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Power Transformer

By

An understanding of the fundamental

theory and principles of the operation
of power transformers

An insight into the identification

and application of transformers
types
An understanding of the power
transformers components and
their construction

Knowledge of power transformer

protection
An understanding of power
transformers oil and oil tests and
interpretation of results
Knowledge of the most effective
power transformer electrical tests
Skills in how to manage power
transformer breakdowns to ensure a
minimum disruption
3

Power System Engineers

Electrical Engineers
Consulting Engineers
Project Engineers
Power System Technicians
Electrical Contractors

WHO SHOULD ATTEND

Electrical Technicians
Electrical Inspectors
Utility Engineers

Transformer Theory
Transformers are used extensively for
AC power transmissions and for various
control and indication circuits. Knowledge
of the basic theory of how these
components operate is necessary to und
erstand the role transformers play in
todays nuclear facilities
6

Mutual Induction
If flux lines from the expanding and
contracting magnetic field of one coil cut
the windings of another nearby coil, a
voltage will be induced in that coil. The
inducing of an EMF in a coil by
magnetic flux lines generated in anoth
er coil is called mutual induction. The
amount of electromotive force (EMF)
that is induced depends on the relative
positions of the two coils.
7

Turns Ratio
Each winding of a transformer contains a
certain number of turns of
wire. The turns ratio is defined as the
ratio of turns of wire in the primary winding
to the number of turns of wire in the
secondary winding
TurnsRatio =

Np
Ns
8

Impedance Ratio
Maximum power is transferred from one circuit
to another through a transformer when the
impedances are equal, or matched. A transformer
winding constructed with a definite turns ratio
can perform an impedance matching function.
The turns ratio will establish the proper
relationship between the primary and secondary
winding impedances.
2

Zp
Np

=
Zs
Ns

Impedance Ratio

10

Efficiency

Efficiency of a transformer is the ratio of the

power output to the power input

Power
Efficiency =
Power

Output Ps
=
x100
Input
Pp
11

Theory of Operation

A transformer works on the principle that energy

can be transferred by magnetic induction from
one set of coils to another set by means of a
varying magnetic flux. The magnetic flux is
produced by an AC source.
The coil of a transformer that is energized from
an AC source is called the primary winding
(coil), and the coil that delivers this AC to the load is
called the secondary winding (coil)

12

Theory of Operation

13

Voltage Ratio

The voltage of the windings in a

transformer is directly
proportional to the number of
turns on the coils

Vp
Vs

Np
Ns
14

Current Ratio

The current
is inversely
windings

in the windings of
proportional to the

a transformer
voltage in the

Vs I p
=
Vp I s
15

Three-Phase Transformer
Connections

Delta Connection

Wye Connection

16

Combinations of Delta and Wye

Transformer Connections

17

Voltage and Current Ratings

of Transformers
TABLE 1: Voltage and Current Ratings of Transformers
Transformer
Connection
(Primary to
Secondary)

Primary
Line

Secondary
Phase

Line

Phase

Volt.

Current

Volt.

Current

Volt. *

Current

Volt.

Current

I/ 3

V/a

aI

V/a

aI/ 3

Y-Y

V/ 3

V/a

aI

V / 3a

aI

Y-

V/ 3

V / 3a

3aI V / 3a

aI

-Y

I/ 3

3V/ a aI/ 3

V/a

aI/ 3
18

Efficiency

Losses:
z

Copper loss is power lost in the

primary and secondary windings of
a transformer due to the ohmic
resistance of the windings

Copper

Loss = I R p + I Rs
2
P

2
S

19

Efficiency

Core losses are caused by two

factors: hysteresis and eddy
current losses

20

Efficiency
Output
Efficiency =
Input

Power Ps
=
x100
Power
Pp

Vs I s pf
Efficiency =
Vs I s pf + Copper
Loss + Core

Loss

x100

21

Transformer Operation

If the secondary of a transformer

is left open-circuited, primary
current is very low and is called

22

Coil Polarity

The phase of that voltage

depends on the direction of the
windings around the core

23

Transformer Theory
Summary

The induction of an EMF in a coil by magnetic flux lines generated in

another coil is called mutual induction.
The turns ratio is defined as the ratio of turns of wire in the primary winding
to the number of turns of wire in the secondary winding.
The ratio between the primary and secondary impedances is referred to as
the impedance ratio.
Efficiency of a transformer is the ratio of the power output to the power
input.
In a delta connection, all three phases are connected in series to form a closed
loop.
In a wye connection, three common ends of each phase are connected
together at a common terminal, and the other three ends are connected to a
three-phase line.
In a connected transformer: VL=V IL= 3 I

IL=I
24

Transformer Equivalent Circuit

25

Transformer Approximated
Equivalent Circuit

26

Voltage Regulation

Vp

x100

27

Transformer Phasor Diagram

28

Power Transformer

By

TRANSFORMER TYPES
Transformers can be constructed so
that they are designed to perform a
specific function. A basic
understanding of the various types of
transformers is necessary to
understand the role transformers play
in todays facilities

TRANSFORMER TYPES

a. Power
b. Control
c. Auto
d. Isolation
e. Instrument current
f. Instrument potential

Power Transformer
Power transformers are generally used in electrical power d
stribution and transmission systems. This class of transformer
has the highest power, or volt-ampere ratings, and the highest
continuous voltage rating. The power rating is normally
determined by the type of cooling methods the transformer
may use. Some commonly-used methods of cooling are by
using oil or some other heat-conducting material. Ampere rating
is increased in a distribution transformer by increasing the size of
the primary and secondary windings; voltage ratings are
increased by increasing the voltage rating of the insulation used
in making the transformer.

Control Transformer
Control transformers are generally used
in electronic circuits that require const
ant voltage or constant current with
a low power or volt-amp rating.
Various filtering devices, such as
capacitors, are used to minimize the v
ariations in the output.
This results in a more constant voltage
or current.
5

Auto Transformer
The auto transformer is generally used in low
power applications where a variable voltage
is required. The auto transformer is a special
type of power transformer. It consists of only
one winding. By tapping or connecting at certain
points along the winding, different voltages can
be obtained

Auto Transformer

Isolation Transformer
Isolation transformers are normally low pow
er transformers used to isolate noise from
or to ground electronic circuits.
Since a transformer cannot pass DC
voltage from primary to secondary, any DC
voltage (such as noise) cannot be passed, and
the transformer acts to isolate this noise.

Instrument Potential
Transformer
The instrument potential transformer (PT)
steps down voltage of a circuit to a low
value that can be effectively and safely
used for operation of instruments such as
voltmeters, watt meters, and relays used
for various protective purposes.

Instrument Current Transformer

The instrument current transformer (CT)
steps down the current of a circuit to a
lower value and is used in the same types
of equipment as a potential
transformer. This is done by constructing
the secondary coil consisting of many
turns of wire, around the primary coil,
which contains only a few turns of wire. In
this manner, measurements of high values
of current can be obtained
10

Summary
Power transformers are generally
used in power distribution and
transmission systems.
Control transformers are generally used in
circuits that require constant voltage or
constant current with a low power or voltamp rating.

11

Summary
Auto transformers are generally used in low
power applications where a variable voltage is
required.
Isolation transformers are normally low power
transformers used to isolate noise from or to
ground electronic circuits.
Instrument potential and instrument current
transformers are used for operation
of instruments such as ammeters, voltmeters,
watt meters, and relays used for various
protective purposes.
12

Types of power transformer

(A) Oil Immersed Power Transformers
(B) Dry type Power Transformers
(C) Special Power Transformers

13

Oil Immersed Power Transformers

Double Wounded, Three Phase Power
Changer
rated 12 63 MVA
Double Wounded, Three Phase Power
Control
rated 2.5 10 MVA
14

Oil Immersed Power Transformers

Electrical Network Interconnecting
Transformers and Autotransformers
Three Phase Power Transformers and
Autotransformers having 3 Windings,
rated 25 200 MVA
15

Oil Immersed Power Transformers

Three Phase Power Transformers and
Autotransformers without Voltage
Control or with No Load Voltage
Control
rated 67 160 MVA
Three Phase Power Transformers for
Drilling Plants
16

Oil Immersed Power Transformers

Three Phase Power Transformers for
the Internal Services of the Nuclear
Power Plant
Three Phase Power Transformers for
the Internal Services of the Power Plant

17

Oil Immersed Power Transformers

Three Phase Power Transformers with
Fixed Ratio
rated 170 440 MVA
Three Phase Power Transformers with
rated 1000 1600 kVA, in special
construction
18

Oil Immersed Power Transformers

Transformers used to supply the Static
Power Converter

19

Double Wounded, Three Phase Power Transformers with

Conditions of operation
The transformers are meant to operate in power
transport networks at the ambient temperatures
of max. + 40C and min. - 35C.
The altitude of the installation site is max. 1000
m above the sea level.
At the customer's request, the transformers may
be manufactured to operate in tropical
environment with ambient temp. 45-55C and
protected by encapsulation for polluted areas.
20

Double Wounded, Three Phase Power Transformers with

Construction features
The magnetic circuit is made of carlyte insulated,
grain oriented, cold rolled silicous steel sheet
with low specific losses
The windings are made of paper insulated
copper wire.
They are helical type or flat coils on the LV side
and continuous in the flat coils on the HV side.
The tank is bell or cover type, made of welded
steel plate, stiffened with ribs.
21

Double Wounded, Three Phase Power Transformers with

Rating
(MVA)

Voltage
(kV)

Uk
(%)

Po
Pk
(kW) (kW)

Connection
group

Wdg.
Material

Overall
Weight
(kg)

Overall
Dimensions
(LxWxH)(mm)

12

33/11

10.5

65

Dyn5

Cu

33400

5340x3825x3890

15/20

132/15/3.3

9/19/8

21

100

Ynyn0d

Cu

56700

6415x4150x4430

16

110/22

11

18

94

YND11

Al

34800

5980x3084x4278

25

110/22

17

24

139

YNd11

Al

50200

6480x3715x4755

25

154/6.3

11

25

110

YNyn0

Cu

62800

7634x4730x4820

25

110/22

11

21

143

YNd11

Al

42400

3970x3215x4175

25

116/6.3

14

25

143

YNd11

Cu

40300

5866x3890x4476

25

154/34.5

10

24

115

YNyn0

Cu

62500

7505x4630x5635

25

110/22

11

21

143

Ynd11

Al

29650

5490x3774x4660

17.5/35

66/11

15.5

18.5 36/145

YNd11

Cu

54000

6150x4450x4435

40

110/22

1212

31

165

YNd11

Cu

59250

6305x4066x4520

40

110/6.6

18.5

34

220

YNd11

Al

62300

7380x3525x5045

50

150/15.75

21

42

190

Dyn1

Cu

110500

7375x5620x6220

63

110/22

12

55

265

YNd11

Al

80800

7070x5165x6170

150/10.5

12

55

300

Ynd11

Al

88150

7715x4105x6010

110/6.3/6.3 1.114-13

65

110

Dyn1yn1

Cu

121500

8250x3725x6470

63
6.3/31.5/31.5
63

110/38.5

13

45

260

YNd11

Cu

76000

6515x4350x5210

16

110/6.6

11

18

94

YNd11

Al

34800

5900x3084x4278

15/20

66/11

10

16

90

Dyn11

Cu

33000

4550x4630x4519

15/20

66/6.6

10

16

90

Dyn11

Cu

33000

4550x4630x4510

25

110/6.3

11

21

143

YNd11

Al

43030

5940x3772x4660

25

66/11/6.3

11

22

140

YNyn0d1

Cu

55800

6770x4230x4600

25/30

150/15/6.6

10

28

160

YNyn0d1

Cu

76000

7850x4650x5900

30/50

115/22

16.66

26

200

YNd11

Cu

79000

7000x5000x5330

40/50 161.25/6.6-6,6

10

33

159

YNy2y2

Cu

103000

7350x4600x6100

>19

25

161

YNyn0

Cu

105000

7875x5060x5900

40/50

150/21

22

1. HV bushings

10. Jacking supports

2. HV neutral bushing

3. LV bushings

12. Control cabinet

4. Oil conservator

13. Wheels

14. Fans

16. Oil temperature indicator

8. Dehydrating breather

23

Oil Immersed Power Transformers

Double Wounded, Three Phase Power
Control
rated 2.5 10 MVA

24

Double Wounded, Three Phase Power Transformers

Conditions of operation
The transformers are destined to operate in
electric power carrying networks at the ambient
temperatures of max. + 40 C and min. - 40 C.
The altitude of the installation site is max 1000 m
above the sea level.
At the user's request, transformers being able to
operate at tropical temperatures can be
manufactured.
25

Double Wounded, Three Phase Power Transformers

Construction features
The magnetic circuit is made of carlyte insulated,
grain oriented, cold rolled silicous steel sheet
with low specific losses.
The transformers windings are made of paper
insulated copper wire and their type is: helical or
continuous in flat coils on the HV side and
continuous in flat coils on the LV side.
The tank is bell or cover type, made of steel
plate, welded construction, stiffened by ribs.
26

Double Wounded, Three Phase Power Transformers

Rating Voltage Uk
Po
Pk
Overall Weight Overall Dimensions
Connection group Bob.
(MVA)
(kV)
(%) (kW) (kW)
(kg)
(LxWxH)(mm)
2.55

66/11.5

4.1

21

Dyn11

Cu

22325

4800x2800x4265

66/11.5

7.25

28.8

Dyn11

Cu

27200

4780x2970x4470

6.3 132/34.5

8.6

32

YnZn11

Cu

33300

5600x2875x4765

7.5

33/1

7.5

6.3

41

Ynd11

Cu

22900

5115x3810x3410

10

110/22

11

16

68

Ynd11

Al

32390

5505x3120x3470

10/13 132/11.5

12

10

73

Dyn1

Cu

34900

5410x5010x4600

27

1. HV bushings

10. Jacking supports

2. HV neutral bushing

3. LV bushings

12. Control cabinet

4. Oil conservator

13. Wheels

14. Fans

16. Oil temperature indicator

8. Dehydrating breather

28

Dry type Power Transformers

Dry type Power Transformers
rated 10kVA 1600 kVA
Dry type Power Transformers for
Rectifier Plants and for Converters
rated 430; 550; 630; 720; 900 kVA

29

Dry type Power Transformers

rated 10kVA 1600 kVA
Conditions of operation
The transformers are meant to supply the inner
auxiliaries of the power stations within the underground
train stations and residential districts. The transformers
are rated to operate in suitably ventilated closed rooms
and are supplied from electrical grids free from the
atmospheric surge voltages.
The ambient temperatures are:
max. ambient temperature: +40 C
max. air daily average temperature +30 C
min. air temperature -15 C
max. altitude: 1000 m above the sea level
Protection degree: IP00 or IP20
30

Dry type Power Transformers

rated 10kVA 1600 kVA

Construction features
The magnetic circuit is made of carlyte insulated,
grain oriented, cold rolled silicous steel sheet
The windings are manufactured of glass-fiber
and enamel insulated cooper wire, impregnated
in electro-insulating varnish.
The winding types used are: cylindrical or helical
on the LV side and layered or continuous, in flat
coils on the HV side.
The voltage control on the HV side is achieved
at a terminal plate, by means of ringlets (bars).
31

Dry type Power Transformers

rated 10kVA 1600 kVA

Construction features
The HV and LV connections are manufactured of glass
fiber strip insulated copper buses.
The outlets are taken out on the transformer small side
or top, on the HV side through bushings and on the LV
one through buses.
Function of the customer's request and with the
manufacturer's agreement, the outlets may be located
otherwise too: by performing the required changes of the
overall dimensions.
The protection housing is made of steel sheet placed on
a metal frame. At the top it is provided with louvers
enabling air free flow.
The transformer may be lifted by means of lugs provided
on its structure.

32

Dry type Power Transformers

rated 10kVA 1600 kVA
Rating
(kVA)

Voltage
(kV)

Uk
Po
Pk
Overall Weight Overall Dimensions
Connection group
(%) (kW) (kW)
(kg)
(LxWxH)(mm)

10 0.38/0.048

0.11

0.25

Dy11

140

700x300x440

25 0.38/0.052

0.17

0.4

Yyn0

240

850x355x530

40 0.38/0.122

0.24

0.68

Yy0

300

805x350x570

60

0.5/0.23

0.4

Yy0

450

950x510x780

100

10/0.4

3.5

0.86

1.05

Yy0

1045

1925x840x1060

160

6/0.47

0.55

2.8

Yyn0

746

1240x440x960

200

6.3/0.4

0.95

2.5

Yyn0

1085

1280x620x1258

250

20/0.4

1.3

3.2

Dyn5

1670

1640x676x1500

315

6/0.47

1.4

2.4

Yyn0

2125

2340x780x1725

400

6.3/0.4

1.5

3.8

Dyn5

1885

2200x1000x1350

630

6.3/0.66

1.75

Dy05

2600

2155x1030x1670

630

20/0.4

2.3

7.2

Dyn5

2485

1840x800x1620

750

13.8/0.4

1.9

6.5

Dyn11

3120

1750x850x1880

800

6/0.427

2.1

Dd6

2846

1630x790x1643

900

6/0.66

6.5

2.2

6.8

Dy11

3300

2150x800x1355

1000

6/0.4

2.5

8.5

Dyn5

3370

2200x1050x1840

1000

10/0.4

2.7

8.5

Dyn5

3640

2300x1100x1950

1600

6.3/0.4

11

Dyn-5

5655

2660x1050x2360

33

Dry type Power Transformers

rated 10kVA 1600 kVA

1. LV buses

7. Grounding terminal

2. HV bushing

8. Undercarriage

3. Lifting lug

4. Name plate

10. Shutter

34

Dry type Power Transformers for Rectifier Plants and for

Converters

Conditions of operation
Temperate environment in properly
ventilated closed room:
the max. ambient temperature +40C; the
min. ambient temperature -15C;
the max. altitude 1000m.
IP00 or IP22 protection degree (with
housing for protection).
35

Dry type Power Transformers for Rectifier Plants and for

Converters
Construction features
The magnetic circuit is of carlyte insulated, grain
oriented, cold rolled silicous steel sheet with low specific
losses.
The windings are made of copper wire, insulated with
enamel and glass fibber impregnated in electroinsulating varnish.
The practical winding types are: cylindrical on the LV
side and continuous on the HV side.
The insulation of the winding is made of glass fibber
fabric in layers.
The control on the high voltage range is made at a
terminal box.
36

Dry type Power Transformers for Rectifier Plants and for

Converters
Construction features
The connections are made of copper buses, insulated with
a glass-fibber strip.
The terminals are brought out of the shorter housing
walls through bushings for high voltage side, and
through copper buses for the low voltage side.
The protection housing is made of steel sheet, fixed on a
metallic structure.
At the upper part, it is provided with louvers and holes for
air exchange and at the lower side, the transformer has
The transformer lifting is made by means of lifting eyes
provided on the structures.
37

Dry type Power Transformers for Rectifier Plants and for

Converters

Rating Voltage Uk
Po
Pk
Connection group
(kVA)
(kV)
(%) (kW) (kW)

Overall Weight
(kg)

Overall Dimensions
(LxWxH)(mm)

30

60/0.38

6.5

1.4

Dy11

1936

1960x800x1150

430

10/0.42

6.5

1.5

Dy11

2060

2270x1000x2000

550

6/0.44

6.5

1.5

Dy11

2135

1960x760x1270

630

6/0.44

5.5

1.75

5.5

Dy11

2490

1590x840x1490

720

6/0.36

6.5

2.05

Dd0

2950

2100x1000x1625

720

10/0.42

6.5

1.95

Dy11

2925

2280x1010x1565

900

6/0.825

6.5

2.2

6.6

Dy11

3360

2220x750x1480

900

6/0.43

6.5

2.2

6.6

Dy11

3490

2220x750x1480

38

Dry type Power Transformers for Rectifier Plants and for

Converters

1. LV buses

6. Lifting lugs

2. HV bushing

7. Grounding terminal

3. HV protection box

8. Undercarriage

4. Lifting lugs for housing

9. Removable cover

5. Housing

39

Special Power Transformers

Fire Damp Transformers
rated 100 500 kVA
Transformers Supplying the Induction
Electrical Furnaces
rated 250 kVA 5000 kVA

40

Fire Damp Transformers

Conditions of operation
in explosive atmosphere, in the coal mines
and other industrial departments
max. ambient temperature +40 C; min.
ambient temperature -15 C
air relative humidity 95 3%; max. altitude
1000m
protection degree of the housing and
terminal boxes IP-54
41

Fire Damp Transformers

Construction parameters
The transformer proper, with its components: the
magnetic circuit, which is made of carlyte insulated, cold
rolled siliceous steel sheet ; the windings, which are
made of glass-fibber and enamel insulated copper wire,
impregnated in electro-insulating varnish. The winding
types used are: cylindrical on the LV side and layer type
on the HV side. The winding insulation is of glass-fiber
fabric in layers. Voltage control on the HV side is
performed by changing the connections to the bushings.

42

Fire Damp Transformers

Construction parameters
The LV compartment affords achieving electrical
diagram of the LV wiring within the explosionproof housing and has the following components:

USOL automatic breaker provided with maximal and

overload protection, with remote making and breaking
tapping device, manually driven at remote making and
breaking operations;
insulation resistance permanent and warning control
device, disconnecting the secondary circuit when the
insulation resistance decreases below a certain value;
measuring instruments : ammeter, voltmeter, current
transformer; terminal box with removable bushings
affording connection of the supply outlets of the users,
signalling-control;
43

Fire Damp Transformers

Construction parameters

The HV side duty is to energize and de-energize the

transformer unit. Components and instruments: load
special separating switch for making and breaking the
no load currents in the dry type transformer; it is
manually operated, mechanically and electrically
interlocked by means of the LV circuit breaker; device
to visually check voltage availability at the load
separating switch inlet terminals before penetrating
into the HV compartment; mini-circuit breaker which
automatically opens the dry type transformer supply
circuit, before penetrating into the HV compartment;
terminal box with removable bushings affording to
connect the supply and control signaling incoming
wires.
44

Fire Damp Transformers

Construction parameters
The fire dump housing is made of steel sheet,
having different thickness for the 3 chambers.
The LV and HV compartment housings are
provided with doors ensuring safety, as per
STAS 6877/2. The housing of transformer
proper is provided with tubes for heat
exchange/dissipation. Outside, the housing is
provided with: 4 wheels-undercarriage with
375 mm diameter, having the gauge required
by the customer, limit facility on the length,
lifting lugs.
45

Fire Damp Transformers

Rating Voltage Uk
Po
Pk
Connection group
(kVA)
(kV)
(%) (kW) (kW)

Overall Weight
(kg)

Overall Dimensions
(LxWxH)(mm)

250

6/0.4

3.5

1.3

2.3

Yy0

3925

2970x930x1595

400

6/0.4

1.5

3.1

Yy0

4376

2970x930x1595

400

6/0.69

1.5

3.2

Yy0

4250

2970x930x1600

500

6/0.69

2.75

2.6

Yy0

4857

3125x930x1325

46

Fire Damp Transformers

. LV buses

7. Grounding terminal

2. HV bushing

8. Undercarriage

3. Lifting lug

9. Temperature microrelay

4. Name plate

10. Shutter

47

Transformers Supplying the Induction Electrical

Furnaces

Conditions of operation
Furnace capacity

0.5

1.1

6.3

12

20

Transformer
rating

KVA

250

400

630

1000

1600

2800

5000

6000

6000

6000

6000

6000

6000

6000

10000

10000

10000

10000

10000

10000

10000

20000

20000

20000

20000

20000

20000

20000

550-125

550-125

550-125

550-125

550-125

1000-222

2500-500

Steps number

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

Connection
group vectors

Dyn5

Dyn5

Dyn5

Dyn5

Dyn5

Dyn5

Dyn5

800

900

1750

2500

3000

4500

6500

850

1100

1950

6800

7600

8000

12000

21000

26000

38000

Primary voltage
Secondary
voltage

Copper losses

2.1

1.9

1.8

1.6

1.6

1.4

1.2

Impedance
voltage

Overall weight

Kg

2580

2750

3650

5200

6250

9350

15500

2600

2900

4200

5300

9450

17000

930

960

1250

1600

2850

4100

1000

1410

1700

Oil Weight

7200

8500

1850

5000

48

Transformers Supplying the Induction Electrical

Furnaces

1. Oil conservator

9. Name plate

11. Oil draining valve

4. Buchholz relay

12. Undercarriage

5. Tap changer

13. Earthing terminal

6. Silicagel breather

14. HV bushing

7. Untanking part lifting lug

15. LV bushing

8. Lifting lug
49

Power Transformer

By
1

PROTECTION OF TRANSFORMERS

Low-voltage circuit breakers can be used for the

transformer protection required by NEC
Section 450-3. Refer to this section for the specific
primary and secondary protection requirements for
transformers over 600 V nominal and equal to or less
than 600 V nominal. The protection discussed in this
section of the NEC is intended to protect the transformer
only.
Protection of the primary and secondary conductors may
be obtained by proper selection of cables.

Application considerations

Considerations for the application of low-voltage

circuit breakers for transformer protection
include the following:
a) Will they clear the system for short circuits
within the transformer?
b) Will they prevent the transformer from
c) Will they protect the transformer from
damage during a through-fault condition on the
3

Application considerations

d) Do they have adequate interrupting ratings

for faults at their load-side terminals?
e) Will they handle the transformer inrush
current without nuisance tripping?
f) Can they tolerate the current transients during
inrush and during other operating conditions?
g) Do they provide conductor protection?
h) Is ground-fault protection provided (if
required)?
4

When the transformer primary is over 600 V and

the secondary is 600 V or less, low-voltage
circuit breakers might be used as the secondary
transformer protection. The rating of this
secondary protection must not exceed 125% of
the transformer rated secondary current, or the
next higher standard rating or setting for
unsupervised transformer applications per NEC
Section 450-3(a)(1); NEC Section 450-3(a)(2)
allows 250% of the transformer rated secondary
current for supervised installations.
5

below

The overload ratings or settings determined by the

following paragraph do not necessarily provide
conductor protection. For example, NEC Section 2403(i) states that transformer secondary conductors
(other than two-wire) are not considered to be
protected by the primary over current protection.
Before making the final selection of the circuitbreaker rating, conductor protection must be verified

below

NEC Section 450-3(b)(1) states that if only primary protection is

to be used for a transformer of 600 V or less, that protection
shall be an individual over current device on the primary side,
rated or set at not more than 125% of the rated primary current
of the transformer as shown in Figure 4-20. If the primary
current rating of the transformer is less than 9 A, the exceptions
allow the over current device to be rated up to, but no more
than, 167% of the transformer primary current rating. If the
primary current rating of the transformer is less than 2 A, the
exceptions allow the over current device to be rated up to, but
no more than, 300% of the transformer primary current rating.

below

When the transformer has secondary protection, an

individual over current device is not required on the
primary side if:
a) The over current device on the secondary side is
rated or set at not more than 125% of the
transformer secondary rating, and
b) The primary feeder over current device is rated or
set at not more than 250% of the transformer
primary current rating
8

PROTECTION OF TRANSFORMERS

Other considerations for protecting transformers

Selecting the current ratings is only part of the
job of protecting the transformer. Transformer
damage curves, current inrush data, overload
capabilities, and information on transient
tolerances can be obtained from the
manufacturers of the transformers and IEEE
standards. Refer to the IEEE C57 Collection and
IEEE Std 242-1986. This type of information
will help the designer determine the proper trip
unit settings.

Transformer failure may result in loss of service.

However, prompt fault clearing, in addition to
minimizing the damage and cost of repairs,
usually minimizes system disturbance, the
magnitude of the service outage, and the
duration of the outage. Prompt fault clearing
usually prevents catastrophic damage. Proper
protection is, therefore, important for
transformers of all sizes, even though they are
among the simplest and most reliable
components in the plants electrical system.
10

Need for protection

11

Causes of Failure

a)Winding breakdown, the most frequent cause

of transformer failure. Reasons for this type of
failure include insulation deterioration or defects
in manufacturing, overheating, mechanical
stress, vibration, and voltage surges
b)Terminal boards and no-load tap changers.
Failures are attributed to improper assembly,
damage during transportation, excessive
12

Causes of Failure

c)Bushing failures.Causes include vandalism,

contamination, aging, cracking, and animals.
mechanism malfunction, contact problems,
insulating liquid contamination, vibration,
improper assembly, and excessive stresses
within the unit. Load-tap-changing units are
normally applied on utility systems rather than
on industrial systems.
13

Causes of Failure

e)Miscellaneous failures.Causes include

core insulation breakdown, bushing
current transformer (CT) failure, liquid
leakage due to poor welds or tank
damage, shipping damage, and foreign
materials left within the tank.

14

Causes of Failure

Failure of other equipment within the

transformer protective devices zone of
protection could cause the loss of the
transformer to the system. This type of failure
includes any equipment (e.g., cables, bus ducts,
switches, instrument transformers, surge
arresters, neutral grounding devices) between
the next upstream protective device and the
next downstream device.
15

Protection is achieved by the proper combination of

system design, physical layout, and protective devices as
required to:
a) Economically meet the requirements of the
application,
) Protect the electrical system from the effects of
transformer failure,
c) Protect the transformer from disturbances occurring
on the electrical system to which it is connected,

16

d) Protect the transformer as much as possible from

incipient malfunction within the transformer itself, and
e) Protect the transformer from physical conditions in
the environment that may affect reliable performance.

17

Under the broad category of transformers, two types are

widely used in industrial and commercial power systems:
liquid and dry.
Liquid transformers are constructed to have the
essential element, the core and coils of the transformer,
contained in the liquid-filled enclosure. This liquid serves
both as an insulating medium and as a heat-transfer
medium.
The dry transformers are constructed to have the core
and coils surrounded by an atmosphere, which may be
the surrounding air, free to circulate from the outside to
the inside of the transformer enclosure. The dry coils
may be conventional (with exposed, insulated
conductors) or encapsulated (with the coils completely
vacuum-cast in an epoxy resin).
18

Preservation systems

19

Dry preservation systems are used to ensure an

adequate supply of clean ventilating air at an acceptable
ambient temperature. Contamination of the insulating
ducts within the transformer can lead to reduced
insulation strength and severe overheating. The
protection method most commonly used in commercial
applications consists of a temperature-indicating device
with probes installed in the transformer winding ducts
and contacts to signal dangerously high temperature by
visual and audible alarm. Figure 11-1 illustrates this
feature.

20

The following types of dry systems are

commonly used:
Open ventilated
Filtered ventilated
Totally enclosed, non-ventilated
Sealed air- or gas-filled

21

22

Liquid preservation systems are used to preserve the

amount of liquid and to prevent its contamination by the
surrounding atmosphere that may introduce moisture
and oxygen leading to reduced insulation strength and
to sludge formation in cooling ducts.
The importance of maintaining the purity of insulating oil
becomes increasingly critical at higher voltages because
of increased electrical stress on the insulating oil.

23

The sealed tank system is now used almost to

the total exclusion of other types in industrial
and commercial applications. The following
types of systems are commonly used:

Sealed tank
Positive-pressure inert gas
Gas-oil seal
Conservator tank

24

Sealed tank

The sealed-tank design is most commonly used and is

standard on most substation transformers. As the name
implies, the transformer tank is sealed to isolate it from
the outside atmosphere.
A gas space equal to about one-tenth of the liquid
volume is maintained above the liquid to allow for
thermal expansion. This space may be purged of air and
filled with nitrogen.
A pressure-vacuum gauge and bleeder device may be
furnished on the tank to allow the internal pressure or
vacuum to be monitored and any excessive static
pressure buildup to be relieved to avoid damage to the
enclosure and operation of the pressure-relief device.
This system is the simplest and most maintenance-free
of all of the preservation systems.
25

The positive-pressure inert

gas design shown in Figure
is similar to the sealed-tank
a gas (usually nitrogen)
pressurizing the assembly.
This assembly provides a
slight positive pressure in
the gas supply line to
prevent air from entering
the transformer during
operating mode or
temperature changes.
Transformers with primary
windings rated 69 kV and
above and rated 7500 kVA
and above typically are
equipped with this device.

26

Gas-oil seal

The gas-oil seal design

incorporates a captive gas
space that isolates a second
auxiliary oil tank from the
main transformer oil, as
shown in Figure. The
auxiliary oil tank is open to
the atmosphere and
provides room for thermal
expansion of the main
transformer oil volume.

27

Conservator tank

The conservator tank design

shown in Figure does not
have a gas space above the
oil in the main tank. It
includes a second oil tank
above the main tank cover
to absorb the thermal
expansion of the main tank
oil volume. The second tank
is connected to the main
tank by an oil-filled tube or
pipe.
28

Protective devices for liquid preservation systems

Liquid-level gauge
Pressure-vacuum gauge
Pressure-vacuum bleeder valve
Pressure-relief device

29

Liquid-level gauge

30

Pressure-vacuum gauge
Pressure-vacuum bleeder valve

31

Pressure-relief device

32

Two methods of detecting transformer faults

exist other than by electric measurements:
a) Accumulation of gases due to slow
decomposition of the transformer insulation or
oil. These relays can also detect heating due to
high-resistance joints or due to high eddy
currents between laminations.
b) Increases in tank oil or gas pressures caused
by internal transformer faults.
33

Gas-accumulator relay

A gas-accumulator relay, commonly

known as the Buchholz relay, is applicable
only to transformers equipped with
conservator tanks and with no gas space
inside the transformer tank.

34

Gas-detector relay

The gas-detector relay

shown in Figure is a
special device used to
detect and indicate an
accumulation of gas
from a transformer
with a conservator
tank, either
conventional or sealed.

35

The static pressure relay can be used on all

types of oil-immersed transformers. They are
mounted on the tank wall under oil and respond
to the static or total pressure.

36

Sudden pressure relays are

normally used to initiate
isolation of the transformer
from the electrical system and
to limit damage to the unit
when the transformer internal
pressure abruptly rises. The
abrupt pressure rise is due to
the vaporization of the
insulating liquid by an internal
fault, such as internal shorted
turns, ground faults, or
winding-to-winding faults.
37

The sudden oil-pressure relay is applicable to all

oil-immersed transformers and is mounted on
the transformer tank wall below the minimum
liquid level.

38

39

The sudden gas-pressure relay is applicable to

all gas-cushioned oil-immersed transformers and
is mounted in the region of the gas space. It
consists of a pressure-actuated switch, housed
in a hermetically sealed case and isolated from
the transformer gas space except for a pressureequalizing orifice

40

A more recent design of the relays is the sudden

gas/oil-pressure relay, which utilizes two
chambers, two control bellows, and a single
sensing bellows. All three bellows have a
common interconnecting silicone-oil passage
with an orifice, and an ambient-temperaturecompensating assembly is inserted at the
entrance to one of the two control bellows.

41

The dissolved faultgases detection

device can be used
for continuous
monitoring of
hydrogen

42

Causes of transformer overheating

High ambient temperature
Failure of cooling system
External fault not cleared promptly
Abnormal system conditions, such as low
current, or phase-voltage unbalance.

43

following:

Overheating shortens the life of the transformer

insulation in proportion to the duration of the high
temperature and in proportion to the degree of the
high temperature.
Severe over temperature may result in an
immediate insulation failure.
Severe over temperature may cause the
transformer coolant to heat above its flash
temperature and result in fire.
44

The liquid temperature indicator measures the

temperature of the insulating liquid at the top of the
transformer. Because the hottest liquid is less dense
and rises to the top of the tank, the temperature of
the liquid at the top partially reflects the temperature
of the transformer windings and is related to the

45

Thermal relays

Thermal relays are used to give a more direct indication

of winding temperatures of either liquid or dry
transformers. A CT is mounted on one of the three
phases of the transformer bushing. It supplies current
to the thermometer bulb heater coil, which contributes
the proper heat to closely simulate the transformer hotspot temperature

46

Hot-spot temperature equipment is similar to the thermal relay

equipment on a transformer because it indicates the hottest-spot
temperature of the transformer. While the thermal relay works with
fluid expansion and a bourdon gauge, the hot-spot temperature
equipment works electrically using a Wheatstone bridge method. In
other words, it measures the resistance of a resistance temperature
detector (RTD) that is responsive to transformer temperature
changes and increases with higher temperature.

47

Forced-air cooling

Another means of protecting against overloads is to

increase the transformers capacity by auxiliary cooling.
Forced-air-cooling equipment is used to increase the
capacity of a transformer by 15% to 33% of base rating,
depending upon transformer size and design.

48

Other forms of transformer protection,

such as fuses or over current relays,
provide some degree of thermal protection
to the transformer.

49

Over-excitation may be of concern on direct-connected

generator unit transformers. Excessive excitation current
leads directly to overheating of core and un-laminated
metal parts of a transformer.
Such overheating in turn causes damage to adjacent
insulation and leads to ultimate failure.

50

Nonlinear electrical loads may cause severe

overheating even when the transformer is
operating below rated capacity. This overheating
may cause failure of both the winding and the
neutral conductor. Electronic equipment such as
computers, printers, uninterruptible power
supply (UPS) systems, variable-speed motor
drives, and other rectified systems are nonlinear
loads. Arc furnace and rectifier transformers also
51

overheating in three ways:
Hysteresis
Eddy currents
Skin effect

52

Overheating of neutral conductors from

nonlinear loads is due to the following:
Zero-sequence and odd-order harmonics
Skin effect

53

Failures of transformers due to nonlinear

loads can be prevented by de-rating the
transformer.

54

disturbances

Transformer failures arising from abusive

operating conditions are caused by
Short circuits
Ground faults
Transient over voltages

55

An overload causes a rise in the temperature of the

various transformer components. If the final temperature
is above the design temperature limit, deterioration of
the insulation system occurs and causes a reduction in
the useful life of the transformer
transformers may be limited by designing a system
where the transformer capacity is greater than the total
assumed
56

Transformer overload protection may be provided by

relays. These relays are applied in conjunction with CTs
and a circuit breaker or circuit switcher, sized for the
maximum continuous and interrupting duty requirements
of the application

57

In addition to thermal damage from prolonged

internal or external short-circuit conditions, which can
result in internal electromagnetic forces, temperature
rise, and arc-energy release.
Protection of the transformer for both internal and
external faults should be as rapid as possible to keep
damage to a minimum. This protection, however, may
be reduced by selective-coordination system design and
operating procedure limitations.

58

59

Over current relays may be used to clear the

transformer from the faulted bus or line
before the transformer is damaged. On some
small transformers, over current relays may
also protect for internal transformer faults. On
larger transformers, over current relays may
be used to provide backup for differential or
pressure relays.
60

Over current relays applied on the primary

side of a transformer provide protection for
transformer faults in the winding, and provide
backup protection for the transformer for
secondary-side faults.

61

Phase instantaneous over current relays

provide short-circuit protection to the
protection. When used on the primary side,
they usually coordinate with secondary
protective devices. Fast clearing of severe
internal faults can be obtained

62

The tertiary winding of an autotransformer, or

three-winding transformer, is usually of much
smaller kilo volt ampere rating than the main
windings. Therefore, fuses or over current
relays set to protect the main windings offer
almost no protection to such tertiaries. During
external system ground faults, these tertiary
windings may carry very heavy currents.
63

Differential relaying compares the sum of

currents entering the protected zone to the
sum of currents leaving the protected zone;
these sums should be equal. If more than a
certain amount or percentage of current
enters than leaves the protected zone, a fault
is indicated in the protected zone; and the
relay operates to isolate the faulted zone.
64

65

66

67

Protection of the transformer by percentage differential

relays improves the overall effectiveness in detecting
phase-to-phase internal faults. However, line-to-ground
faults in a wye winding may not be detected if the
transformer is low-resistance-grounded where ground
fault current is limited to a low value below the
differential relay pickup level.

68

69

70

71

Transient over voltages produced by lightning,

switching surges, switching of power factor
correction capacitors, and other system
disturbances can cause transformer failures.
High voltage disturbances can be generated by
certain types of loads and from the incoming
line. A common misconception is that
underground services are isolated from these
disturbances.
72

Surge arresters

Ordinarily, if the liquid-insulated transformer is

supplied by enclosed conductors from the secondaries
of transformers with adequate primary surge
protection, additional protection may not be required,
depending on the system design. However, if the
transformer primary or secondary is connected to
conductors that are exposed to lightning, the
installation of surge arresters is necessary

73

Surge capacitors

Additional protection in the form of surge

capacitors located as closely as possible to the
transformer terminals may also be
appropriate for all types of transformers

74

Ferroresonance

Ferroresonance is a phenomenon resulting

in the development of a higher than
normal voltage in the windings of a
transformer. These over-voltages may
result in surge arrester operation, damage
to the transformer, and electrical shock
hazard.

75

Ferroresonance

The following conditions combine to produce

ferroresonance:
a) No load on the transformer
b) An open circuit on one of the primary terminals of
the transformer and, at the same time, an energized
terminal. In the case of three-phase transformers,
either one or two of the three primary terminals may
be disconnected.
c) The location of the point of disconnection if it is not
close to the transformer
d) A voltage potential between the disconnected
terminal conductor and ground
76

Ferroresonance

77

Undesirable conditions include:

a) Average ambient temperatures above 30 C when the
transformer is loaded at rated kilo voltampere or more
b) Corrosive agents, abrasive particulate matter, and
surface contaminants derived from the surrounding
atmosphere
c) Conditions that can lead to moisture penetration or to
condensation on windings and other internal electrical
components
d) Submersion in water or mud
e) Obstruction to proper ventilation of liquid transformer
radiators or, in the case of dry transformers, ventilating
openings
f) Exposure to damage from collision by vehicles
g) Excessive vibration
h) Exposure to vandalism
78

Conclusion

Protection of todays larger and more

expensive transformers can be achieved
by the proper selection and application of
protective devices. Published application
available, for example, ANSI C37.91-2000.
The system design engineer should rely
heavily on sound engineering judgment to
79

Power Transformer

By

Definitions
acceptable
conditions:

The conditions in which an

item is able to perform its
required function and/or
meet the relevant
specification.

Definitions
electrical station:

building, rooms, or
designated space that
houses the electrical
equipment in an
installation.

Definitions
electrical
equipment:

A general term for the

equipment (e.g.,
materials, fittings,
devices, appliances,
fixtures, apparatus,
machines) used as a
part of, or in
connection with, an
electric installation.
4

Definitions
emergency action:

Action that should be

taken immediately to
avoid serious
consequence.

Definitions
examination:

An inspection with the

dismantling as required,
supplemented by means
such as measurements
and nondestructive tests
or high-potential tests, in
order to arrive at a
the condition of an item.

Definitions
failure (or
breakdown):

The termination of the

ability of an item to
perform its required
function.

Definitions
inspection:

Maintenance action
comprising a careful
scrutiny of an item
carried out without
significant dismantling
and using all the
senses as required to
detect anything that
causes the item to fail
to meet an acceptable
condition.
8

Definitions
item:

Any part of
equipment, including
a composite, which
can be individually
considered.

Definitions
maintenance:

A combination of any
actions carried out to
retain an item in, or
restore it to, an
acceptable condition.

10

Definitions
electrical preventive
maintenance:

A system of planned
inspection, testing,
cleaning, drying,
corrective modification,
and minor repair of
electric equipment to
minimize or forestall
future equipment
operating problems or
failures.
11

Definitions
nonroutine
maintenance:

Unplanned
maintenance that is
not the result of a
breakdown.

12

Definitions
post-fault
maintenance:

Maintenance
necessary on
switchgear after a
specified number of
fault clearance
operations.

13

Definitions
preventive
maintenance:

Maintenance carried
out with the objective
of preventing
breakdown. It may
include routine or
nonroutine
maintenance.

14

Definitions
repair or corrective
maintenance:

Maintenance
necessary to restore
to an acceptable
condition an item that
has ceased to meet
an acceptable
condition.

15

Definitions
routine
maintenance:

Maintenance
organized and carried
out in accordance
with a predetermined
policy or plan to
prevent breakdown or
reduce the likelihood
that an item will fail to
meet an acceptable
condition.
16

Definitions
operational check:

An action carried out

to determine whether
an item functions
correctly.

17

Definitions
test:

A measurement
carried out to
determine the
condition of an item.

18

Definitions
diagnostic testing:

A technique involving
the establishing of
comparative data for
monitoring and
checking the
condition of
equipment.

19

Definitions
overhaul:

Maintenance of an
item including
examination and
replacement or
rebuilding as
required.

20

Definitions
major overhaul:

An overhaul that
includes major
dismantling and/or
replacement of items
to complete the
maintenance.

21

Definitions
minor overhaul or
servicing:

An overhaul that is
limited to lubrication
and/or replacement of
consumables.

22

MAINTENANCE TESTING OVERVIEW

Introduction
Maintenance testing is an important
procedure that is used to detect deficiencies
in electrical equipment before the equipment
fails in service

23

MAINTENANCE TESTING OVERVIEW

Introduction
Maintenance testing needs may vary with
each of these categories. Keep in mind that
the purpose of maintenance testing is to
determine if the equipment will continue to
properly perform its function. In many cases,
the testing consists of simulating different
operating conditions and evaluating how the
equipment responds.
24

MAINTENANCE TESTING OVERVIEW

Insulation tests
One characteristic that all types of electrical
equipment have in common is the use of some form
of insulation. At its most basic level, all electrical
equipment have some part or parts that conduct
electricity and other parts that do not. A bare
overhead distribution line is held up by insulators and
also utilizes the air around it for insulation.
Transformer windings have insulation around each
turn of the conductors and, in some cases, use oil, in
addition, to raise the insulation value between the
conductor and the grounded components.
25

MAINTENANCE TESTING OVERVIEW

Insulation tests
The primary factor that determines the level of
insulation that is required is the operating voltage.
Other factors, such as current and frequency, also
play a part; however, they are secondary to voltage.
Therefore, the first consideration in testing insulation
is whether it can support the required voltage without
breakdown. This is accomplished by measuring the
leakage current that flows through the insulation
medium when a voltage is applied.

26

MAINTENANCE TESTING OVERVIEW

Insulation tests
There are almost as many types of insulation as there
are different applications. There are several things,
however, that they all have in common. Moisture and
contamination decrease an insulators ability to
withstand voltage and increase the amount of leakage
current that will flow. The insulation will also
deteriorate with age. Overheating causes
deterioration to be greatly accelerated. A common
rule of thumb is that the life expectancy of the
insulation is cut in half for every 10 C above its
rating that the equipment operates.
27

MAINTENANCE TESTING OVERVIEW

Insulation tests
Another characteristic that some types of
insulation have is that, as the voltage
rises, the insulation will maintain its
integrity until it reaches the point of
failure. Then, near the point of failure, the
insulating capability drops very rapidly,
often accompanied by an arc or puncture
in the insulation.
28

MAINTENANCE TESTING OVERVIEW

DC tests
The most common method of testing
insulation integrity is to apply a dc voltage and
measure the leakage current. The insulation
resistance is then determined by dividing the
voltage by the current. There are many
commercially available test instruments that
have specific voltage outputs and provide the
readings directly in ohms. This is referred to
as insulation resistance testing, and
frequently as Megger testing or Meggering.
29

MAINTENANCE TESTING OVERVIEW

DC tests
For low-voltage equipment, common test voltages are
100 V, 250 V, 500 V, and 1000 V. Test instruments
are also available that have test voltages of 2500 V,
5000 V, and 10 000 V for use on medium-voltage
equipment.
For most testing beyond 10 000 V, the test equipment
no longer has a fixed output voltage. This is
considered high-potential testing, commonly called hipot testing; and the voltage is continuously adjustable
so that it can be ramped up slowly.
The leakage current is usually measured directly
when hi-pot testing is being performed, since the
voltage is no longer fixed and getting a direct readout
in ohms would be more difficult.
30

MAINTENANCE TESTING OVERVIEW

Insulation resistance tests
Insulation resistance tests are typically
performed on motors, circuit breakers,
transformers, low-voltage (unshielded)
cables, switchboards, and panel boards to
determine if degradation due to aging,
environmental, or other factors has
affected the integrity of the insulation. This
test is normally conducted for 1 min, and
the insulation resistance value is then
recorded.
31

MAINTENANCE TESTING OVERVIEW

High-potential testing
High-potential testing, as its name implies, utilizes
higher levels of voltage in performing the tests. It is
generally utilized on medium-voltage (1000V-69 000
V) and on high-voltage (above 69 000 V) equipment
The leakage current is usually measured. In some
cases, such as in cable hi-potting, the value of
leakage current is significant and can be used
analytically. In other applications, such as switchgear
hi-potting, it is a pass/fail type of test, in which
sustaining the voltage level for the appropriate time
(usually 1 min) is considered passing.
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MAINTENANCE TESTING OVERVIEW

High-potential testing

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MAINTENANCE TESTING OVERVIEW

AC tests
The most common ac insulation test is ac hi-pot testing at
60 Hz.
The capacitance of the insulation is a large factor in ac
testing. With dc insulation testing, the capacitance of the
insulation charges up over time and the residual leakage
current is an indication of the resistance of the insulation.
This is not true of ac insulation testing. Since the voltage is
changing at 60 Hz, the leakage current may be
predominantly the capacitive charging current of the
insulation under test.
AC hi-pot testing is usually a pass/fail type test in which
passing means that the insulation was capable of holding
the required test voltage, usually for 1 min.
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MAINTENANCE TESTING OVERVIEW

Power-factor testing dielectric loss angle
(DLA) testing
Power-factor testing is a special type of ac
insulation testing. In power-factor testing,
the phase relationship between the applied
test voltage and the resulting leakage
current is determined.

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MAINTENANCE TESTING OVERVIEW

Power-factor testing dielectric loss angle
(DLA) testing
A special test set is used that supplies
voltage and current at 60 Hz .
The volt amperes and watts are measured
with the test set and the power factor is
determined.

36

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MAINTENANCE TESTING OVERVIEW

Transformer turns ratio (TTR) testing
The voltage across the primary of a transformer is
directly proportional to the voltage across the
secondary, multiplied by the ratio of primary
winding turns to secondary winding turns.
In order to ensure that the transformer was wound
properly when it was new, and to help locate
subsequent turn-to-turn faults in the winding, it is
common practice to perform a TTR test.

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MAINTENANCE TESTING OVERVIEW

Infrared scanning
Infrared scanning is a method that is utilized to
locate high-resistance connections (hot spots) by
using a camera that turns infrared radiation into a
visible image
This test is performed with the equipment in
service carrying normal load current, which is a
major advantage because it does not interrupt
normal production. Exposure to energized
equipment, of course, carries the possibility of
exposure to electrical hazards.
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MAINTENANCE TESTING OVERVIEW

Infrared scanning

Infrared inspection
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MAINTENANCE TESTING OVERVIEW

Oil testing
Many medium- and high-voltage transformers and
circuit breakers utilize different types of oils for
insulation.
Chemical testing of the oil has proven to be a very
dependable method of locating existing or
potential problems
This can be tested on-site by measuring the voltage
at which dielectric breakdown occurs with a special
test set that is designed for this purpose.

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MAINTENANCE TESTING OVERVIEW

Grounding tests
Power system grounding is for the purpose of
minimizing the electrical hazard that the power
distribution system poses to people.
Signal reference grounding refers to the use of
ground as a reference for electronic controls and
communication. In many instances, electronic
equipment uses its own metal frame or case as
the signal reference.
Lightning protection is intended primarily to
dissipate the energy from a lightning strike in a
manner that is safe for personnel and that causes
the least amount of equipment damage
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MAINTENANCE TESTING OVERVIEW

Grounding electrode test
The NEC [B53] uses the term grounding
electrode for the electrical conductor or
ground rod that is buried in the earth. The
test utilized to determine the resistance
between a grounding electrode and the
earth is called a fall-of-potential test

43

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MAINTENANCE TESTING OVERVIEW

Two-point resistance tests
Two-point resistance tests are used to
measure the resistance of the equipment
grounding conductor and its bonding of
the electrical equipment

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MAINTENANCE TESTING OVERVIEW

Soil resistivity test
Soil resistivity is a measure of resistance
per unit length of a uniform cross-section
of earth, usually expressed in ohmcentimeters
It is performed with a four-terminal test set
that uses four equally spaced electrodes,
driven into the ground

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MAINTENANCE TESTING OVERVIEW

Functional testing
Functional testing consists of simulating
various normal and abnormal conditions,
and monitoring the system performance
for proper operation
This can be as simple as opening and
closing a circuit breaker electrically

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MAINTENANCE TESTING OVERVIEW

Testing procedures and specifications
There are many sources of information on
testing and maintenance of electrical
equipment.

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MAINTENANCE TESTING OVERVIEW

Sources of electrical equipment testing and
maintenance information
a) American National Standards Institute (ANSI);
b) American Society for Testing and Materials
(ASTM);
c) Association of Edison Illuminating Companies
(AEIC);
d) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
(IEEE);

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MAINTENANCE TESTING OVERVIEW

Sources of electrical equipment testing and
maintenance information
e) Insulated Cable Engineers Association (ICEA);
f) InterNational Electrical Testing Association (NETA);
g) National Electrical Manufacturers Association
(NEMA);
h) National Fire Protection Association (NFPA);
i) Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA).
50

[B54]

The development of NFPA 70B began in

1968 with the Board of Directors of the
National Fire Protection Association who
established a committee to develop
suitable texts relating to preventive
maintenance of electrical systems and
equipment used in industrial-type
applications with the view of reducing loss
of life and property
51

[B54]

The purpose is to correlate generally

applicable procedures for preventive