I., Sianipar, C., Setyagung, E. and Ishii, T. (2012). Preserving
Cultural Heritage through Creative Industry: A Lesson from Saung Angklung Udjo.
Procedia Economics and Finance, 4 pp. 193--200.
Kahle, Lynn R. ed. 1983. Social Values and Social Change: Adaptation to Life in
America. New York, NY: Praeger Publishers
Tsiotsou, R. (2006). The role of perceived product quality and overall satisfaction on
purchase intentions. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 30(2), 207-217.
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Vinson, D. E., Scott, J. E., & Lamont, L. M. (1977). The role of personal values in
marketing and consumer behavior. The Journal of Marketing, 44-50.
Williams, Robin M. 1979. Change and Stability in Values and Value Systems. Pp. 1546 in Understanding Human Values: Individual and Societal, edited by Milton
Rokeach. New York: Free Press
Yang, Z. & Peterson, R.T. (2004) Customer perceived value, satisfaction, and loyalty: the
role of switching costs. Psychology and Marketing, 21, 799822.
TABLES AND FIGURES
Table 1. Validity and Realibility
Factor
Loyalty
Facility satisfaction
Performance
satisfaction
Personal Value

KMO Bartletts
0.646
0.000
0.789
0.000
0.795
0.896

0.000
0.000

Extracted
Variance
Sig.
(%)
0.000
53.127
0.000
46.243
0.000
0.000

51.406
50.392

CR
0.778
0.683
0.747
0.874

Table 2. The influence of consumer personal value toward loyalty


Factor
Beta
t
Sign.
R2
Satisfaction of Facility to Loyalty
0.469 11.244 0.000
0.220
Satisfactionof Performance to Loyalty
0.848 36.650 0.000
0.720
Satisfaction of Facility to Satisfaction of 0.527 13.138 0.000
0.278
Performance
Personal Value to Loyalty
0.361 0.413
0.000
0.171

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Figure 1. How consumer perceived angklung (based on mean)

Figure 2. Angklung

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