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Simulation of Two Dimensional Antenna Array by using CST-MWS

In the name of Allah

A two dimensional NxNy array based on Rectangular

Waveguide Aperture Element
In this example we tried to practice the modelling of two dimensional phased array
configurations with finite array size in CST Microwave Studio.
At the end of this exercise we also analyze an infinite 2D-dimensional array by using Floquet
Excitation instead of waveport.
I appreciate who adds any comment on this work by sending email to:, or
Regards.............Seyed Mohammadreza

Part I: Finite Planar Array

Model Design:

Pick the waveguide end faces and then choose shell action for making a waveguide
with thickness:

We have a rectangular waveguide as our main array element. For the future and more
analyze, we can define a material(here Vacuum) inside the waveguide as:

Simulation of Two Dimensional Antenna Array by using CST-MWS

The last object is a Radom in front of the array element with epsilon:4 and loss free,
this action can be perform by Extrude based on WG object, pick the front face of WG
and then:



Frequency Setting:

Background Material:
Setting the propagation region by Background, because the main radiation area is Z>0
in front of the Radom, we set a relative distance based on the largest dimension of the
array element(here waveguide width of a, in 3*a), the back of the antenna element
is not important for us because we normally are face with End-closed probe fed
waveguide, later we will set at Boundary setting an PEC(Et=0) wall at Zmin based on
equivalence principle for TE mode excitation :

Excitation Definition:
For waveguide the best choice is
waveport and at Z=0, toward the
positive direction of the Z-axis:

Simulation of Two Dimensional Antenna

Array by using CST-MWS


As we said previously we have main radiation in Z>0 and no radiation in Z<0, so
based on equivalence principle we can fill PEC material in Z<0 and the equivalent
electric current of the tangential Ey field would be Ms. We have a 2-D
2 D array so we
should sett the boundary in x and y direction as periodic.

Phase Setting:
In planar antenna array we have two main parameters: progressive excitation phase of
array elements of phase_x and phase_y, in x and y directions, respectively, and
elements distances of dx and dy.

A schematic view of a N
N two dimensional Array

A beam former block diagram of a 2

2 array

In CST MWS we can set the phase parameters by phase shift/scan angle:
As shown, our example has a progressive
phase shift only in x-direction
direction as phase_x
and 0 all the elements are equal-phases
If you put tick Scan Angle, the phase_x is
the propagation phase constant of the
surface wave on the array surface in xxdirection and is useful for periodic metal,
dielectric structure like EBG, Metamaterial
and ...., for studying the dispersion
behaviour of them.
The Theta and Phi is the incident plane wave direction when w use the unit cell and
floquet excitation instead of period boundary and wave port.

Simulation of Two Dimensional Antenna Array by using CST-MWS

The elements distances of dx and dy could be set via postprocessing as following:



Choose Advanced Tab, many features are available as below in Farfield setup:
*Plot Mode: lin/Log

Result Type: Dir/G/...


**Array Setup:

Special: Angular Width is the same 3dB-HPBW

*For better viewing the main beam direction the linear scale is better than Log scale.
**As shown in the Array setup window, the important array input data should be
defined in this place.

Simulation of Two Dimensional Antenna Array by using CST-MWS

Field Monitor:
For far field, the field monitor should set at Far field/RCS.

Frequency solver:
For only field result, we just set the
frequency solver at single sample frequency.

Parametric Sweep:

Far field and template based results:

Simulation of Two Dimensional Antenna Array by using CST-MWS

Set what curves which you want to show: click on None tab and then:



Click on Apply and ok:

Simulation of Two Dimensional Antenna Array by using CST-MWS

Part II: Infinite Planar Array(Floquet Sources)

Another periodicity can be made by unit cell option in boundary setup. In this case we
should eliminate the excitation and we use the floquet excitation which is based on
two default mode based waveport excitations of Zmin and Zmax.
In this excitation method the antenna acts in receiving mode by exposing by an
incident plane wave source placed on planes of Zmin and Zmax(the results is based
on superposition law for studying the reciprocal peroperties of the system).
Boundary set up of Unit cell in x and y directions:

Floquet Ports:
Click on floquet tab and set mode number of ports which are placed at Zmin and
Zmax(for example 2 is ok, because more mode number can alert you low memory
space error!).

Because of setting the Et=0 at Zmin the Zmin source cannot be defined.
Next step is defining the planewave incident direction as inward, and at (=0, =0)
directions which is equivalent to -z axis direction.

Unit cell setup:

We can define any desirable periodic structure like inclined and not right structure
with various distances like below, by correspondent setup:
Standard: if you tick the box result is the same.

Simulation of Two Dimensional Antenna Array by using CST-MWS

Diagonal Inclined:

Frequency setup: we can choose a list of port and desired modes.



Now we want to change the plane wave direction from (=0, =0) to (=45, =0).

Simulation of Two Dimensional Antenna Array by using CST-MWS

New Results based on inclined propagation direction: its clear that the main back
scattered beam is (330, =0) or (45, =180).