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CONSTRUCTION OF SUBGRADE,

SUBBASE AND BASE LAYERS

Dr. Anjaneyappa
Department of Civil Engineering
RV College of Engineering
Bengaluru 59

Email: anjaneyappa@rvce.edu.in

Pavement Types

Flexible pavements
Rigid pavements / Cement Concrete (CC)
Pavements
Semi-rigid pavements
Composite pavements

Pavement Composition- Bituminous

Vehicle

Black Topping(115 to 200)

Base(250)
Sub Base ( 100-250)
500mm
Sub

450
Ground Level

Grade ( 300-500)

Embankment

Road
Crust

Subgrade
Layer of Natural Soil Prepared to Receive
Layers of Pavement placed over
The loads on Pavement are Received by Soil
Subgrade for dispersion to the Earth mass
Sub Base

To act as drainage layer / Protect Subgrade


To improve the load supporting capacity by
Distributing the load - Flexible pavement
Prevent mud pumping, continuous support for
slab & to protect subgrade

Base Layer
Structural layer / Distribute stresses
Strength and Stability to pavement system

WBM, WMM, CRM

Binder courses
Bear High Stresses
Distribution of Stresses
BM, DBM

Surface Course
To give Smooth riding surface
To resist wear and tear due to traffic
To resist Water infiltration
SDBC, BC, CGPS (MSS)

Rigid Pavements / Cement Concrete Pavements


Sub Base layers:

Granular layers WBM,WMM etc


DLC - Dry lean Concrete/ Roller compacted
Surface Layers
PQC
Interlocking Concrete paving blocks

concrete

Flexible Pavements / Bituminous Pavements


1. Fill/ Subgrade - Soil Layers
2. Granular Layers ( Subbase & base layer) -GSB, WBM,
WMM, CRM
3. Bituminous Layers
3.1 Interface treatments
3.2 Thin Surface Layers
3.3 Thick Surface layers
4. Bituminous Binder Courses & Surface Courses
5. Functional & Structural Layers

Bituminous Layers _ Thick Layers


Grouted / Penetration / Sprayed
Built Up Spray Grout
Penentration Macadam
Bituminous Precoated Layers
Bituminous Macadam
Dense Bituminous Macadam

Bituminous Concrete

Bituminous Thin Layers - Structural Layer


Semi Dense Bituminous Concrete - 25 mm
Bituminous Thin Function Layers

Pre Mix Carpet with Seal Coat


Mix Seal Surfacing

Construction of Embankment / Subgrade

Applies for shoulders, backfills etc


Materials are Soil, moorum, gravel, mixture of these materials
Clay of LL < 50 PI < 25, OL, OI, OH etc are not suitable

Construction Operations
1. Setting out - marked by fixing pegs at regular
intervals before commencing the work.
Centre line / reference at 500 m & 250 in plain and hilly on either
side at 20-25 m
Intermediate pegs: 50 m & 20 m on straight & curved

2.Compacting ground supporting embankment /


subgrade ( 0.5 m below subgrade level)
3. Spreading, mixing and Compaction
4. Max size of clods / hard lumps 75 mm for
embankment and 50 mm in subgrade

5. If fill is to be deposited on slope ( steeper


than 1:4) faces are to be benched
6. During construction surface to have cross fall
for drainage
7. Repair of damages caused by rains / spillage
of water before next layer is laid
8. Finishing operations - shaping, trimming,
surface level etc
9. Area shall be cleared of debris / ugly scars
responsible for objectionable appearance

10. Any soft areas in embankment, be removed


and replaced by app.material, compaction

Tests On Borrow Materials Of Embankment/subgrade


Test

Desirable Frequency / 3000 cum

Gradation/ Sand Content

2 Tests

Plasticity Index

2 Tests

Modified Proctor Test

2 Tests

CBR on a set of 3
Specimens
Deleterious Constituents

One Test

Natural Moisture Content

2 tests

As Required

Earthwork for Embankment and Subgrade

Spreading of material in layers and


Bringing to appropriate moisture content

Maximum compacted layer thickness should not exceed


200 mm
Variation in Optimum Moisture content between OMC 2 % to OMC + 1%
Expansive soils to be compacted at OMC or on wet side
of optimum

Dry Density (KN/m3)

19.5

10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

19
18.5
18
17.5
17
16.5
16
7

11
13
Moisture Content (%)

15

CBR (% )

DENSITY -CBR

Dry Density
CBR (Soaked)

17

Fig. Relationship of Density - CBR for Loamy soil at IS Heavy


Compaction Effort

Soil Layers

Layer Thickness

Uniform thickness, Maximum thickness

Water content

Lower side of OMC needs more compaction effort

Target higher Density

sustain higher strains, decrease in pavement crust


thickness
Compaction

High amplitude and low Frequency


Rolling on Compacted layer in the name of preparation of layer

Compaction

Types of Rollers

Static Steel Wheel


Kneading
Vibratory
Impact Rollers
SOIL COMPACTORS - one Steel drum
ASPHALT COMPACTORS Steel drum both front and
back
PNEUMATIC TYRED COMPACTORS
Construction

Compaction Equipment

21

Static Steel Wheel Roller


Static Pressure

Weight
Speed
Thickness

Weight
Roller

Vibratory Rollers

Load
Amplitude
Frequency
Operation

Low Frequency

High Frequency

Impact Spacing

FREQUENCY
DIRECTION OF TRAVEL

24

AMPLITUDE

25

Impact Rammer

Walk Behind Rollers Single Drum

Walk Behind Rollers Double drum

Light Compacting Equipment

Applications
Trenches
Back fills
Constrained areas where big rollers can not be operated

Precaution

Layer Thickness to be 100-150 mm

Types of Gradations
*

Uniformly graded
- Few points of contact
- Poor interlock (shape dependent)
- High permeability

* Well graded
- Good interlock
- Low permeability

* Gap graded
- Only limited sizes
- Good interlock
- Low permeability

Stress distribution through granular layers

Construction of GSB

Compacted granular sub-base

Sub-base course
l

Intermediate layer between


subgrade and granular base course

Essentially a drainage layer

Distributes the stresses imposed by


traffic

Materials for sub-base


l

Locally available materials

Natural sand
Gravel or moorum
Kankar
Crushed stone
Laterite

Industrial waste and other materials

Steel slag
Pond ash or Pond ash Bottom ash mix
Crushed concrete
Brick bats

Gradation of Granular Sub-Base materials


IS. Sieve

Per cent by weight passing the sieve

Grading I

Grading II

Grading III

75 mm

100

53 mm

80 100

100

100

26.5 mm

55 90

70 100

55-75

9.5 mm

35 65

50 80

4.75 mm

25 55

40 65

10 30

2.36 mm

20 40

30 50

0.85 mm

0.425 mm

10-15

10 15

0.075

<5

<5

<5

Gradation of Granular Sub-Base material


IS. Sieve

Per cent by weight passing the sieve

Grading IV

Grading V

Grading VI

75 mm

100

53 mm

100

80-100

100

26.5 mm

50 80

55 90

75-100

9.5 mm

35-65

5575

4.75 mm

15 35

25 50

30 55

2.36 mm

1020

1025

0.425 mm

210

0.075 mm

0-5

0-8

CBR (Min.)

<5

0-3

Material requirements for GSB


AIV

40 Maximum

LL

25 Maximum

PI

6 Maximum

CBR at 98% density

30 Minimum unless specified

Test
Gradation
Atterberg limits
Moisture content
Density
CBR

Frequency
one test per 400 cu.m
One test per 400 cu.m
One test per 400 cum
One test per 1000 sq.m

Construction Steps

Preparation of Sub grade


No vegetation
Sprinkling of water if required 2 static roller passes

Spreading
Mix shall be mechanically by a suitable mixer equipped
with provision of control addition of water
Motor grader for required slope and grade

Compaction
for layers less than 100 mm static roller may be used
Up to 200 mm Vibrator roller 8-10 tonne vibratory roller

Gradation for WMM


Sieve Size (mm)

% Passing

53

100

45

95-100

26.5

22.40

60-80

11.20

40-60

4.75

25-40

2.36

15-30

0.60

8-22

0.075

0-5

Material Passing 425 micron shall PI not more than 6

WET MIX PLANT

NOT TO BE FOLLOWED

Construction steps - WMM

Preparation of Mix in Pug Mill


Spreading of mix by Paver
Only in exceptional cases Motor grader can be used

QC tests
Test

Frequency

Gradation

1 test per 200 cum

AIV

1 test per 1000 cum

CI

1 test per 500 cum

Density

1 test per 1000 cum

Advantages of Using WMM


Homogeneous mix as it is controlled mechanically
Laying by Pavers , hence better surface finish
Quicker
Mix can be mixed at suitable locations - where water is available
Because of premixing with water segregation reduces
Can achieve higher unit weight hence higher strength
Less compactive effort to achieve max density
Uniform coating of moisture film around aggregates
More output in construction
Controlled gradation / crushed

Limitations
After construction of top layer immediate
sealing with bituminous surface
Lateral confinement

Water Requirement Scarcity areas?

Construction Operations
1. Preparation of Base
2. Provision of lateral confinement of aggregates
3. Preparation of Mix
for small quantity concrete mixer may be
used
find OMC after replacing retained on
22.4 mm with material 4.75 to 22.4 mm

4. Spreading of Mix
Spreading of mix to be done uniformly / evenly
Should not be dumped in heaps
Finishing by Paver / exceptional cases grader
Due importance for segregation
5. Compaction
8to 10 tonne static compactor up to 100 mm

8-10 vibratory roller up to 200 mm


Speed of compactor not to exceed 5 km/hour

Displacement occurring due to roller operations are to be rectified

Use small compactors near kerb/places not assessable


to roller

Rolling not be done when subgrade is soft/yielding


/causes wave like motion
If irregularities during rolling more than 12 mm for straight
edge , surface to be loosened and premixed material
to be added

6. Any defections on the surface to be rectified


7. Setting and Drying

8. Opening to traffic after sealing

Crusher Run Macadam


l

l
l

l
l

Crushed aggregates from aggregate crushing


plants to be used as such
Screening, separation of aggregates and
remixing is avoided
Physical requirements of aggregates are same as
that of WMM / WBM
Two gradations provided in MoRTH
specifications and rural roads manual
Construction procedure similar to WMM

Gradation requirement of CRM


IS Sieve
63.0 mm
45.0 mm
22.4 mm
5.6 mm
710 micron
90 micron

Per cent passing


53 mm max size
35 mm max size
100

87 100
100
50 85
90 100
25 45
35 55
10 25
10 30
25
25

Advantages & Disadvantages


One material to be handled hence cost of
construction cheap
Maintaining gradation is difficult

While transporting mix to longer distances the


aggregates may segregate
While spreading at some places only fines & some
places only coarse aggregates
During construction fine material tends to go down
resulting loss of stability / difficult in compaction

Construction Operations
1. Preparation of Base

2. Spreading, Mixing, Watering & Compaction


may be with /without spreader

blade mixed to full depth


watering prior & during mixing

Minimum segregation
Finished to required profile by Motor grader

3. Check for irregularities & surface finish

Construction of Granular layers

Strength of Aggregate Layers achieved by Interlocking


Lateral confinement to Granular layers
Exposure of Aggregate Layer with bituminous layers for
longer duration
Compacting the aggregate layers which are already
compacted in name of preparation for next layer

Most Important Quality Parameters

SOIL LAYERS ( Embankment and Subgrade)


- Density
GRANULAR LAYERS ( GSB / WBM/WMM)
- Gradation
BITUMINOUS LAYERS
- Gradation
- Temperature

Quality

Totality of features and characteristics of a


product or services to satisfy stated or implied
needs

Strategies

Specifies the acceptable materials for construction


outlining the various tests of acceptance
defines various design criteria, sound engineering
practices for guiding the designers to arrive at
appropriate solutions
Workman ships and other aspects of construction
which ensures design intents

Quality Assurance

Quality of a product / service should confirm to the


customer requirements has become focal point in
managing quality in all organisations /projects
Quality was often considered as conformance to
specifications based on detection at the end of
production stage
Mere conformity to specifications is no longer
considered as a measure of quality

Thank you for Your Valuable Time