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Editor : Dr. Neelam G. Tikkha

Editor :- Dr. Neelam G. Tikkha

ISBN 81-86067-27-2
Copyright@CFI 2010, Publisher : Confidence Foundation
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Dr. NeelamTikkhas dedicates
This work to her father Dr. GS Tikkha,
her mother Mrs. Kanta Tikkha
her daughter Dr. Ishita Tikkha
who motivated her and gave her time for the work.

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Dr. Neelam Tikkha


Myths, Murder and Methods associated with Writing of Literature Review

for Research Projects with Special Reference to Emotional Intelligence and
Job Satisfaction
- Dr. Neelam Tikkha


Three Perspectives on Hybridizing x and c MOOCs to Create an Online

Course on Digital CVs
- McGuire W, Raaper R, and Nikolova



Evaluating and Adapting Teaching Materials: From Commercial Textbooks

to Specific Classroom Needs
- Gareth Morris



A Cult of Social Realism in the Yemeni Novels

- Dr. Mohammad Ejaz Alam


Amitav Ghoshs The Hungry Tide: A Study of Tortuous Man-Nature Relationship

- Pranab Kanti Deb
6. ICT Based Teaching : Empowering Teachers to Excel in Language Teaching
- Dr Sanjay Kumar Singh
7. Role of ELT in Leveraging Standards of Physically Challenged
- Dr. Neelam Tikkha
8. Name as a Dominant Predicament of Jhumpa Lahiris Novel The Namesake
- Ms. Yogita P. Barbuddhe
9. Awareness of Laws Pertaining to Family Disputes.
- Dr. Jayashri R Kharwase (Rehpade)
10. Reading The Key to Learning
- Dr. Jayashri R Kharwase
11. Language Learning Through Literature
- Zaheda Sultana
12. nkfjnz fuewZyu dk;Zdze o O;kolk;hd lektdk;Z


-& izk- panq jkeHkk ikVhy

iqfyl fujh{kdksa dh Hkwfedk ,oa lekt dk;ZdrkZ dh vko;drk
& izk- uanfdkksj Hkxr

14. An Analytical Study on the Administration and Management of Tirumula

Tirupathi Dewasthanam
- Subhash S. Ghawghawe
15. The Historical Background of Tirumula Temple the Concept of
Incornation (Avtar)
- Subhash S. Ghawghawe



ISBN 81-86067-27-2

April, 2016

Technological Aspects of Literature Review and Plagiarism

Dr. Neelam Tikkha

A poorly written and faulty dissertation review is one way to murder the quality of

The purpose of this article is to present myths associated with literature review

and step by step guide to writing of excellent Literature Review which will enhance the quality of
dissertation. A special reference would be given to Literature Review with reference to
Emotional Intelligence and Job Satisfaction. The study also discusses plagiarism and copyright
with reference to Literature Review.
Key Words : Myths , Methods , Plagiarism , Literature Review

There are numerous myths associated with writing of literature review. Researchers think
it to be a mere formality and believe that it would not be read by Ph.D adjudicators. A defective,
faulty sloppily and shoddily written literature review can mar and crash the quality of
dissertation. The researchers also undermine the purpose of writing literature review. Boote and
Beile believed a researcher cannot perform significant research without first understanding the
literature in the field (Boote and Beile).
The purpose of this article is to present myths associated with literature review and step
by step guide to writing of excellent Literature Review which will enhance the quality of
dissertation. A special reference would be given to Literature Review with reference to
Emotional Intelligence and Job Satisfaction. The study also discusses plagiarism and copyright
with reference to Literature Review.
Myths : The myths associated with Literature review are as follows:

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It would be ignored by readers.


It would not be read by Ph.D. adjudicators.


It is free from plagiarism and one can copy copiously and endlessly.


There is no significance of literature review in understanding the research.


It is meant to increase number of pages for padding the dissertation and increasing the
number of pages.


If I quote the source people will feel I have not contributed to anything worthwhile.


Use of rewriting tools like Spinbot will complete work soon.


Matter converted by Spinbot will not amount to plagiarism.

Boote and Beile have made interesting claim that the dirty secret known by those who

sit on dissertation committees is that most literature reviews are poorly conceptualized and
written (Boote and Beile)
World over the fault is the same as revealed by a study of the practices of
Australian dissertation (Mullins):
Examiners typically started reviewing a dissertation with the expectation that
it would pass; but a poorly conceptualized or written literature review often
indicated for them that the rest of the dissertation might have problems. On
encountering an inadequate literature review, examiners would proceed to look
at the methods of data collection, the analysis, and the conclusions more
carefully. (Boote and Beile)
Literature review is highly important and integrated part of the dissertation. It is the
dirty secret known by those who sit on the dissertation committees is that most literature reviews
are poorly conceptualized and written. Given the importance of literature reviews in both
dissertations and journal articles, it may be surprisingthat so many of them are faulty. (Boote
and Beile)
A number of critics namely Alton Lee (Alton-Lee), Grante and Graue (Grant) and
LeCompte, Klinger, Campbell, and Meneke (LeCompte) have pointed out that literature Reviews
written for Journal articles to be published are faulty as well . .(Alton-Lee)

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The reason being simple there are no workshops or formal training given for improving the
quality of literature review and instilling the importance of Literature Review. It is noticed that
not only the dissertations suffer from the disease of faulty literature review but, also journal
articles. Researchers and writers of articles use Mr. Google to doodle senselessly into the
dissertations, theses and journal articles which results into a crash and faulty Literature Review
and derailed journal articles, dissertation and theses. Boot and Beile (2005) has opined that :
Doctoral students seeking advice on how to improve their literature reviews
will find little published guidance worth heeding. . . . Most graduate students
receive little or no formal training in how to analyze and synthesize the
research literature in their field, and they are unlikely to find it
elsewhere.(Boote and Beile)
The maximum effort should be paid on writing of Literature Review. In fact, at least
three to four months should be devoted to writing of Literature review. This time frame has been
endorsed even by Gall, Borg, et .al who advocates 3 to 6 months to be devoted for writing
Literature review. (Gall)
Literature Review demonstrates the ground work the researcher has done in the relevant
field. It also establishes the depth of foundation that has been laid. It makes the researcher and
the readers aware that no duplication of work is being done. Most important it indicates whether
there is a scope for research. It also demonstrates researchers familiarity about the specific,
precise and exact field of study. This embraces the vista of vocabulary, theories, key variables
and phenomena, and its methods and history (Randolph). Thus, Literature Review is like an X
ray image or MRI of body and lineage of the study or as Le Compte et. al mention alegitimate
and publishable scholarly document (LeCompte). It also places the work in proper research
lineage and family.
Gall, Borg, and Gall (1996) contented the several important roles played by Literature
delimiting the research problem,
seeking new lines of inquiry,
avoiding fruitless approaches,
gaining methodological insights,
identifying recommendations for further research, and
seeking support for grounded theory. (Gall)

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Hart (1998) has suggested a few more reasons for writing of literature review. They are
listed below:

distinguishing what has been done from whatneeds to be done,

discovering important variables relevant to thetopic,

synthesizing and gaining a new perspective,

identifying relationships between ideas and practices,

establishing the context of the topic or problem,

rationalizing the significance of the problem,

enhancing and acquiring the subject vocabulary,

understanding the structure of the subject,

relating ideas and theory to applications,

identifying the main methodologies and research techniques that have been used, and

placing the research in a historical context to show familiarity with state-of-the-art

developments. (Hart)
Furthermore, Literature Review also helps in furthering the research in new direction. If

previous work that has been done on a particular topic is not mentioned it is difficult to relate ,
establish a reference point and lay down the importance of the new work that has been
undertaken by the researcher.
A few researchers have attempted to define Taxonomy of Literature Reviews for example
Cooper has identified and classified Literature Review in to 5 characteristic categories viz.
focus, goal, perspective, coverage, organization, and audience. (Cooper)
The most common type of Literature review fall in the category of focus that targets on
outcomes of research.
Methodological Literature Review focuses on research methods. In this type of research
methods used by various researchers are studied and various parameters are identified like key
variables, tools of analysis. The focus is on results and outcomes. This type of review also helps
to identify weaknesses and strengths. This type of literature review can point out flaws in the

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Literature Review that deals with theories help formulate new theories on the basis of
information about prevalent theories or it helps in testifying existing theories. It helps establish
relationship between previous theories and new theories and develop existing theories further.
Goal : Literature review may serve a variety of purpose The goal may be to start a debate or
resolve it and bridging of gap. Meta-analysis, for example, is an often-used review technique in
which the primary goal is to integrate quantitative outcomes across studies.According to Glass
meta-analysis is a useful way to synthesize and analyze a body of quantitative research.(Glass)
Perspective : Sometimes researchers present their biases or at times they take a neutral
Coverage : It is a deft step to decide how wide the loop has to be enlarged while selecting
Literature Review
According to Cooper there are four categories under Coverage:

Exhaustive with selective citation

Exhaustive research reviewer selects every research available on the topic of research. It

is a very time consuming method. If the researcher draws a limit for example he chooses
published articles only in journals and not in conference proceedings then it becomes
manageable and is called exhaustive review with selective citation. (Cooper).
Third approach of Literature review as suggested by Cooper is purposive sample method.
A representative sample is selected randomly and only the central crucial and main articles are
Coopers Taxonomy of Literature Reviews

Goal Integration


Research outcomes
Research methods
Practices or applications
Conflict resolution

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Linguistic bridge-building


Neutral representation
Espousal of position


Exhaustive with selective citation
Central or pivotal
Specialized scholars
General scholars
Practitioners or policymakers
General public



Representative sample : Another approach is selecting aRepresentative sample and inference

about the complete population . It is also not a fool proof approach . Hence a better approach
will be to collect samples that are representative of actual population.
Coopers has suggested fourth approach to select purposive sample . The researcher in
this type of approach focuses on central or pivotal articles in a field. The key here is to
convince the reader that the selected articles are, in fact, the central or pivotal articles in a field,
and just as importantly that the articles not chosen are not central or pivotal. (H. M. Cooper) (H.
M. Cooper)
Audience: Audience in case of Literature Review are the readers - supervisor and reviewers
(H. M. Cooper)for any Literature Review. Hence, Literature Review should not target general
public but, should focus on academically strong research expert audience.
Steps to Conduct Literature Review: Writing of Literature Review we deal with articles
whereas in primary we deal with human as well. The steps to conduct Literature Review i.e.
(secondary research) are the same as steps for primary research. They are:

Problem formulation

Data collection

Data evaluation

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Analysis and interpretation

Public presentation

April, 2016

The key components are (a) a rationale for conducting the review; (b)
research questions or hypotheses that guide the research; (c) an explicit plan
for collecting data, including how units will be chosen; (d) an explicit plan for
analyzing data; and (e) a plan for presenting data. Instead of human
participants, for example, the units in a literature review are the articles that are
reviewed. Validity and reliability, the same issues that apply to (Randolph)
Literature Review s: There are two types of quantitative reviews :

Narrative Reviews


Meta-analytic reviews.

Gall, Borg, and Gall (1996), stated about narrative reviews that it :
emphasized better-designed studies, and organized their results to form a
composite picture of the state of the knowledge on the problem or topic being
reviewed. The number of statistically significant results, compared with the
number of non-significant results, may have been noted. Each study may have
been described separately in a few sentences or a paragraph. (Gall)
Qualitative Literature Reviews
Ogawa and Malens method:
Borg, Gall, and Borg (1996) suggested Ogawa and Malens (1991)(Ogawa)
method into the eight steps as listed below :
Step 1 :

Create an audit trail:

Step 2 : Define the focus of the review

Step 3 : Search for relevant literature
Step 4 : Classify the documents.
Step 5 : Create summary databases
Step 6 : Identify constructs and hypothesized causal linkages
Step 7 : Search for contrary findings and rival interpretations.
Step 8 : Use colleagues or informants to corroborate findings.(Gall)

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Step 1: Create an audit trail: The reviewer meticulously notes all the steps taken to review the
literature . This documentation helps to support each finding for providing evidence and where it
can be found and how it was interpreted.
Step 2. Define the focus of the review: This is the stage where selection should be done with care
as to what should be included in the literature review and what should be left out .
Step 3: Search for relevant literature: According to Ogawa and Malen (1991), in addition to
qualitative research reports, non-research reports such as memos, newspaper articles, or meeting
minutes should also be included in the review and not necessarily regarded as having less value
than qualitative research reports.
Step 4: Classify the documents: Reviewer classifies and categorizes the documents according to
the types of data into first-hand reports of qualitative research, policy statements about the issue
in question and projects adjoining the issue.
Step 5: Create summary databases: Reviewer develops coding schemes and attempts to cut short
the information in the relevant documents. Borg, Gall, and Borg (1996) wrote,
You cannot simply read all these documents, take casual notes, and then write
a literature review. Instead, you will need to develop narrative summaries and
coding schemes that take into account all the pertinent information in the
documents. The process is iterative, meaning, for example, that you might need
to develop a coding scheme, apply it to the documents, revise it based on this
experience, and re-apply it. (Gall)
Step 6: Identify constructs and hypothesized causal linkages : Once summary of databases has
been created the next step is to develop hypotheses about the relationships between the themes .
Step 7: Search for contrary findings and rival interpretations: This is the step when it is
necessary to identify contrary evidence or findings and rival interpretations.
Step 8: Use colleagues or informants to corroborate findings: This step involves sharing of the
articles included in the review to testify if reviewers findings are correct.

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Method for Writing Qualitative Literature Reviews for Phenomenological Research:

The goal of phenomenological research is to arrive at the essence of the lived experience
of a phenomenon (Moustakas, 1994) (Moustakas). First hand experience of people who have
experienced the phenomenon are interviewed for example if one wants to study about the
earthquake in Nepal then interview of people who were affected and present at the time of
devastation is conducted. It helps in developing research report rather than interview data
The steps of a phenomenological review are the same as the steps of phenomenological research.
They are as follows:
Step 1: Bracketing. In phenomenological research, the first step is to identify the phenomenon to
be investigated. The researcher then brackets his or her experience with the phenomenon by
explaining his or her own experiences with and positions on the phenomenon.
Step 2: Collecting data. The next step is to collect data about the phenomenon. In primary
phenomenological research, the researcher would interview a set of people who had experienced
the phenomenon. In using the phenomenological method as a review tool, the reviewer
would read the reports of scientists who have done research on the phenomenon. As in
quantitative reviews, the reviewer still must decide on criteria for inclusion and define the
research strategy
Step 3: Identifying meaningful statements.The third step is to identify meaningful statements.
The researcher might do this by highlighting empirical claims made about the phenomenon of
interest and collecting those claims, word-for-word, in some kind of spreadsheet or qualitative
software to make the data manageable.
Step 4. Giving meaning. After identifying meaningful statements, the next step is to give
eanings to those statements. That is, the reviewer might put the meaningful statements into
categories and then interpret and paraphrase them as groups.
Step 5. Thick, rich description. The final step is to create a thick, rich description of the essence
of primary researchers experiences with the phenomenon. The goal is to describe the essence of

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the phenomenon as seen through the eyes of the researchers who investigated that phenomenon.
Mistakes Commonly Made in Reviewing Research Literature:
Gall, Borg, and Gall listed the mistakes made by the researcher while writing Literature Review:

does not clearly relate the findings of the literature review to the researchers
own study;

does not take sufficient time to define the best descriptors and identify the best
sources to use in review literature related to ones topic;

relies on secondary sources rather than on primary sources in reviewing the


uncritically accepts another researchers findings and interpretations as valid,

rather than examining critically all aspects of the research design and analysis;

does not report the search procedures that were used in the literature review;

reports isolated statistical results rather than synthesizing them by chi-square

or meta-analytic methods; and

does not consider contrary findings and alternative interpretations in

synthesizing quantitative literature. (Gall)

Plagiarism and Literature Reviews: There has been an ignorance on the part of academicians
and researchers in relation to Copyright law and Fair use it can be illustrated with the example
of Harry Porter figures used in Durga Puja Pandal in Salt Lake locality in West Bengal .Every
year they would select popular and world famous themes for Durga Puja Pandal for the Durga
Puja Festival . On earlier occasion Titanic theme had been chosen. When Jk Rowling sued
them they realized that they were violating Intellectual and Property Law. They had constructed
Pandal like Hogwarts School - as well as life-size models of Harry Potter and his friends
(Morris) were installed in the pandal.
Organisers said a mock steam engine train is also being constructed next to it, to resemble
Hogwarts Express (Morris).


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JK Rowling

Harry Porter Castle (Morris)


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Pandal in the shape of Hogwarts School (Morris)

The pandal was designed in a manner which resembled Hogwarts Castle and displays
statues of the Potter characters like Hagrid and Hedgewig apart from Potter himself The lawsuit
sought a restraint order from the court against the pooja committee at Salt Lake from using Harry
Potter characters on the pandal, as it was a clear violation of Rowling's intellectual property
rights, the suit contended.
The pandal is designed in a manner which resembles Hogwarts Castle and displays
statues of the Potter characters like Hagrid and Hedgewig apart from Potter himself,.(Rowling
sues Durga Pooja Pandal).

Plagiarism and Literature Review:It is a very pertinent question whether Literature Review
comes in the ambit ofLiterature Review? The answer is yes it does come in the ambit of
Copyright Law.
Let us have a look at the intricacies of the Copyright Act 1957:
The Copyright Act, 1957: It protects original literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works and
cinematograph films and sound recordings from unauthorized uses. Unlike the case with patents,
copyright protects the expressions and not the ideas. There is no copyright on an idea or concept.
Does copyright apply to titles and names ?
Copyright does not ordinarily protect titles by themselves or names, short word
combinations, slogans, short phrases, methods, plots or factual information. Copyright


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does not protect ideas or concepts. To get the protection of copyright a work must be
What is the right of reproduction?
The right of reproduction commonly means that no person shall make one or more
copies of a work or of a substantial part of it in any material form including sound and
film recording without the permission of the copyright owner. The most common kind
of reproduction is printing an edition of a work. Reproduction occurs in storing of a
work in the computer memory.
What is the right of communication to the public?
Communication to the public means making any work available for being seen or heard
or otherwise enjoyed by the public directly or by any means of display or diffusion. It is
not necessary that any member of the public actually sees, hears or otherwise enjoys the
work so made available. For example, a cable operator may transmit a cinematograph
film, which no member of the public may see. Still it is a communication to the public.
The fact that the work in question is accessible to the public is enough to say that the
work is communicated to the public.
What is an adaptation?
Adaptation involves the preparation of a new work in the same or different form based
upon an already existing work. The Copyright Act defines the following acts as

Conversion of a dramatic work into a non dramatic work


Conversion of a literary or artistic work into a dramatic work


Re-arrangement of a literary or dramatic work


Depiction in a comic form or through pictures of a literary or dramatic work


Transcription of a musical work or any act involving re-arrangement or

alteration of an existing work.


The making of a cinematograph film of a literary or dramatic or musical work

is also an adaptation.

Can any person translate a work without the permission of the owner of the
copyright in the work?


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No. A person cannot translate a work enjoying copyright without the permission of the
copyright owner.
Is there any copyright over news?
No. There is no copyright over news. However, there is copyright over the way in
which a news item is reported.(Kutty and James)
Fair dealingis included in Copyright Act in Section 51. It has a number of tenets and the Indian
Legal System has not laid down any accurate definition leading to the intricacy , hence, the judge
has to decide fair use on a case to case basis depending on effects on the market, nature of
the work, and nature of the infringement . Fair use was traditionally defined as the privilege
granted to a person other than the owner of a copyright to use the copyrighted The exception that
is allowed for quoting falls in the domain of the Doctrine of fair dealing which helps to strike
a balance between the private and the commercial interests of a copyright owner with the larger
concern and interest of society to use and access information for research and benefit of the
society. Copyright Act allows use of a work without seeking permission of the owner of the
copyright for following any purpose :

for the purpose of research or private study,


for criticism or review,


for reporting current events,


in connection with judicial proceeding,


performance by an amateur club or society if the performance is given to a nonpaying audience, and


the making of sound recordings of literary, dramatic or musical works under

certain conditions.

The doctrine of fair dealing is an exception under the law of copyright covers in its
domain three acts namely-

fair use, permitted acts, and permitted use. All the three have

different meaning which varies according to the context applied in.

Permitted acts : This act allows an individual toreproduce, public show, assessment or
performance, publication, translation, adaption, and copying as provided in the
Copyright Act, 1957 (the Copyright Act).


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Permitted use : This act allows distributing an extract from a book to students in a classroom for
academic and educational reasons. Fair use is based on the principles that the public is allowed
freely use excerpts of copyrighted materials for commentary and criticism. To quote an example
if a novel has to be reviewed; one would require to quote a portion of the novelists work without
seeking permission.
Definition of Fair use: was traditionally defined as the privilege granted to a person other than
the owner of a copyright to use the copyrighted material in a reasonable manner without the
owner's consent, notwithstanding the monopoly granted to the owner. (Suwal) Section 52(1) of
the Act specifically deals with the concept of fair use in India. Section 52(1) allows fair dealing
with a literary, dramatic, musical, or artistic work for the following purposes:

Research or private study;

Criticism or review, whether of that work or of any other work; or

The reporting of current events in newspapers and magazines, or by broadcast, or in a

cinematographic film,or by means of photographs.
In the case of latter two points mentioned above, the criticism, review, or newspaper

report must be accompanied by an acknowledgement identifying the work by its title, and by its
author unless the work is anonymous, or the author of the work has previously agreed or
required that no acknowledgement of their name should be made.
In fine, Literature Review is the biggest indicator which gives a peep into the quality of
research work done by the researcher. Furthermore, Literature Review comes under the domain
of copyright and copying it word for word is a mistake. Hence, either the researcher must
paraphrase in his own words or quote reasonably and acknowledge the author with appropriate
Example of Literature Review with special reference to Emotional Intelligence and Job
Satisfaction :

Mercedes De Weerdt and Gina Rossi ( 2012) study provided support for the
reliability and validity of the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (Bar-On, 1997b), as a
measure of emotional intelligence, in a Flemish sample.


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The internal consistency proved to be satisfactory. Results of the exploratory factor analysis did
not confirm Bar-Ons (1997) findings claiming a 13 factor structure of the EQ-i, but partially
supported the alternative findings of Palmer et al.(2003) who found six factors. The current study
found evidence for a seven factor structure using parallel analysis, which is known to be a more
accurate method when determining the correct number of components
Reviews on Emotional Intelligence :
Salvoy and Mayer 1990 have shown that Emotional Intelligence developed with growing age
and experience. The older children exhibited more Emotional maturity then their younger
Goleman (1995) has also shown that the indications and signs of Emotional Intelligence
appears among very young children. Goleman (1996) has mentioned that emotional intelligence
grows with age and it can be acquired , learned , refined and enhanced in adulthood.
Boyatzis, (2000) observed in a series of vertical studies and

came to the conclusion that

Emotional Intelligence competencies can be enhanced in two to five years

Mayer et al. (2000) in series of longitudinal studies proved that since emotional Intelligence
increases with age and experience; it becomes an ability rather than a personality trait.
Wong and Law (2002) working with a variety of illustrations and samples have found that, there
is a positive correlation between emotional intelligence across different job situations.
Reviews on Job Satisfaction:
Syptak, Marsland, & Ulmer defined Job satisfaction as peoples affective relation to their work
role, and a function of the perceived relationship between what they wanted from the job, and
what they perceived it was offering (Syptak, Marsland, & Ulmer, 1999, p. 23).
James Heskett(2012) in an interesting study felt that there are many reasons for the trust gap
between employees and managementbut also many ways to bridge the divide He quotes
Richant who had raised a point in advancing a hypothesis for the trust deficit He said: "the
problem starts with management having a belief that they (already) are trusted." Thus James

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suggested that building trust is not rocket science. It should be pretty simple, in fact. Don't
create expectations that can't be met; share knowledge; hire, recognize, and fire the right people;
be consistent and predictable; and avoid large-scale layoffs as much as possible (Heskett).
Susan Sorenson (2013) for Gall up Inc. in her study found that companies effort to improve
employee engagement is a good thing but they should try to measure it as well since .
Measurement is the first step companies must take before they can implement meaningful
actions to improve engagement. But if they don't measure the right things in the right way, those
actions won't matter -- and they won't have a measurable impact on business outcomes or the
bottom line.
Concentrating on employee engagement can help companies withstand, and possibly even thrive,
in tough economic times. help companies withstand -- and possibly even thrive -- in tough
economic times. (Sorenson)
James K. Harter, Frank L. Schmidt, Ph.D., Sangeeta Agrawal, M.S., Stephanie K. Plowman,
M.A., for Gallup Inc (2013) : Analyzed its eighth meta-analysis on the Q12 in 2012 using 263
research studies across 192 organizations in 49 industries and 34 countries. They confirmed that
there is

well-established connection between employee engagement and nine performance

customer ratings
turnover (for high-turnover and low-turnover organizations)
safety incidents
shrinkage (theft)
patient safety incidents
quality (defects) (Harter, et al. 2013)
Helena Martins and Teresa Proena ( 2012 ) studied Job Satisfaction. They said, Job satisfaction
is usually treated as a collection of feelings or affective responses associated with the job
situation, or simply how people feel about different aspects of their jobs (Spector, 1997: 2).

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In fine, whatever has been taken word for word must be put in quotes and cited properly.
Another important point one review must link with the next or a heading must be given as done
above. Use of shortcuts like the tool Spinbot should be avoided It is a computer tool and in
English there are multiple meanings and if it puts a wrong word the meaning will change.
Experts in the field are able to trace such tricks. Moreover, if two people spin the same matter
they would get same text and then there is every chance of flouting Copyright Law.

Bibliography :
Alton-Lee, A. "A troubleshooters checklist for prospective authors derived from reviewers critical
feedback." Teaching and Teacher Education 14.8 (1998): 887-890.
Boote, D.N and P Beile. "The quality of dissertation literature reviews: A missing link in research
preparation." 2005. 5.
Chimboza, Denford and Edward Mutandwa Mutandwa. "Measuring the Determinants of Brand
Preference in a Dairy Product Market." African Journal of Business Management 1.9 (2007): 230237.
Cooper, H. M. The integrative research review: A systematic approach. Applied social research methods
series. Vol. 2. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1984.
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MOOC a Technological Revolution

McGuire W, Raaper R, and Nikolova,
V University of Glasgow (2016)
Glasgow, Scotland, UK

If massive open online courses (MOOCs) were considered as an educational revolution
influencing the traditional model of Higher Education [1] then their discourse is formulated in
terms of polarity, and this is no better depicted than in their characterization, as either c or x
MOOCs. This typology is based on underlying pedagogical principles: the cm is designed using
constructivist - connectivist theories, while the xm is premised on behaviourist principles. In both
conceptualisations, however, educational principles predominate, while the MOOCs purpose
appears to be secondary. What is clear, though, is that very careful thought needs to be applied
to their macro and micro design characteristics (Scagnoli, 2014; Richter, 2014). This paper will
explore the attempts of the designers to hybridize the key strengths of both forms of architecture
in order to create a construct that puts purpose first the creation of a personalized, digital cv
for real world use. The focus, then, is on the creation of a micro - MOOC titled: 3DCV - a tool
to support participants by combining elements from both pedagogical spectra: connectivist and
behaviourist. This new form of cv is necessary because the traditional configuration of the two
dimensional print cv has given way to a continuum of digital, three dimensional cvs within
which employers can exploit the potential of the digital medium to both deepen and broaden
their understanding of the strengths of a particular candidate. In effect, we will examine two
revolutionary digital concepts at the same time: the MOOC and the digital cv and, in doing so,
we will explore the challenges from the perspectives of the three course creators, two of whom
were RDP interns (a PhD graduate and an undergraduate student) and the third member, an
experienced academic and project lead, in order to support colleagues who might be considering
writing their own MOOCs. Our selected pedagogy to deliver the course was based on a hybrid of

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x and cMOOCs using the principles of: relationships; an informal tone; the use of ipsative
comparison, and the use of thematic feedback.
Keywords : MOOC; hybrid MOOCs; online cvs.

Introduction and Contextualization

Despite the fact that they have only been in existence for a relatively short time, since 2008, in
fact, and reaching their zenith in 2012, the year of the MOOC, we feel as if they have been
with us for much longer, perhaps because their early exponential growth generated a gravity of
its own, which subsumed the whole field of e-learning.
The MOOC on which this paper is based titled: Net That Job: How to Write an Online CV was
written after a period of settlement, when the X school of MOOC creation and the C school had
had the opportunity to spar, digitally for several years.
The writing team was aware of these developments and hoped to use them to create a learning
environment fit for purpose to enable learners to both improve and digitise their cvs through the
creation of a hybrid MOOC form.
Setting the digital scene
September 2008 saw the launch of the first massive open online course (MOOC) of its kind [1].
[1] describe the first MOOC Connectivism and Connective Knowledge course(CCK08)at the
University of Manitoba as a courageous, ambitious and ground-breaking attempt that allowed
participants to experience the principles of connectivism and openness in practice. It was a
twelve week credit-bearing course for twenty four students, within an open-access network that
included over two thousand two hundred registered participants [2]. Soon after MOOCs became
popularised and widely known as online education platforms accessed free by great masses [3].
Some argue that MOOCs are essential to promote educational access and to create more
sustainable societies. For example, UNESCO considers universal access to high quality
education as a key for ensuring peace, sustainable social and economic development, and
intercultural dialogue [4].


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In addition to their potential for social justice, however, MOOCs have also turned into an
industry, including millions of students around the world, thousands of courses offered and
hundreds of universities taking part [5]. Some MOOCs are expected to serve large numbers of
concurrent learners, in some cases reaching between 50 000 and 150 000 participants [6]. Easy
access to advancing technologies and social networking has made this possible, reflecting a
situation in which adults can take control over where, when, and how they learn [7]. It could also
be argued that as self-development is regarded as being highly important in contemporary
societies, perhaps even more important than diplomas and degrees, universities are also trying to
reach more learners with less cost . MOOCs seem to provide an environment for these needs and
this is especially true as MOOCs, with their free enrolment and social networks, can reach large
learner populations [8]. Furthermore, most elite universities throughout the world want to take
part in this establishment as providing MOOC courses has become a symbol of the reputation
and brand worth institutions [8].
MOOC architectures
So, what forms do MOOCs take? Different types of MOOCs exist such as cMOOCs and
xMOOCs which both have significant theoretical underpinnings [8]. Many scholars [e.g. 8; 9]
argue that cMOOCs are underpinned by connectivist learning theories and xMOOCs are closer
to a traditional behaviourist model of learning and teaching. According to [8], cMOOCs can also
be called Canadian MOOCs as the creators of first MOOCs were the Canadian researchers
George Siemens, Stephen Downes and Dave Cormier, and they prepared the concept based on
the principles of the theory of connectivism. CMOOCs, therefore, have an earlier history than
xMOOCs [8]. The key argument in the theory of connectivism is related to the belief that each
individual is responsible for their own learning [8]. It promotes a networked and collaborative
approach to learning that is not primarily curriculum-driven but that emphasises self-led
exploration of course topics [9]. Knowledge in cMOOCs is viewed as a networked state and
learning as the process of generating those networks [4]. Therefore, cMOOCs employ a system
that promotes learners freedom throughout the learning process and allows them to set their own
learning goals [8].


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Many of the MOOC platforms used (Coursera, Futurelearn) tend to promote a behaviourist
understanding of education in which the tutor prepares the course through a video or presentation
while the learner passively receives the course [8]. [9] describe xMOOCs as highly structured
and content-driven courses that are designed for large numbers of learners who will be guided by
pre-recorded lectures and assessed by automated assignments. It could, therefore, be argued that
xMOOCs focus on knowledge duplication whereas cMOOCs promote knowledge creation [8]. In
other words, if xMOOCs rely on expert knowledge and authority, cMOOCs promote selfdirected learning [9]. [9] therefore argue that the notion of a hybrid MOOC has become useful
in describing courses that do not fit the well-established categories of cMOOC or xMOOC. The
category of hybrid or quasi-MOOCs encompasses a variety of web-based tutorials that are
intended to support learning specific tasks but that do not include social interaction of cMOOCs
nor automated grading and tutorial-driven format of xMOOCs [4]. This notion also promotes an
understanding of cMOOC and xMOOC as oversimplified categorisation that requires critical
reflection [9].
It needs to be noted that the revolutionary potential of MOOCs has received much scepticism,
particularly regarding the quality of learning offered [1] and the pedagogical effectiveness of
MOOCs [6]. [4] explain that MOOCs pose challenges never faced before, particularly as, until
not long ago, it was unthinkable to have several thousand learners participating in an online
course. Similarly, [1] argues that being massive and open are the challenges unique to
MOOCs: these courses tend to have a very large learner population with diversity of age, culture,
language, experience and motivation. As MOOCs are usually free, credit-less and open to
anyone with an Internet connection, teaching staff cannot possibly interact with students
individually [10]. The teachers role within a MOOC, therefore, clearly differs from most other
educational environments where teachers can know and interact with their students through such
processes as selection, tutoring and assessment [9]. The issues related to learner population seem
to also constrain the pedagogical practices of the MOOCs, making them align with behaviourist
models of learning and teaching. [4] describe tutoring on MOOCs as usually poor, since minimal
feedback is received by the participants, and peer-based assessments tend to lack the necessary
expertise in terms of didactics and the specific subject. It could also be argued that a MOOC that

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does not develop higher order thinking nor promote student interaction and does not provide the
true education characteristic of universities and colleges [1].
Furthermore, while one of the key arguments supporting the expansion of MOOCs is related to
the promotion of self-development and employability of the adult population, [8] argue that the
employment aspect following course completion is highly ambiguous and unknown. This is
particularly the case as the average student population on MOOC courses tends to be young,
well- educated and employed, with the majority of learners being from developed countries [5].
It could, therefore, be argued that the adults the MOOC revolution was supposed to help most
people with no access to higher education in developing countries are clearly underrepresented
among the current learner population [5].
Many authors [8; 11] also argue that MOOC courses face the challenge of high dropout rates.
According to [11] one widely quoted dropout figure for students in MOOCs is 90 percent. This is
also highlighted by [4] who argue that international statistics demonstrate that only about 5% to
15% of participants complete MOOCs on average. However, [11] notes that, in order to
understand the high dropout rates in MOOCs, researchers should be looking into the question of
why hundreds of thousands of people across the world are signing up for MOOCs in the first
place. Similarly to [11], [5] argue that there is no robust and published data to describe who and
why are taking the MOOC courses.
MOOCs are changing the landscape of learning and teaching [12]. Like [1], we believe that
MOOC designers and tutors need to explore the pedagogical challenges of teaching MOOC
courses and from there to consider the many possibilities offered by the contemporary
educational technologies that would suit with their own teaching philosophies and would help to
support learners and their engagement with education. It could, therefore, be argued that the
current scholarly work on MOOCs is not adequately addressing the complexity of the teachers
role [9]. The debate around MOOCs has been focused on the social, institutional, technological
and economical aspects rather than on the need to develop new pedagogical approaches that
would help to design and deliver education in this new emerging environment [13].


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The methodology deployed was a reflective, multi-perspective, qualitative study using the
written vignettes of the MOOC design team to which [14s] method of inductive thematic
analysis was applied and whose broad stages are detailed below:

Familiarisation with the data through repeated readings

The generation of initial codes (broad themes) looking for meaning/striking words/
recurrences/images trying in order to form units of meaning

The search for themes and their sorting into gradations of importance

The naming of themes via the creation of global themes and their organisation into subthemes as well as the generation of consideration of what these themes tell us about the
ideas/concepts/assumptions/thinking behind the data

The written analysis phase via the selection of vivid or compelling excerpts as examples,
and the organization of writing around global themes and linking to academic literature
on the themes

Following Stage 5, the results were compared to the key issues arising from the literature review
to form key factors impacting on the design process. The process is, therefore, a categorising
strategy, a process of encoding qualitative information according to [15].
Thematic links
The table below highlights the keywords/headings used by the designers to organise their
reflections, each of which was constructed in isolation. The chart below suggests a pattern of
emerging similarities.
1 Bureaucracy

Pedagogy v business

Technical limitations

2 Unexpected tales

Student numbers

End vision

3 Time

Technical expertise



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First level observations

Row 1, while it uses different headings, describes very similar issues. The lead tutor, for
example, refers to the problem of bureaucracy in terms of labyrinthine liaison networks, where
tutor 1 amplifies this impression viareference to the impact of pedagogy and business aspirations,
which hindered this positive experience. Tutor 2 extrapolates this idea in terms of the
frustrations felt when the platform was felt to be lagging behind the design vision, with things
that were not compatible with the platform.
Second level observations
Here, there was clear commonality again. Tutor 1 related the idea of massive numbers back to
the issue of pedagogical atavism: It almost seems that pedagogical practices have gone through
a devolution through which a behaviourist understanding of teaching and learning has become
once again popular. The lead tutor echoed these frustrations in the description between the
massive philosophy of the platform and the student-centredness that was felt to be desirable.
Tutor 2, perhaps captures and characterises these impressions in the idea of the newness of
MOOCs, with which she had only, some limited experience.
Third level observations
Time was probably the defining feature at this level, for all of the designers. All shared the
polarised emotions of challenge and frustration, summarised in the description of exciting and
challenging according to tutor 1. The lead tutors view was that time was problematic. The
course start actually meant that it had to be finalised one month before that date. Filming had to
be organised via the media unit far in advance of time to ensure availability and the experience
was that the course had to be completed before we had really started it. To add to the pressures,
we were neither experts in either MOOC design nor digital cvs, both of which were very new
fields. Indeed, tutor 2 sums up the situation well: I have never considered myself an expert on
CVs [or] MOOCs. So, the collision between time constraints and the development of the
requisite skills to create the MOOC, perhaps best captures the essence of our dilemma. Tutor 1
describes it thus: It is not so much about pedagogical knowledge and methods but about digital


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literacy and technological skills, while tutor 2 describes the frustration of coding, Formatting
took hours.
Much of our challenges could be described as being the result of polarisation: the conversion of a
static to an active support system in the forums, for example; outwardly forward-looking yet
inwardly backward-looking pedagogical underpinnings; rewards yet challenges; our flexibility
and the inflexibility of the platform.
Links to the Literature: Architectural challenges
There are many commonalities between the literature and the experiences of the design team. In
terms of course design, there is conflict between behaviourism and constructivism/connectivism
which is echoed in the Futurelearn platform structure and, in particular, its limitations and in the
reticence of its staff to adapt its structures.
Industrialisation is another influence that can be extrapolated from the literature to the
experience of the design team. The MOOC on which we worked was one of four which had
received funding and there was a clear need to meet deadlines, forward plan, and to liaise with
interested parties. Additionally, the Glasgow University (A Russell Group University) branding
was evident from the signup page.
Our first goal, was to create a fit-for-purpose student support structure, so, to a significant
degree, neither an xMOOC, nor a cMOOC was entirely helpful as we were working on the
blended/hybridised principle of creating the potential for both knowledge duplication or creation
or even both as participants decided, for themselves, what form of cv they required for the
specific job role.
Massiveness and openness then combined to create, perhaps, the single greatest challenge.
Just how do you differentiate within a massive course? Indeed, it could even be argued that this
contradicted the underlying principle of connectivism. A further aspect of this problem is evident
in the creation of visibility and/or individuality of experience within such a massive


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environment, as, paradoxically, the larger the environment, the greater the risk of invisibility,
disaffection, and attrition.
Towards a solution
Our solution was to develop four areas of our pedagogical model:
(1) Relationships (teacher-student, student-student, student-course) via (2) an informal, friendly,
chatty tone and mood to encourage participants to (3) alter their points of view or perspectives to
enable them to put themselves in the position of an employer as well as a prospective employee,
which all began even prior to the start of the course proper as the first activity asked that
participants find or create their own starter cv on which they would work throughout the course
in order to evaluate their success at the close through ipsative comparison. During this process,
the course team would moderate the forum in terms of providing (4) thematic feedback based
on emerging good practice in the discussions.
Next Steps
Currently, the course has 15,000 participants, a full month before the first of its two runs and we
anticipate 20,000 participants by it starting date. It is, therefore, vital that we determine the
extent to which our pedagogical model has been supportive, or otherwise. As such, we intend to
conduct at the end of both runs and to create an addition to this paper at that time.
Appendix 1
The Experience: Tutor 1 MOOC Reflection Rille Raaper
Emergent Themes
Developing a MOOC has been an exciting but challenging process. On the one hand, it has been
extremely interesting to be involved in something that is so new and innovative, allowing us to
imagine what education could look like in 20 or 50 years time. Working on something that is
purely based on online systems has also offered unique flexibility. As an educator or course
developer you can find yourself working from home and at late hours MOOC allows you to
have this freedom and to shift from usual time and office frameworks to online space that often
feels as borderless. I truly liked that part of MOOC development process. On the other hand, the
process also includes many challenges that tend to hinder this positive experience. This is mostly

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the case when technology and business aspirations conflict with pedagogical ideals. Let me
reflect on this below:
Pedagogical vs business aspirations
I often felt that MOOC platforms such as FutureLearn are very limited in their design, aiming to
support brand development rather than pedagogical values in terms of active participation,
student interaction, collaboration and feedback. It might be that MOOCs are in their early stage
of development just now, and it requires time to shift the focus from online platforms, image and
brands to the actual ways of supporting student learning and engagement.
Large student numbers
My biggest concerns were related to high student numbers. On the one hand, it demonstrates that
MOOCs have significant potential in reaching wide audience and transforming educational
environment as we know. I also very much like the idea of free education, and the ways in which
MOOCs can encourage adults to continue with further studies in universities and beyond. On the
other hand, I feel that large student numbers require a fundamental change in pedagogical
practices. As evident from relevant literature on MOOCs, practices have not altered in
accordance with high number of participants. It almost seems as pedagogical practices have gone
through a devolution through which a behaviourist understanding of teaching and learning has
become once again popular: teacher creates the material and delivers knowledge to students. I
hope that pedagogical issues will receive more attention in the future, and scholars and
practitioners find ways to promote active student engagement in MOOCs.
Technical skills
Finally, I also believe that MOOC courses require different type of preparation and skill set from
course developers and teachers. It is not so much about pedagogical knowledge and methods but
about digital literacy and technological skills. I found it very difficult to get my head around the
technical discourses promoted by FutureLearn platform. I believe that most practitioners today
are not well equipped to cope with changing educational environment, and I therefore believe
that professional development frameworks and courses for university teachers should start
emphasising the importance of digital literacy and technical skills.

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Appendix 2 The Experience: Lead tutor MOOC Reflection Willie McGuire

Emergent Themes
Certainly well before the start of the MOOC as the process of applying for funding itself is both
onerous and iterative. This was further intensified as the design of the MOOC was posited on the
appointment of two RAs, a process which took until September from an outcome in April and
this was representative of the process as a whole.
More than any other activity, this has been very difficult to control. Normally, initiatives are
largely within the control of the principal investigator, but this is not the case with a MOOC. The
liaison process for a lead educator is labyrinthine and involves: research assistants, the
administrative burdens prior to appointment with job descriptions and interviews as well as
budget holders, staff from the Learning and Teaching Centre and specialist media unit staff as
well as many meetings with the Learning Innovation Officer and staff from Futurelearn, the
platform used by the University of Glasgow. Additionally, because of their newness, MOOCs
attract a lot of attention from SMT, probably more than an academic will ever see in their daily
work to create an unusual concatenation of pressures and influences all bearing at once, while, of
course, the other more mundane aspects of the academics life meander on: lectures, seminars,
papers, marking, meetings, conferences
I experienced tremendous pressure to design and create rapidly, while coming to terms with two
distinct novelty sets: MOOCs and CVs. In my case, I was an expert in neither field. And neither
were the Research assistants, which had implications for the timescale as a March 14th run,
meant completed material for Feb 14 th, one month earlier than expected. I felt that the pressure
was to complete almost before wed started as dates were inserted into diaries for filming
artefacts that hadnt even been created.
Many tensions existed in the construction: with Futurelearn there were collisions in terms of
vision between massive philosophy and the student-centredness I wanted to create in the

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learning environment. Massive or miniature was the key question, which further unravelled,
paradoxically, as it became clearer to me that more fora were needed as the numbers grew. The
imperative became all about the conversion of a static system to an active support structure for
students. Three fora in the final week versus an open forum for the first two weeks. Additionally,
there was the need for dualistic expertise development in both medium and subject matter not to
mention the basic organisational challenges of matching timeframes to the availability of the
RAs, one an undergraduate; the other on PhD write up.
A Tale of the Unexpected
Unexpected elementsabounded in the course design process. Week to go emailsMonth to go
emailsPre-course start online activity. Additionally, it was hard to describe the sheer
euphoriaof logging on to see that we had 13,500 participants 2 months before course actually
runs. Whats the largest class youve taught? 300? This course was nearly 50 times that with two
months to go. Estimates put the final numbers at over 20,000. And we were expected to provide
a unique and supportive experience for all of them! Initial feedback wasvery strong. There was
obviously a felt need out there and we seemed to have struck a chord with many people. There
were many kind (and deeply moving) words just from the signup video, which I didnt feel
showed me at my strongest. And thats before I get on to the absorbtion of new skills: the use of
an autocue; interviewing experts on camera; imagining the completed product before even
beginning. It was a nightmare. Would I do it again?
In a heartbeat.
Appendix 3 The Experience: Tutor 2 MOOC Reflection Viktoria Nikolova
Emergent Themes
This has been a long but rewarding creative process, and still is. I remember when I first applied
for this position, having previously had some limited experience with MOOCs, I had an idea in
my head of what to expect in terms of the tasks I had to complete. I have never considered
myself an expert on CVs, MOOCs, teaching or anything that has to do with online courses, but I
knew I would be able to cope with any difficulty in the process, as well as learn something new.
I can safely say I have learned a lot, as the process was a bit more challenging than I had
expected. This is probably the best part of this role.

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One of the biggest challenges of this whole process was working things through without having a
clear idea of what the final product was supposed to look like. Most of the time the three of us
just came up with different ideas and sometimes they worked, sometimes they didnt, and
sometimes we needed to change an already completed piece of work in order to match it with the
new idea. One thing that constantly changed was the order of steps, which was the main
skeleton of the whole creative process. Trying to work on small pieces of the course while their
order was changing was difficult, but the important part is that the content didnt change much. I
am happy with how flexible the materials became, so that we could basically move some of them
from week 3 to week 1 or 2, and there was still a connection between the materials. Even though
most of the time I struggled with the materials, the process also felt smooth and at some point
things just started falling into place. By the end of week 3 they became as clear as they could be,
but that took a great deal of researching and running into problems such as lack of essential
information online or lack of resources. The lack of resources mainly had to do with having a
good idea for an activity, but the platform didnt allow it. The hardest week in terms of
information, resources and activities for me was week 2, where I didnt quite have a clear idea of
what the product should look like, and almost every time I came up with a solution, it took a
great deal of research and putting together things that were not compatible with the platform.
Formatting took hours, only to discover I didnt have to do it, because I needed to do a different
type of formatting when uploading the materials to the platform. Apart from that, I received a
clear enough guidance that allowed me to stay on the right track even when I wasnt sure what
the right track was.
Overall, this job was, and still is, one of the most challenging experiences. The best part about it
was having to work independently, yet receiving valuable guidance, which allowed me to both
follow an established path and do things my own way.


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Teaching Material Evaluation and Adaption :

Considering the case of a Coursebook
Gareth Morris
Exeter University / Xian Jiao Tong Liverpool University
+86 13862576680

This paper sets out to appraise an existing coursebook before then offering suggestions on how
practitioners might consider building upon the perceived relative strengths, whilst
simultaneously offsetting the apparent weaknesses of the text. The rationale for this is that many
practitioners are either required to, expected to, or, quite simply, need to use commercial
materials, and that, more often than not, these often unavoidably fail to fully cater to situation
specific pedagogical demands and contextual needs given the unique nature of each and
everysetting.It is also hoped that this paper will help to promote reflective practice among
practitioners, especially in terms of evaluating classroom materials.
Key Words: Coursebook, Materials, Design, Evaluation, Adaptation

With EFL materials design, publication, evaluation and adaptation an established and
lucrative industry, and as Sheldon (1988) highlights, having been so for many years, the aim of
this paper is to draw upon time honoured evaluative principles in order to appraise an existing
coursebook. With this in mind, the intention is to employ an approach that is in-depth enough to
warrant paper and or text based application, whilst simultaneously providing a more thorough
justification for any subsequent action, which is in contrast to the more natural and commonplace
brief mental checklist approach that most practitioners employ. Following this, it will
subsequently be within the remit of the task at hand either to build upon the relative strengths,
whilst offsetting the apparent weaknesses of the text, or alternatively to create new materials that

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better cater to the distinctive contextual needs. However, it is important to stress,as Williams
(1983) amongst others has, that within the global marketplace it is common for commercial
preferences often unavoidably to fail to fully cater for situation specific pedagogical demands.
As a result, and in light of this inescapably fine line between the traditionally generic literature
favoured by publishers and, contrastingly, the demands of each contextually unique idiosyncratic
setting, it is apparent that a chasm of commonplace discrepancies exists. As such, not only is
action necessitated on the part of the end user (teachers and students) if suitability is to be
garnered, as Brown (1995) recognises, but also by way of materials designers, which is the role
potentially afforded to the author in this instance.

Paper Limitations
With a set word limit inhibiting the scope that can be afforded to this topic, the intention
here is to provide a two tier coursebook analysis as advocated by Breen, Candlin (1987: 13-28),
McDonough and Snow (1993), albeit with variations. This is to ensure that the time constraints
and future demands that senior practitioners are likely to experience in reality when evaluating
materials, such as recording and cataloguing data for referral, are mirrored and adhered to. It is
also intended that this evaluation will act as a medium between the common place minimal
mentalist perspective, adopted for its time saving graces by many educators, and the complex
comparative stance that is an idealised but utterly impractical evaluative option of choice for all
but the paid few. On that note and to elaborate further, in this instance the analysis will look to
provide a balance between the macro textbook and micro unit levels, with a three tier weighting
scale assigned to gauge the manner in which favoured criteria are judged to have been afforded
coverage. In fact, feature rating which arguably necessitates an unequal number of options to be
incorporated for a true midpoint to be facilitated, will only receive the minimal number of
categories, so as to limit unnecessary complexity; whereas weighting scales that determine
desirability and which understandably bear merit, have been tellingly omitted due to the scenario
not warranting such in-depth measurements of subjective preferences. In addition, with a great
deal of available literature seeming to simply offer edited revisions of already internalised
common knowledge, as opposed to providing more thought provoking suppositions (as is the
case in alternative L2 fields), it is worth noting that the practicality-theoretical divide arguably
will rest heavily in favour of the former. On that note, and with the textbook under evaluation

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comprising of multiple stand alone tasks rather than broader multi section units, the remit in this
case will be to analyse a couple of topics in order to ensure that the results are thorough enough
either to prove or dispel the pre conceived hypothesis that adaptive action is going to be
necessitated. As a final aside, and despite relevant experience, the fact that the prescribed
coursebook has not actually been used means that a hypothetical pre use evaluation rather than a
more informative in or post use analysis will have to form the research base.

Pedagogic Background
With all that considered, and having studied business at degree level as well as taught business
English at the tertiary level within China, it is my belief that some of the potential evaluative
drawbacks that will inevitably arise can actually be offset, at least partially, by drawing upon
ones experience in an objective manner. In fact, practice has led to the perception that for the
vast majority of L2 commerce orientated learners within China, a lot of the available business
English literature is either generic to such an extent that it garners mainstream relevance
detrimentally, or intentionally so specific that a lot of the enjoyment that fosters long term rather
than short term persistence is made redundant. Both of which can play a part in not only
demotivating (e.g. Meng-Ching, 1998) students, but potentially and with obvious connotations,
teachers as well. In hindsight, this is hardly surprising when one additionally considers the fact
that the vast majority of practitioners tend to operate within coursebook prescribed contexts, with
texts imposed upon them for consistency reasons, and by availability constraints or nationally
enforced policy requirements. However, with this limited resource or political rhetoric enforced
state of affairs consistently tending to run counter to the acclaimed internationally localised
perspective that amongst others Ur (1996) purports, it is somewhat to be expected that
dissatisfaction can abound. With all of this considered, it is worth stating that the focus for this
coursebook evaluation will be with individuals, pairs or small groups in mind, rather than a
larger more traditional class per se. This is due to the fact that tutoring provides the contextual
backdrop under consideration, and is an area that draws on prior and potentially future
commitments. One must also acknowledge the fact that, within mainland China, business
English is a lucrative and continuously growing market sector. As such, the aim will be to
modify a number of existing evaluative tools to provide contextual appropriateness (having so


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far conducted a personalised mental checklist evaluation), before adapting for demonstrative
purposes - if justified, part of what could be an insightful topic based textbook.

Coursebook Background
In light of this and moving on to the aforementioned textbook in question, which is somewhat
aptly titled Business English Pair Work: Conversation Practice for Business People(Flanders
and Sweeney, 1996), this self acknowledged intermediate and advanced level coursebook which
was published in nineteen ninety six begins by stressing its independent, but potentially
complementary nature with other materials and courses from the outset. Sounding as generic as it
possibly could be, the text plays to the conventions of the day by promoting a strong
communicative language teaching (CLT) approach to formal learning, focusing on speaking and
listening skills to promote conversational fluency rather than accuracy (realised through sixty
five functional activities which encompass information gap exercises, discussions, role play and
simulation). Surprisingly, with this considered, stress is actually given to the lack of specialist
knowledge that is required from users, as well as, for enhanced flexibility, the potential non
sequential manner in which the book may be used. Ironically, all of this would seem to offset any
of the tangible benefits that may have been aligned with and derived from the inclusion of
planned sequential progression. As such, and with immediate issues evident regarding, amongst
other aspects, the target audiences ability levels, limited learning style affordance, and the
imposition of generic features to a specific sub field, it is unsurprising that ultimately text
adaptation (and/or supplementation) is likely to be the chosen course of action if the coursebook
is to be utilised. To state the seemingly implied, this is especially true if the aforementioned book
is also deemed to fulfil its broad positioning strategy statements and, as such, facilitate through
its practical design a more contextually relevant syllabus to be derived and built from it. In
addition, with an unintentional but extended eastern trans-regional applicability in evidence,
despite the fact that the text was only intended for distribution within the British, North
American and Australasian markets (with western orientated learners in mind), it is unsurprising
that revision rather than a complete overhaul seems to be the preferential course of action.


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Evaluation Background
As such, and adhering initially to Littlejohns (1998: 195-202) preliminary evaluative framework
alongside McGraths (2002) adaptations, the aim has been to design and develop an evaluative
model capable of gauging content-need appropriateness within a culturally and pedagogically
unique setting. In order to do so, contextual considerations have been taken into account
alongside the actual materials analysis itself, due to the enhanced practicalities of doing so. This
has been accompanied by an amalgamation of Littlejohns level distinctions - the texts explicit
nature, perceived user requirements and the resulting implications - into a single preferentially
led holistic, but importantly simplified user friendly construct, one that indirectly implies what
the implications could and should necessitate, whilst allowing interpretative variation to be taken
into account by the end user. This is not to say that a simple culling of material has occurred, as a
duel macro (whole book gauge) and micro (in-depth unit level) distinction still exists, with the
previous section (coursebook background) offering what could be deemed a base overview to
accompany the evaluation, but rather that taken alongside ideas purported by and borrowed from
Cunningsworth (1995), Rubdy (2003) and Tomlinson et al. (2001) a collation or merger of
preferences has been implemented to create a synthesised hybrid approach of the authors design.
Conceivably in light of this, the belief is that a more practical, less laborious (in some cases), and
ultimately more readily reusable tool has been devised which bears situation specific relevance,
whilst simultaneously befitting market place realities through its generically adaptive qualities.
In addition, due to the practicality that the now conceived and soon to be discussed dual
framework offers, depending upon ones preferences (functioning either as time efficient tick list
or more expandable decision justifying analytical gauge), it is interesting to note how theoretical
underpinnings can be utilised to enhance pedagogic necessities.
Evaluation Design
Having already stated that the evaluative tool draws upon a number of established models, it was
in light of these that accepted conventions were deemed the optimal belief set one should adhere
to, influencing what could be regarded as a standardised approach to be employed. As such, the
coursebook evaluation considers three areas of importance: an overview of general base aspects,
the coursebooks actual content, and practical student-teacher determined considerations.

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Although that said, and just as noteworthy is the fact that the content focus also contains within
its ultimate scope the interlinked and equally weighted duel sub categories of exercises-activities
and vocabulary-grammar. By contrast, the task review on the other hand is slightly more
inclusive regarding set umbrella terms, with five unambiguous distinctions made. These include
presentation, content, exercises and activities, vocabulary and grammar, and students and
teachers. Quite clearly it is apparent that aesthetic trait heading overlaps from the general to
specific are evident, with the most obvious questions arising concerning not only the content
heading, that in one instance is more encompassing due to the outlook, but also the end user
distinctions which, on a micro level, have been grouped together to aid convenience (related to
the fact that fewer sub categories are warranted) and avoid potential result duplication. In
addition, and casting a more thorough glance at the actual questions themselves, it also becomes
clear that some reciprocity occurs. This reflects the paradox of running complimentary duel
frameworks in tandem, as some holistic concerns are, by necessity, equally applicable at a more
localised level. Although in fairness there is a degree of inevitably about this, having opted for a
macro-micro divide that allows the constructs to function as interlinked but also potentially,
standalone entities.

Evaluation Findings
With this in mind, the results have proved to be interesting, but it should be noted that an
unavoidable degree of practitioner subjectivity has potentially indirectly influenced proceedings,
despite the objective intentions, due to the fact that any self devised evaluative tool by nature has
the tendency to incorporate personal preferences within situation specific criteria requirements.
As such, and on a macro level, it is clear that some editions would certainly be advantageous. In
fact, the most strikingly off kilter aspect centres around the need to limit the learner scope and
broaden the teaching methodology. Quite simply, and with the former point in mind, without
greater structural support (a point found to be lacking) and irrespective of the fact that enhanced
conversational fluency is the overarching aim (which at an intermediate level is probably not the
most pressing concern), the sensible approach would seem to be simply to reposition the text as
an upper intermediate supplementary material or, alternatively, a teacher led advanced
conversational study aid. However, with a CLT approach advocated, it would be important for
practitioners to note - in light of a regional grammar translation and audio lingual upbringing 39

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the potentially inhibiting role that a culturally observable externally aided learning orientation
generates with regards to student-teacher expectations. That said, with the referenced omissions
and suggested adaptations placing greater emphasis on the teachers role, the fact that fairly
limited support is offered, even with pedagogic autonomy considered only further raises
In fact, with the publishers seeking to maximise sales by promoting task flexibility, it becomes
clear that with activity duration able to vary by up to a multiple of six, and with little in the way
of extension activities offered to challenge the more able, not to mention the fact that
achievement is afforded no measurement gauge, it becomes quite clear that something is
potentially amiss. In addition, with only four teaching approaches afforded to sixty five
functional activities, and a lack of material authenticity clearly apparent, motivation is another
area that may well conceivably suffer as learner autonomy already does if the book is used
extensively as is. On that note, when taken into consideration alongside the dated nature of the
material, and its subsequent but expected inability to address twenty first century technological
advances, such as Computer Aided Language Learning (CALL), not to mention the need to
culturally tailor the text to the context, it is becoming increasingly clear that the initial hypothesis
that purported adaption (and/or supplementation) is almost certainly going to be the preferential
choice in light of the fact that the additional features, by and large, are all acceptably sound and
the topics prominently relevant. This conviction is reaffirmed at the micro level where, despite a
number of positives being in evidence due to time limitations in place, it is my belief that in this
case the greatest benefits are actually to be derived from offsetting the perceived weaknesses
rather than developing the ever present strengths.

Taking the presentation of the topics as a starting point, it is clear that, by failing to offer
any potential inspiration other than that derived from natural relevance, the intimation
would seem to be that the injection of some twenty first century emotive glamour would
not go amiss. In fact, this belief finds support in research, if the intention is to consider
and address affective (e.g. Krashen, 1981) and motivational (e.g. Drnyei and Ushioda,
2011) influences.


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A slightly more moot point however concerns to what degree the content could actually
be woven together to facilitate progressive scaffolding (e.g. Vygotsky, 1987) to be
incorporated, as opposed to the independently designed, alphabetically categorised,
flexibly centred tasks of the present. In fact, and as something of an aside, one novel way
to do so would be in the form of a story, whereby selected outcomes lead to different
routes through the book being initiated; although a more manageable structure for the
novice designer would be a to implement a simple play like design, with preordained
scene to scene movement. However, noting the need to appease the business acumen of
the publishing houses that in this instance favour the more marketable function based
approach,it would still be desirable to additionally retain the coursebooks autonomous


Another debateable point that garners relevance centres upon the underplayed but
implicitly incorporated inclusive skills approach. This can especially be seen to hold true
when one notes how the reading medium is utilised and a written preparatory element
almost certainly subversively necessitated. All of which runs alongside the
understandably prominent conversational focus. As such, my belief is that a wider
advertising net could be cast whilst still retaining the conversational overtones; and this is
despite the text being perceived to bear overly generic boasts.


Perhaps such claims were representative of the time period, but with the material not only
being dated, but through fortune incorporating relevant modern day scenarios (albeit
lacking in accompanying authentic materials support), the indication seems to be that
should image rights prove negotiable, then significant possibilities exist for engaging
affective and motivational drives alongside cognitive demands.


For this to be the case another area of concern will have to be addressed. This, in the
authors mind, rests with the lack of structured learning support to be found within the
text. In fact, regardless of the focus or the level of the learners, due to the way in which
structure is able to support the less able within a group whilst simultaneously promoting
increased autonomy only reiterates why it is merited. This is not even mentioning the
way in which structure can be used to facilitate a base gauge for measuring progress to be


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Finally, and with this point having just been raised, due to the fact that at present there is
no way to assess and measure the learning that has, is or will take place, or any explicit
mention of a need to do so, the fact that materials adaption is preferential if a useful
supplementary material is to be adequately developed for modern day application is
surely only reaffirmed.

Materials Adaptation
With a number of potential areas for, and means of improvement already mentioned, it was with
Bell and Gowers (1998) findings, Hutchinson and Waters (1987: 118) model, and Nunan
(1988: 3) and Tomlinsons principles (1998: 7-21) in mind that actual revisions could take place.
And this is before mention is afforded to the pivotally informative role that McDonough, Shaw
(1993: 85) and Tomlinsons frameworks (2003: 119-121) provide in potentially influencing any
adaptations. In fact, the updated activities could be designed with the implicit knowledge in mind
that in order to address syllabus, concept and learner shortfalls, a potentially - at face value
exponential increase of material would have to be incorporated. The saving grace is that this in
turn can be repositioned over a couple of pages when computerised downsizing or scaling is
factored in. As such, the first significant revision might be to offer a modern day relevance to the
layout and content, by designing for applicative ease tasks that facilitate twenty first century
appeal in order to offer some materialistic style and substance as a counter to what can only be
described as at present a somewhat drab, dated, minimalistic and ultimately cold text.
One way that this could be achieved would be to introduce some authenticity, support and colour
alongside new pre and post lesson activities (designed to promote a more inclusively holistic
integrated skills approach that allows learners overall needs to be better met), albeit with an
acceptance that the brief lesson plan framework that was already in place was retained as the
underlying bedrock. In fairness, and with the newly incorporated support that was included in
mind, it should be noted that the focus could be predominantly geared towards increasing
exponentially vocabulary coverage and revision (to keep with the conversational fluency
connotations), but with model sentences additionally offered in tow so that practitioners are
provided with a means by which to build in an appropriate discretionary grammar focus should
accuracy designs be sought. On that front, it is fairly apparent that an implicit grammar focus

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would still lie at the heart of the updated activities, but with an acknowledgement that a more
comprehensive explicit supporting structure was warranted. In addition, editions could also
witness localised language translations being incorporated with spelling and pronunciation tips in
situ, it is the belief that the controversial native-non native divide can also be partially bridged by
allowing globalised demands to rest more comfortably alongside localised needs.
However, the alterations might not stop there. It could also be a feature of the reworked material
that a slightly more real persona engaging feel be brought in to accompany the imposed
procedural but practical hypothetical scenarios. There is a potential problem with this
nevertheless, which despite careful planning to ensure that only positive features are used as
examples, rests with the need to scrutinize legal doctrine concerning an individuals image rights
(when genuine rather than imaginary figures are incorporated). This is so as to offset potential
royalty fees having to be paid or, in a worst case scenario, defamation suits being filed. In
fairness, within the overly legalistic celebrity obsessed culture of today this is a delicate subject,
but with no clearly communicated codified legal system evident as regards image rightsand
teaching materials per se in many places, the assumption is that the concerns are negligible, and
the material which is geared for local rather than resalable use would likely meet with few if any
issues. As an important aside however, present day company case studies, especially smaller
scale more localised ones, might only be included if permission had first been granted (in
writing). Another significant and salient point that also requires attention centres upon the
inclusion of CALL features, whichhave been incorporated following a suitability gauging mental
checklist (in line with the evaluative criteria of Chapelle (2001) and Jamieson et al. (2005)) being
As such, it is worth stressing that despite being potentially marketable as an all inclusive CALL
package, the ultimate aim of the adapted material would still be bound in print, albeit with
alternative uses such as the PPT application made available by way of an attached CD or online.
In consideration of this, and using Chapelles points as a guide, it is believed that the adoption of
CALL technology has not only enhanced the practicality and language learning potential of the
materials on offer, by allowing students anytime anywhere accessvia the proposed CD and
hyperlinks (although, and for example, U-Tube feeds would require initial appropriateness
checks and quickly date), but that additionally, this could quite conceivably be used as a

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significant marketing feature. In addition, with a greater impact potential afforded by tacitly
addressing technology savvy learner interests, and with authenticity ingrained, the additional
meaning focus that Chapelle highlights could be addressed by way of task necessitated
comprehension (with room for future exercise adaptations to incorporate explicit features).
Finally,with a better all around learner fit hopefully in place, following the inclusion of pre and
post tasks that facilitate greater student-teacher interaction by way of technological
communicative medium (mobile phones, e-mail, blog postings, real time interactive video) it is
just possible that the materials could begin to mirror increasingly common twenty first century
learner realities, expectations and preferences.

In light of this, and having now analysed, evaluated and demonstrated how to adapt a selected
coursebook, perhaps it is fitting that all that remains is to round off the first part of a three stage
cyclical journey, one that lays the foundations for the follow up in and post use evaluative legs to
be set in motion. Before that juncture is reached, and like any good and true herculean epic, one
more aspect remains to be disclosed. In fact, by materials evaluation and designs very nature, the
somewhat obvious inevitable fact that the whole process subsequently restarts as soon as the
initial cycle has completed its initial revolution simply reinforces the fact that this line of work is
by nature repetitive, challenging, creative, but ultimately incredibly rewarding if done well. In
fact, over the course of this paper, not only has my appreciation of this discipline been enhanced,
but so too has my belief that this is an area of expertise that by nature should be implemented to
a much greater extent with explicitly stated L2 theoretical(cognitive, emotive, motivational and
environmental-socio cultural) underpinnings. As such, and with technological advances
revolutionising L2 learning in general, it is probably fair to say that not only will CALL feature
ever more prominently, but in light of this, it is possible that a new wave of paradigms will be
proposed as the underlying beliefs that have for a time underpinned evaluation and design
principles are transformed through evolutionary necessity.

Bell, J. Gower, R. (1998). Writing Course Materials for the World: A Great Compromise. In Tomlinson, B. (Ed.).
Materials Development in Language Teaching (116-129). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


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Breen, M. Candlin, C. (1987). Which Materials? A Consumers and Designers Guide. In Sheldon, L. (Ed.).
Volume 126 of ELT Textbooks and Materials: Problems in Evaluation and Development (13-28).London: Modern
English Publications.
Brown, J. D. (1995). The Elements of Language Curriculum: A Systematic Approach to Program Development.
Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
Chapelle, C. (2001). Computer Applications in Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Cunningsworth, A. (1995). Choosing your Coursebook. Oxford: Heinemann.
Drnyei, Z. Ushioda, E. (2011). Teaching and Researching Motivation. Harlow: Longman.
Flanders, S. Sweeney, S. (1996). Business English Pair Work: Conversation Practice for Business People. London:
Hutchinson, T. Waters, A. (1987). English for Specific Purposes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jamieson, J. Chapelle, C. Preiss, S. (2005). CALL Evaluation by Developers, a Teacher, and Students. CALICO
Journal, 23(1), 93-138.
Krashen, S. (1981). Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning. Oxford: Pergamon.
Littlejohn, A. (1998). The Analysis of Language Teaching Materials: Inside the Trojan Horse. In Tomlinson, B.
(Ed.). Materials Development in Language Teaching (190-216).Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McDonough, J. Shaw, C. (1993). Materials and Methods in ELT. Oxford: Blackwell.
McGrath, I. (2002). Materials Evaluation and Design for Language Teaching. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University
Meng-Ching, H. (1998). Culture Studies and Motivation in Foreign and Second Language Learning in Taiwan.
Language Culture and Curriculum, 11(2), 165-182.
Nunan, D. (1988). The Learner Centred Curriculum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rubdy, R. (2003). Selection of Materials. In Tomlinson, B. (Ed.). Developing Materials for Language Teaching
(37-57).London: Continuum.
Sheldon, L. E. (1988). Evaluating ELT Textbooks and Materials. ELT Journal, 42(4), 237-246.
Tomlinson, B. (1998). Materials Development in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tomlinson, B. (2003). Developing Materials for Language Teaching. London: Continuum.
Tomlinson, B. et al. (2001). EFL Courses for Adults. ELT Journal, 55(1), 80-101.
Ur, P. (1996). A Course in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Vygotsky, L. (1987). The Collected Works of L.S.Vygotsky. London: Plenum.
Williams, D. (1983). Developing Criteria for Textbook Evaluation. ELT Journal, 37(3), 251-255.


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The Quest of Horizon in the Novels on Yemeni People

Dr. Mohammad Ejaz Alam

Head, Department Of English,
Maulana Mazharul Haque Arabic
& Persian University, Patna, Bihar, India
Email :
Cell no. 00 91 9199808404

The rise of novel in Yemen is a snapshot of authoritarianism and tyranny. The protagonists of the
novels suffer from abduction even at an age of nine; it is no less a harrowing experience of
imprisonment. Some of the characters are torn from their family, stripped of their name, made
ignorant of their family's revolutionary struggle and even sexually exploited by the older women
of the continent. These novels portray struggle between the Free Yemeni Movement and the
dictation of the tradition. Thenovels written in 1970s focus on the expatriation of Yemeni men in
search of a better. The novels written by the female novelists deal with the common social
problem of forcing a young girl to marry a rich old man for the sake of money. It is a social
stigma on the tradition of a country where feminine sex is devoid of freedom, equality, justice
and freewill.
Key words : Emigration, Expatriation, and Patriarchal Society.
Full Paper :
The "golden age" of the Yemeni novels begins with the publication of the books written by
Mohammed Abdul Wali's They Die Strangers (1971) and ZMDs The Hostage (1984) etc. Zayd
Mutee' Dammaj (1943-2000) is a Yemeni author and politician. He is best known for his short
novel The Hostage which was selected by the Arab Writers Union as one of the top 100 Arabic
novels of the 20th century. Al-Rahinah (The Hostage) was published in 1984: it went through
multiple printings in Arabic and has since been translated into French, English, German


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and Hindi among others. It is widely regarded as the most famous novel in Yemen and a classic
of modern Arabic literature.
Zaid Mutee Dammaj (ZMD)'s The Hostage (1984) provides a critique of Yemeni society as it
existed before the revolution that ended the Imamate. The novel paints a snapshot of
authoritarianism and tyranny. The young boy is torn from his family, stripped of his name, made
ignorant of his family's revolutionary struggle, put in shackles, and even sexually exploited by
the older women of the palace. In fact, this mirroring is ultimately made explicit when the revolts
outside the governor's walls make it possible for the young prisoner to imagine a different future
while he is still held captive within.
The Hostage written by ZMD deals with the major theme enshrined in its title hostage. The
novel is a tragic narrative of a young boy from the countryside whowas taken hostage by the
ruling Imam soldiers and imprisoned in the fortress of al-Qahira. Later, the boy is sent
forcefully to serve at the governors palace to work as a duwaydar. A duwaydar is a personal
servant who acts the role of eunuchs in old times: to work in the womens areas without any risk
to their chastity. At the palace, the boy experiences a hostile atmosphere of corruption, injustice
and humiliation created andcontrolled by the women of the palace, its soldiers and the governor.
He and the women are trapped inemotional, sexual and power relationships:
It left me floating in a daze, and all I could remember next morning was that
my friend hadnt stayed there with me, because two women, neither of them
Zahra, had taken him and sat on the palace steps, kissing him and squeezing
further pleasures out of him. [The Hostage,p.54].
The narrator in the novel is not the only hostage rather he is a microcosm of Yemeni tradition.
The deep rooted theme of the novel lies in the representation of women characters. Women in
Yemen lead their palpitating life and they are devoid of freedom, independence and their
essential rights. This is very much implicit in the character of Sharifa Hafsa, the Governor s
sister. Sharifa Hafsa is a beautiful and aristocratic lady but that does not help her to be
independent. She is the hostage of tradition and custom and the rules imposed on her
due to gender and social status. She is a hostage of her high social position and weakened by her
gender but she does not realize that. She goes as far as imposing her ownership on the narrator
calling him my handsome hostage [The Hostage, p.106].

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The best of the novels written in 1970s by the Yemini writers focus on the expatriation of
Yemeni men in search of a better life for themselves and their families at home either through
the accumulation of money to be sent back to Yemen or through the overthrow of their people's
rulers. In the early 1980s came The Old Port by Mahmoud Sa'gheeri and The Hostage by Zaid
Mottie Damag, dealing with the imam's policy of ensuring loyalty among powerful Yemenis by
holding their children in prison.
Three women novelists like Ramzziya al Iryani, Aziza Abd Allah and Nabilah al Zubair marked
a strong new era in novel writing. They represented two generations of novelists. Ramzziya and
Aziza represent the first generation using the Yemeni cult as a source of theme and emphasizing
the approach of realism as well as the use of traditional techniques of narration. The second
generation represented by Nabilah refers to the Yemeni environment but with the use of modern
techniques of narration. Aziza published three novels in two years. Her Ahlam Nabilah (Noble
Ahlam) published in 1997 reveals the social and political situations of the country through the
historical life of a female protagonist named Halima.
Ramzziya al Iryani in her novel Dahiyet al-Jashe { The Victim of Greed } deals with the common
social problem of forcing a young girl to marry a rich old man for the sake of money. The title
itself justifies the social realistic issue: it is taken from a common saying. It is used for a person
who seeks money as the primary objective for everything. The protagonist is forced to marry a
rich old man that led her to commit suicide. Both the novels, Ahlam Nabilah and Dahyet alJashe present the positive and negative view points conceptualizing the same message: that a
woman has a right to choose her own husband.
In 2000, Nabilah al Zubair published her first novel Enaho Jassdi (It is My Body).This work
presents new progress in the development of the novel. This novel anticipates the change in the
way of thinking and quality of life of two generations. The first generation is concerned about
womens collective rights as well as womens individual life. The second generation is
influenced by modern trends in writing and feminist attitude. In this novel the novelist has used a
variety of literary techniques: the first person narrator, stream of consciousness and symbols etc.
In addition, the language of the novel is not a simple narrative language but is more tense,
decorative and figurative.


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Nabilah Al-Zubair is one of the most honest voices in Change Square. Many describe her as a
revolutionary before the revolution. Nabilah is a distinguished poet, novelist, and writer. She
was born in a village in the Manakha district of Sanaa Governorate in 1964 and she spent most
of her life in the capital Sanaa where she finished her education in 1995 earning a degree in
sociology from Sanaa University.Nabilah won first prize in the Naguid Mahfooz writing
competition in 2000 for her novel It is My Body. The novel was translated into many languages
including English, German, French, and Spanish. Because of her brave prose, she was never far
from the people in power and fought against them before the revolution when they stood in
opposition to her writing.
The first published Yemeni novel appeared in 1959. Ali Mohammed Abdo wrote an important
work like The Cart-Horse. Wag Al-WagTragedy was published the following year by
Mohammed Mahmoud Al-Zubari. In 1966 came Ali Mohammed Abdo's Labor Memoirs. Then
began what Yemeni scholars sometimes refer to as "the golden age of the Yemeni novel" with
the rise of "the Seventies Generation." 1971 brought Mohammed Abdul-Wali's They Die
Strangers, 1976 Ahmad Mohammed Al-Mu'alime's Strangers in Their Homelands, 1977 Hussein
Salim Basideeg's The Fogway, and 1979 Mohammed Honaybir's Al-Batool Village. Despite such
reservations, the Yemeni novel deserves attention for its unflinching focus on the displacement
and dispossession of a people so tyrannized that emigration becomes their only avenue of hope.
The Fogway and Al-Batool Village, despite their more intrusive political/social commentary,
should also be taken seriously as fictional records of a people's struggles against unjust
government. Most important, Abdul-Wali, Basideeg, and Honaybir have laid a foundation upon
which present and future Yemeni novelists can build more solid literary treasures for their
homeland as Yemen, now fully unified between north and south, continues its journey back
toward a central place in the world like that it knew in ancient times.The best example of a
Yemeni fictionist who devoted himself to the emigration theme is the late Mohammed AbdulWali. Among the writers of the "seventies generation," Abdul-Wali is generally accepted by the
Yemeni literary establishment as the most accomplished. It is often said in Yemen that AbdulWali is one of the most masterful fiction writers not only of Yemen but of the Arab world,
particularly among those whose works focus on the flight from their motherland of the
persecuted and economically disadvantaged.

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Critiquing patriarchal society and gender roles in Yemen, Wajdi Al-Ahdal's A Land Without
Jasmine (2008) is a polyphonic detective novel, told from the perspective of various narrators
tracing the disappearance of a university student, Jasmine. Her disappearance is linked to the
public realm's predatory patriarchal system, involving the sexual harassment and repression of
women. Jasmine herself sardonically comments on the all-encompassing male gaze prior to her
disappearance: "In Yemen, all young women are considered celebrities...When a girl leaves her
home and ventures onto the street she'll notice that everyone is staring at her." Depicting Yemeni
society as dominated by masculine surveillance, which Jasmine astutely describes as "a noxious
type of male violence", Al-Adhal suggests that escape, rather than abduction, is at the root of her
Similarly critical of gender norms is a forthcoming novel, already published in Arabic but
released this year in English. Hurma by Ali Al-Muqri (2008) sends the unnamed protagonist on a
military adventure across the Middle East while also placing her at the crossroads of religious
fanaticism and patriarchal conventions.
In Yemen, the novel comes after poetry and short story in production and publishing. About
forty novels have been published so far and womens contribution is integral in the development
of the novel. Some innovative experiences have been made and the writers have participated
actively in the writing and publishing of different forms of literature. However, there are still
social and gender obstacles that stop or delay their work. Recent development in the political and
geographical demography have camouflaged the growth and progress in the field of literature.
Lifes catastrophe is depicted in literature especially in the novel genre.
Novels transcend human values and ethics and mould the destiny of the human race as Ian Watt
states about the novel: truth to individual experience and its function is to convey the
impression of fidelity to human experience[The Rise of the Novel]. E.M.Forster in his book,
Aspects of the Novel discusses the element of prophecy in a work of novel : .........the prophetic
aspects demands two qualities : humility and the suspension of the sense of humour. Thus, great
literature is a reflection of life in all its forms. Its themes are from life and address life too. Such
literature contains eternal truth; it is not limited to one country, nation, or era. The reader at any
age or in any part of the world would perceive the humans dilemma, pain, struggle, or thought


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expressed through it. In the twenty first century, we still read novels from the eighteenth and
nineteenth century. Such novels that carry a unique human experience encompass a wide range
of historic truth which influences the present and the future as Prasad mentions: more than any
other genre, the novel has held a privileged position in debates about the relationship between
reality (or history) and its representation in literature. Early theorists of the modern European
novel, like Erich Auerbach and Watt, approached the genre primarily in terms of preferentiality,
that is, in terms of its unique ability to reflect the empirical world or bear witness to history
[Colonialism, Race, and the French Romantic Imagination].The works of the Yemeni novelists
are a great testimony of it and they reveal the social realism anticipating a Godot to come. Time
is an implicit force that will indeed transcend the plight of misery in the country to which they
belong to.
References :

Abdul-Wali, Mohammed. Yamutoon Ghuraba [They Die Strangers]. Beirut. Dar Al-Awadah. 1971.

Al-Baradoni, Abdulla. "Aghani Al-Ghurbah" [Migration Songs]. In Fonoon Al-Adab Al-Sha'bi Fi Al-Yaman
[The Art of Folk Literature in Yemen]. 1981.

Al-Magaleh, Abdul-Aziz. "Fi Tareeg Al-Ghiyoom Wa Al-Bahth Ain Tareeg Lil-Riwaya fi Al-Yaman" [The
Fogway and the Search for the Novel Route in Yemen]. Al-Yaman Al-Gadeed. 1987.

Al-Sabah, Aml Yousif. "Al-Heigra Wal-Heigrah Al-Mu'akisah" [Emigration and Counter-Emigration]. Alam
Al-Fikr. 1986.

Ashworth, G. Brian Graham & J. Tunbridge. Pluralising Pasts. London: Pluto P. 2007.

Basideeg, Hussein Salim. Tareeg Al-Ghiyoom [The Fogway]. Beirut. Dar Al-Farabi. 1977.

Dammaj, Z. The Hostage. M. Jayyusi and C. Tingley (trans). New York: Interlink Books. 1994.

Encyclopedia of Yemen. Sanaa: Alafif Cultural Foundation. 2003.

E.M.Forster : Aspects of the Novel. London, Edward & Arnold Publishers Ltd.1958.

Honaybir, Mohammed. Garyat Al-Batool [Al-Batool Village]. Cairo. Aim Al-Kutob. 1979.

Messick, Brinkley. Written Identities: Legal Subjects in an Islamic State. Chicago Journal. Vol. 38, No

Romeyah, Wahb. "Mushkilat Al-Heigrah fi A'mal Mohammed Abdul-Wali" [Emigration Problems in

Mohammed Abdul-Wali's Works]. Al-Yaman Al-Gadeed, 6. 1987.

Prasad, Pratima. Colonialism, Race, and the French Romantic Imagination.New York: Routledge. 2009.

Watt, Ian. The Rise of the Novel: Studies in Defoe, Richardson and Fielding. Berkeley: university of
CaliforniaPress. 2001.

Wenner, Manfred W. Modern Yemen, 1918-1966. Baltimore. Johns Hopkins University Press. 1967.


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Twisted Relationship in Amitav Ghoshs The Hungry Tide

Pranab Kanti Deb
Senior Lecturer,
Department of English,
Sylhet International University.

Amitav Ghoshs The Hungry Tide is one of the popular novels which strongly raises
environmental issues in literature. The novelis a story about the people of the Sunderbans, their
everyday struggle and how they have survived the continual onslaughts of natural disasters. This
paper seeks to co-relate the human stories with the extended story of the ecological and
environmental forces that have acted on the region. The study points out that the novel
penetrates a picture of mans complex interaction with nature. In The Hungry Tide, Ghosh
highlights the tensions and conflicts between and within human communities, their respective
relations with the natural world, and the extra discursive reality of nature that changes and is
simultaneously changed by humanity. The abrasion between land and the sea in the Sundarbans
creates a constant friction between the plant and animal life. Mans constant encroachment of
the ecosystems of the Sunderbans only justify the anxiety between the various elements of nature.
For settlers, the Sunderbans offer an extremely unpredictable and insecure life. Unrest and
ejection are constant threats and aggression of tigers are most common. Tidal floods abolish the
stability of life on the island without any warning. The novel reflects the conflicts between the
residents and the aquatic and wild life of the Sunderbans. Amitav Ghosh has warned mankind
against the overt exploitation of nature. This paper is an attempt to explore man-nature tortuous
relationship through the depiction of wrath of nature and fragility of humans.
Key Words: nature, literature, relationship, exploitation, conflict
Introduction :
From the time immemorial, co-existence of man and nature is interdependent. On the one hand,
nature provides the necessary support to man and other living beings, on the other hand living

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beings help nature to grow and develop. In any natural system the well being of a species is
dependent on the growth and harmony of the whole eco-system. Species other than man has poor
understanding of personal and natural growth and development, so it is fundamental ethical
responsibility of man to respect and protect nature, its resources and life supporting systems.
Nature should not be taken for granted. Whenever man has exploited the natural resources
unethically, it has responded furiously in the form of ferocious floods, earthquakes, landslide,
tsunami and other natural calamities etc. Man might have reached to any level of growth and
advancement but the importance of ecological balance for the survival of living beings is same as
it was in primitive times. Besides scientists, environmentalists, ecologists and nature lovers, the
artists, poets, philosophers, thinkers and writers also have great concern and deep rooted interest
for maintenance of the ecological balance and nurturing care for environment. Concern of
literary community may be well felt in the literature. When we undertake a literary journey
through the literature of any community or language, we see, poets and writers have tried their
best to care, protect and preserve the environment.
To express the concern for environment a new term Eco-criticism was coined by William
Rueckert in 1978 in his essay Literature and Ecology: An Experiment in Eco-criticism. Ecocriticism as an academic discipline began in earnest in the 1990s, although its roots go back to
the late 1970s.
Cheryll Glotfelty, one of the pioneers in the field, has defined eco-criticism as the study of the
relationship between literature and the physical environment, and Lawrence Buell says that this
study must be conducted in a spirit of commitment to environmentalist praxis.
Nature and literature have always maintained a close relationship. The literary critic tries to
study how this close relationship between nature and society has been textualized by the writers
in their works. In this context two terms have become very important today ecology and
ecocriticism. India is a country with variety of ecosystems which ranges from Himalayas in the
north to plateaus of south and from the dynamic Sunderbans in the east to dry that of the West.
With time, however, these ecosystems have been adversely affected due to increasing population
and avarice of mankind. Literature could not remain untouched from this depletion.


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The two components of nature, organisms and their environment are not only much complex and
dynamic but also interdependent, mutually reactive and interrelated. In this relationship they are
so much interdependent on each other that any disturbance in one disturbs the other. History has
proved this every now and then that with every change in the civilisation the relationship of
animals and human beings have also changed and the effect on civilisation of the changes in
environment has been so acute that sometimes it has wiped the whole civilisation from the face
of the earth. Therefore, concern for ecology is one of the most talkede issues today.
The Hungry Tide is purely of both natural and human environment. The Tide country i.e
Sunderbans to which the whole of the story is devoted is not only a far-flung land of intimidating
physical environment but also a place of dealings among an assortment of communitiesethnic,
religious, linguistic, cultural etc. These are islands where inhabitants live in fear of drowning
tides and man-eating animals. Kanais words to Piya go in this way:
This is, after all no remote and lonely frontierthis is Indias doormat, the threshold of a
teeming subcontinent. Everyone who has ever taken the eastern route into the Gangetic
heartland has had to pass through itthe Arakanese, the Khmer, the Japanese, the Dutch, the
Malays, the Chinese, the Portuguese, the English.(Ghosh. p. 50)
Ghosh thoroughly offers the stricture: the man-nature complex interactions. Like manifest threats
posed by human settlement to the unique diversity of aquatic and terrestrial life in the mangrove
swamps and the constant depletion of aquatic species by fishing and trawling, the human settlers
too fall victim to constant erosion of dykes and embankments, the silting up of channels, the
flooding by storm waters.
The authors nuanced descriptions of the moods and microenvironments of the island serve a
lush backdrop for an intricate narrative that moves fluidly between past and present. The climatic
ending, in which a cyclone threatens the inhabitants of the Sunderbans, underscores Nirmals
observation that nothing escapes the maw of the tides. (Ghosh, p. 225)
In the novel, Ghosh minutely orchestrates the marvelstigers, river dolphins, crocodiles, lunar
rainbows and the tideswhich go against the settlers. It is an ineradicable mark bearing a
conflict between wilderness and human civilization. It may also be considered, for all time to

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come for its artistic accuracy, as a drama of love and endurance and a wonder about mans place
in physical environmentthe environment or the landscape which appears itself as a dynamic
character in the novel.
Ghoshs text meticulously demonstrates, without releasing his conclusion, injury of the western
philosophy of environmentalism on local ethical understanding. Introducing a rediscovered diary
as primary source, the novelist refers to the historic tragedy in 1970 of refugee settlers on the
island of Morichjhapi in the Sunderbans and skillfully brings in a post-colonial political conflict
between demands of wildlife conservation and needs of the Sunderban inhabitants. The author
clearly shows that the inhabitants of the tide country are part of the local ecology having instilled
with its malevolent and benevolent calls every day. They are well-acquainted with smell and
pulse of its soil since long back. But the model the westerners pursue to conserve wildlife i.e
tiger in the land in accordance with their political activism brings dissatisfaction and untold
miseries to the settlers. They wonder if it is a protection for wildlife conservation and
beautification or ironically a systemization to put the local people daily into the mouth of death.
The tear-jerking words despondently coming out through Kusums lips record the undying cry in
.the worst part was not the hunger or the thirst. It was to sit here, helpless, and listen to the
policemen making their announcements, hearing them say that our lives, our existence, was
worth less than dirt or dust. This island has to be saved for its trees, it has to be saved for its
animals, it is a part of a reserve forest, it belongs to a project to save tigers, which is paid for by
people from all around the world. Every day, sitting here, with hunger gnawing at our bellies,
we would listen to these words, over and over again. Who are these people, I wondered, who
love animals so much that they are willing to kill us for them? Do they know what is being done
in their names? Where do they live, these people, do they have children, do they have mothers,
fathers?....our fault, our crime was that we were just human beings, trying to live as human
beings always have, from the water and the soil.( Ghosh p. 262263)
Anshuman A. Mondal has rightly observed that The Hungry Tide outlines western
environmentalists motif to separate humanity from nature perhaps as a result of binary western
thinking that posits an opposition between culture and nature.(A Mondal:17677)


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The inter communications between the country, the poor, the physical environment and the flora
and fauna of the area are very well presented in the novel. It also highlights the clashes between
the humans for conservation. The most important concern towards nature as well as human
beings in this world has been ignored by the politicians or the government. John C. Hawley
rightly says about the novel, The Hungry Tide it shares Ghoshs concern for the individual
against a broader historical or even, in this case, geographical backdrop (Ghosh p.132).
Change in the climatic conditions of any country or any part of a country is affected due to
human interference. The effects like that of ozone depletion, global warming, are some of the
major reasons which affect the whole nature comprising animals, plants as well as human beings.
In the novel, when Kanai comes to Lusibari after several years, on the invitation of Nilima, his
aunt, he sees that the river has totally changed its course. The water level goes down and the
people have to face a lot of difficulty to go from one place to another. Now, the things have
changed, the situation of today is completely different from 1970s. It is all due to the
establishment of Port Canning on the Matla River. So, because of human interference, the nature
gets affected as in Sunderbans it is going worse day by day.Ecological damage is very well
visible and this dwindling of fishes and other species is going to be disastrous. Moyna tells
Kanai, Mashima says that in fifteen years the fish will all be gone (Ghosh p.134).
The inter-connectedness between nature and man can be seen in the entire novel as Ghosh
depicts a dual face of nature in his novel. First as a kind and benevolent nature and the other as a
disastrous one. At the end of the novel, there are instances that man sometimes is shown to be at
the mercy of nature. There is no hard and fast rule that human being or nature only one will win
out of the two, but sometimes nature dominates human beings and vice versa. But the storms in
the tide country are the proof that man cannot always impose his domination over nature. At last,
we see Piya, sitting alone and helpless on a branch of a tree. She has lost all her equipments as
well as the data which she has collected in her ongoing research about the dolphins in the tide
country because of the disastrous storm. The scene of storm is depicted in the novel;
Powerful as it already was, the gale had been picking up strength all along ... It sounded no
longer like the wind but some other element ...The air was now filled with leaves, twigs,
branches, dust and water. This dense concentration of flying objects further reduced the


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visibility...It was difficult to imagine that the wind could grow any stronger or more violent.
(Ghosh p. 379)
So, here it seems that nature refuses to accept the dominion of the human beings. Moreover, it
looks like nature has been portrayed as a character in the novel rather than being a non- living
object only. It seems that Ghosh depicts nature both as a preserver as well as destroyer. The
novel very aptly describes humans responsibility towards nature and a balanced relationship
between man and nature. Hawley comments about the ending of the novel, The last point is
certainly true: the cyclone is powerfully described and reminds readers very forcefully of the
humility that is demanded in the face of nature, and our place in it (Hawley, p.134).
The problem arises when mans relation with nature gets imbalanced because man does not
consider himself as a part of nature. Getting out of the domain of nature, he begins to control it,
which becomes a problem for man himself and consequently, the ecological balance gets
Fokir, son of Kusum, is one of the most important characters of the novel. He is the hero of the
novel, depicted as a marginalised man who faces the harsh realities of life. He is an illiterate
man, who is unaware about studies as against his wife, Moyna. He is a native fisherman who
knows each and every corner of the Sunderbans. His ignorance as well as illiteracy turns to
knowledge when he helps Piya in her research without displaying his knowledge. It is he who
goes with her at the place where the dolphins were present. Through the character of Fokir,
Ghosh tries to voice the unheard plea of the subaltern and the marginalised. Fokir is a powerless
creature who becomes a puppet in the hands of powerful ones that is, Nature as well as the
government. Nature plays a very dominant role in the lives of people and the islanders as well
as refugees were dependent on the environment for their essentials. Fokir always goes for
fishing crabs in order to get food from the river. He takes his son named Tutul with him. Tutul
is also interested in going to expedition with his father. But his mother, Moyna did not like this
at all. She wanted him to study and go to school but he is happy in enjoying nature.
Ghosh, in the novel presents nature not as a setting of picturesque beauty alone it also appears as
hungry of human blood. The tide and its surges stand for all the devastating aspects of nature.


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We may spot the following expression about mangrove forest from the Bengali script that Kanai
reads in the novel:
A mangrove forest is a universe into itselfMangrove leaves are tough and leathery, the
branches gnarled and the foliage often impassable dense. Visibility is short and the air still and
fetid. At no moments can human beings have any doubt of the terrains utter hostility to their
presence, of its cunning and resourcefulness, of its determination to destroy and expel them.
Every year dozens of people perish in the embrace of that dense foliage, killed by tigers, snakes
and crocodiles. (Ghosh, p. 78)
The above quoted passage unfolds the tremendously unreceptive approach of nature towards
man. In the section Canning, Kanai remains dumb-struck on seeing the plight of the passengers
in the boat due to the vast expanse of the bellowing mud:
On stepping off the plank, there was a long drawn out moment when its passanger sank slowly
into the mud, like a spoon disappearing into a very thick daal; only when they were in up to their
hips did their descend end and their forward movement begins. With their legs hidden from sight,
all that was visible of their struggles was the twisting of their upper bodies. (Ghosh. p. 2425)
Morichjhapi massacre is the background of the novel which takes place because the government
has evicted out the refugees. Even government killed tribal people when they resisted against
them. The government wants to save the tigers and for this the human lives are put on stake.
Nilima is a social activist, who has established the Badabon trust to help the needy and helpless
refugees. It depicts the plight of powerless refugees against the powerful class of society. Ghosh
portrays the struggles and sufferings of tribal people through the character of Kusum. She is a
poor marginalised woman but also a very bold one. She raises her voice against the
governmental authorities. Fokir is the son of Kusum. He is an illiterate man who usually goes for
fishing. It is his hobby and he possesses abundant knowledge about the whereabouts of the
dolphins. He is familiar with every corner of Lusibari as well as neighbouring Islands. His wife
Moyna is well educated nurse who aims to be a doctor. At the end of the novel, when Kanai,
Horen, Piya and Fokir are out on expedition, a disastrous storm is about to come. As a
consequence, Kanai and Horen save their lives but Piya and Fokir are caught in the storm. Fokir
saves Piyas life by putting his own life in danger. At the end Fokir dies but he saves Piyalis

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life. Piya decides not to go back but to pursue her research in Sunderbans. She wants to pay
homage to Fokir. She names the project after Fokir. She has changed herself, she begins to wear
plain sari and she is full of guilt. She takes Tutul and Moyna as her own responsibility. Nilima is
a practical woman, she agrees to Piyas decision of pursuing her research in Sunderbans.
Ecocriticism is now a topic of study in different parts if India. In West Bengal Pannalal
Dasgupta, a socialist thinker and the founder of Tagore Society attempted to make
environmentalism a social movement. His meen-mangal festival and the concept of dharmogola
demand collaborative efforts for conservation of Nature and elimination of economic
exploitation from the society. The meen-mangal festival makes us aware that we must care the
rivers and give something to the rivers in return for what they give us.
We can read the seminal books of Vandana Shiva (1952) in relation to ecocriticism. Her books
such as Biopiracy: The Plunder of Nature and Knowledge (1997) and Stolen Harvest: The
Hijacking of the Global Food Supply (1999) exposes the ulterior motive of the American Patent
laws and the rhizomatic ways of functioning of new capitalism to ensure the plunder of natural
resources, the Pancha bhuta as described in the Indian scriptures. Vandana Shivas writings add
a postcolonial perspective to the theory of ecocriticism. In this regard we can remember activists
like Medha Patekar and Arundhati Roy.
A study of Rabindranath from this new perspective is rewarding. To Rabindranath Nature is a
living soul. His literature advocates a close relationship between Nature and human beings. The
play Muktodhara foresees the environmental activism.
Postcolonial theory pioneers the causes of the marginalised. It demands adequate importance to
be given to the `other`, the margin. Ecocriticism too upholds the causes of `Nature-other`.
Humanism speaks of homocentric values. It thinks that man is last word of this universe; all
natural resources as water, food grain, soil, air and other creatures are meant for his consumption
and gratification. And thats why human civilisation is now at stake. Ecocriticism looks for way
out of this crisis. And hence ecocriticism is not a mere literary theory but a comprehensive
philosophy of an alternative life.


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In fact, the novel deals with the environment and its relation to human beings. It is a novel in
which Ghosh portrays various issues related to conservation and ecology. Human beings are
dependent upon nature as nature provides abundant useful resources to them. These resources are
helpful to every creature on the planet whether they are humans or animals. But human beings
have always tried to exploit the resources for their own benefit without caring for other living
beings. Man exploits nature and he considers himself the sole heir of the universe and this
attitude depicts his anthropocentric attitude. This particular idea has been dwelt upon by Ghosh
in this novel. He tries to revisit history which has been forgotten by the present post colonial


Ghosh Amitav, The Hungry Tide; 2005, Harper Collins (2011).

Glotfelty, C.B and H. Fromm: The Ecocriticism Reader: Landmarks in Literary Ecology, Athens, GA:
University of Georgia Press, 1996.

Hawley, J.C: Amitav Ghosh, India: Cambridge UP, 2008.

Mondal, A.A. Amitav Ghosh. UK: Manchester UP, 2010. Print

Sahu, Geeta: Ecocriticsm- Understanding the Relationship and Environment in Indian English Novels, Sai
Om Journal of Arts and Education, Vol. 1, Issue 1, February 2014, On line ISSN 2348-3520 retrieved on July 21, 2015 retrieved on August 10,2015 onAugust 10,2015


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ICT A Tool to Empower Teaching and Learning

Dr Sanjay Kumar Singh

Associate Professor (Sr. Grade) &
Head, Department of Humanities
OP Jindal Institute of Technology,
Raigarh (Chhattisgarh)-496001

Due to the influence of information technology on society and education, Computer-Assisted

Language Learning (CALL) is becoming the trend in foreign language teaching. Interactive
computer network allows students to test the result of learning without the risk of being
punished for any mistake. Learning does not have to be a pressure. Computer-Assisted
Language learning can reduce the anxiety of students and turns out to be a positive side of
learning. (Gates, 1997)
The 21 st century has witnessed emergence of new technologies in various forms. The new
technologies have helped us in all walks of life and made our life easier and better.The field of
education is also witnessing the pedagogical change in teaching-learning.It is making the
teaching-learning process better and effective. Better teaching-learning process is leading to a
better and smart products in the form of a workforce. Language teaching is also benefitted with
this change and language teaching-learning is now equipped with many computer assisted tools
and language learning softwares etc. As a global language and lingua franca, the demand of
English language learning is growing day by day and new technologies are offering new
opportunitiesfor enhancing the quality and effectiveness of language teaching.
In the present borderless world, English is the only language for easy and effective
communication between people of different countries and cultures. Although Teaching English is
one of the educational paradoxes in India, yet to create global workforce India is striving hard.
English has become a tool to navigate the vast frontiers of all sections of life. In all walks of life
such as-success in studies, efficiency in job, personality development and enjoyment in personal
relationship- English is the only efficient escalator and all depend greatly on ones ability to

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communicate with others in English. The quality of any educational institution stands elite only
when their students and employers communicate freely and effectively in English. In this
contemporary scenario, the role of English language Teachers has gained much importance.
ICT (Information and Communication Technology):
According to Van Brakel- Information technology is the gathering , organizing, storage and
distribution of information in various formats by means of computer and telecommunication
techniques based on microelectronics.
The growing use of ICT in blended language learning environments has changed the face of
language teaching in a beneficial way and will continue to do so along with future technological
innovations. They are offering new opportunities for enhancing the quality and effectiveness of
teaching. ICT based language learning uses multiple teaching and guiding methods with online
activities and utilizing a mix of technology-based materials. The use of several media-audio,
video, authentic contexts and real world experiences help language teachers and learners with
different teaching-learning styles to assimilate the content according to their needs.
The Objectives of technology based teaching:
Language teaching is not only influenced by technology but also by concepts and practices
from the corporate world today effective teaching is seen as both pedagogical problem and
an organizational one. On pedagogical side teachers are no longer viewed merely as skilled
implementers of teaching method but as creators of their own individual teaching methods, as
classroom researchers, and as curriculum and materials developers. (Richards, pg.7) As
teacher is to be considered and called as knowledge facilitator, the prime duty of a teacher should
be to facilitate learners with knowledge and in this work; technology can help a lot.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has significant potential for improving
students learning. As language teachers know that language teaching is an act of creativity,
imagination, exploration, expression, construction, and profound social and cultural
collaboration, they can use ICT tools to fully humanize and enhance this act, rather than to try to
automate it. The teachers can help bring out the best from the students that human and machine
has to offer. The key to successful use of technology in language teaching lies not in hardware or

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software but in teachers capacity as teachers have to plan, design, and implement effective
educational activity.
Information and communication technology refers to all technology, in particulars computers,
used in the field of education. Contemporary teaching trends call language teachers to be
competent enough in ICT use. Introduction of ICT- based tools and constantly growing number
of available educational resources are empowering language teachers to teach with modern
facilities in effective manner. Paradigm shift is evident and is focused on learners need. The use
of several medias- internet, audio- video resources, authentic contexts, advanced electronic
gadgets, new language learning softwares and real world experiences helping language teachers
to teach in different styles and to assimilate the content according to learners needs. Many
facilities like blogs on internet, Whatsup on mobile and online discussion forums etc. are easy to
use and connect with learners. The teacher can create a web page where students can post their
queries and can get the solutions online. Attending a class and posting an online query both do
have different feel. But the second one does have a techno-feel which makes work easier and
more interesting. This factor of interest is a motivating factor for the learners and is the base of
any kind of learning. The ICT based learning not only motivates learners but also make them
feel better in learning.
The potentiality of Information and Communication Technology in teaching is enormous and its
use facilitate to present teaching materials more colourful and attractive way, to preserve the
materials for future uses, to update them with little effort, to exchange the materials with many
users, and there by improve the learning efficiency. The ICT teaching empowers the teachers to
make the learning enjoyable; it motivates the learners in learning; demands active participation;
keeps the learners vigilant; saves the learners time; and provides humiliation free and a better
teaching- learning environment.
The main objectives for introducing technology-assisted language teaching system are the

To enhance quality of teaching and learning by using computer as a tool.


To promote self-determined learning equipment that can be used collectively for many


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To motivate and create interest among the learners.


To make the teachers and learners more curious and comfortable while sending and
receiving the information or knowledge.


To provide unique resources to make learners on a parwith native speakers.

Main Features of ICT Based Teaching:

The main features of ICT based teaching are described as follows by the researchers:

Promotes teaching with purpose :

The appropriate use of ICTs can catalyze the paradigmatic shift in both content and pedagogy in
teaching-learning. As far as English Language Teaching is concerned, ICT can be used for two
main purposes: to search for information or to get produced a piece of writing. Students and
teachers have access to vast amount of data and texts either through softwares, CD-ROMs or on
the Internet. Where softwares and CD-ROMs give access to information under a specific head,
the Internet allows one to access a huge body of information, texts and ideas about teaching with
The second use of ICT in English teaching is to get produced a piece of writing. As students are
found quite reluctant in editing their writings, a computer is of great help here, because the draft
can be revised with regard to organization of complete piece of writing.

z4 X 7 Availability :

One defining feature of ICT is its ability to transcend time and space. ICT tools make possible a
synchronous learning, or learning characterized by a time lag between the delivery of instruction
and its reception by learners. Online course materials, for example, may be accessed 24 hours a
day, 7 days a week.

Easy access to remote learning resources :

Teachers and Learners no longer have to rely solely on printed books and other materials in
physical media kept in libraries for their educational needs. With the Internet and the World
Wide Web, a wealth of teaching materials and in a variety of media can now be accessed from

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anywhere at anytime of the day and by an unlimited number of people. ICTs also facilitate
access to resource persons mentors, experts, researchers, professionals, business leaders, and
peersall over the world for advance queries.

ICTs help transform the teaching environment into learner-centered:

ICT-supported education can promote the acquisition of the knowledge and skills that will
empower for lifelong learning. These new ways of teaching shift from a teacher-centered
pedagogymemorization and rote learningto one that is learner-centered.

Promotes active learning :

In ICT- enhanced teaching, Learners can learn as they want and making learning less abstract
and more relevant to the learners life situation. In this way, and in contrast to memorizationbased or rote learning, ICT based teaching promotes increased learner engagement.

Promotes collaborative learning:

ICT-supported teaching encourages cooperation among learners and experts regardless of where
they are. It provides learners the opportunities to work with people from different cultures,
thereby helping to enhance learners teaming and communicative skills as well as their global

Promotes self- access Learning

Language teaching-learning can never be confined to a classroom. The process takes place
outside the classroom also. ICT based teaching has self access facility which allows learners to
go ahead according to their own interest and pace. Learners get motivated to study on a regular
Major ICT Based Tools for English Language Teaching- learning :
As the world is changing rapidly, life in general and education in particular has become more
and more complex. Educators have prepared a technology-rich future to keep-up the change by
adapting effective strategies and appropriate technologies. Major ICT based tools for English

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Language teaching-learning are : Television, Video Conferencing, CD-ROMs, Computer games,

Internet & Social Networking Sites, Webinars, Language Learning Softwares (language lab),
Mobiles, pod-cast and On-line courses or e-materials etc.Mute experiment, Realia, Game
software, Video analysis, Shoot a scene, PPTs and Online Tasks methods can be used to teach
language effectively.
Television :
A very powerful medium today is the television and it supports the concept of SMART classes.
It can put across ideas and concepts clearly, attractively and effectively. News sections, Debates,
Discussions, live commentary and Active English courses can help better in enhancing language
teaching process- especially effective speaking. DDs Gyandarshan Channel and IGNOUs study
programmes are the best examples.
In this mode, the courses are available on CDs.

Teachers can access the CD-ROMs on

individual computers or on the Local Area Network. They can upload the material on Intranet to
provide better facility to the students.
Language Softwares (language lab)
A language laboratory is a classroom or other area containing electronic and mechanical
equipments designed and arranged to make English language learning easier.ENGLISHLAB is a
multimedia package which aims at to develop four English language skills-LSRW (Listening,
Speaking, Reading and Writing). Major components are :

elementary Phonetics and Paralinguistic features;


a story and exercises for listening comprehension;


exercises for reading comprehension, model reading, fast reading and punctuation;


grammar with tutorials and exercises;


vocabulary development through games;


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Online / offline Dictionaries;


audios / videos and video-based courses;


Career Development materials etc.

In multimedia packages various features like user friendly navigation, instructions for operation,
interfaces, use of buttons timely cues for answering a question, special sounds for appreciation /
mistake, etc. are valuable interaction. Different company softwares provide different modules.
Some famous s/ws are CLARITY, ORELL and GLOBARENA etc.
Mobile Teaching
Recent developments in the field of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in
general and global wireless technologies in particular that includes 3G networks, GPS, GSM,
GPRS and satellite Systems And other communication technologies including Wi-Fi, WiMax
and Bluetooth have created a wide array of new possibilities for the teachers. When these
technologies are used in the teaching paradigm, mobile learning emerges. Mobile learning, or
mLearning, has been defined as learning that takes place via such wireless devices as mobile
phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), or laptop computers.
Mobile-Assisted Language Teaching
The second dimension in CALL is mobile assisted language teaching and learning, which offers
the opportunity for ubiquitous connection with language teaching & learning materials and
applications. Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL) can be termed as a subset of both
Mobile Learning and Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL). With MALL, learners are
able to access language learning materials in their handheld mobile devices. It also improves
connectivity of the learners who can now communicate with their teachers and peers anywhere
anytime using sms and whatsup etc..


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Internet can be used for English language learning in many ways. Using On-line courses, online
available learning materials, Virtual reality Learning, Blogs, Podcast, video sharing, social
networking sites etc are prominent ways to promote and enhance English Language Teachinglearning.
Virtual Reality :
Virtual Reality is another dimension in CALL, where teachers can take different avatars to
explore, create, and interact through chat and increasingly voice with one another. Second Life is
one such virtual world, which is accessible via the Internet. As 3D virtual worlds become more
complex in the future, they offer different opportunities for language education. Some
communities for language educators in Second Life include the following:
English Village is a community of language teachers in Asia.
Second Life English Community is an open community for language learners and teachers.
SL Experiments is a community of language teachers using Second Life.
Blog :
A blog is a kind of a website maintained by an individual with commentary on the topic of one's
choice (social, political, personal, etc.) Blogs are primarily textual. Audio/Voice blogging and
Video blogging are also available. Voice blogging is posting recorded audio files in the blog site.
Teachers may have a blog with updated entries about different topics related to language
Pod cast :
Pod casting is another tool that can be used for language teaching. Broadcasting of audio or
video content in the Internet is termed as pod casting. Pod casts can be either live or recorded
and can be used by teachers during classroom teaching.
Video Sharing:
Video publication through sites like You Tube, Daily motion, Flickr, Google Video, Metacafe,
etc. has created a revolutionary change in the way Internet is perceived. Using videos for


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language teaching has been one of the most effective ways to achieve success. Social
Networking Sites:
According to a British Council research, 69% of learners around the world learnt most
effectively when socializing informally. Facebook, a popular social networking site has more
than 60 million active users. This site had an average of 250,000 new registrations per day since
January 2007. Another social networking site MySpace has 85% of its users below 18 years of
age. In addition to Facebook and MySpace, sites like Reunion, Bebo and Twitter have attracted
millions of Internet users worldwide.With the help of social networking sites Language teaching
can be promoted.
Advantages of ICT Based Language Teaching Tools:
For the English language teaching, teachers should look beyond traditional forms in order to
prepare learners for careers that require active participation in the digital age. A modern
classroom is a Smart Classroom, which would have video and data projectors, sound systems,
video conferencing facilities, Wi-Fi connectivity, television, DVD players, video document
cameras, etc. Teaching through ICT will be more attractive to the learner and effective in
learning. The cost of production of a ICT Based tool is, no doubt, much higher than that of the
materials on other media. But the advantage of this media is that the whole material is in
electronic medium. It gives way to revise or reproduce the material with no or less cost and
which is not, always the case in other media. Through ICT based teaching, learners can focus on
the area they are interested or weak and can learn at their own pace. They can take as much time
as they like, they can repeat the same module number of times they prefer. Advantages of ICT
tools in teaching are as follows:

Technology can enable the teachersto plan and redesign the style of teaching by a
collection of resources which the learner can be guided through.

Network-based instruction can help students strengthen their communication skills by

affecting their learning attitude.

Mixed ability classes can be handled effectively as shy or inhibited learners can be
greatly benefited by individualized, learner-centered collaborative learning and High


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fliers can also realize their full potential without preventing their peers from working at
their own pace.

Online dictionary can help students fast reading and enriching the vocabulary.

Provides interactive and communicative activities.

Appropriate input can be provided easily.

Enable teachers in developing cognitive abilities of students.

Provides task-based and problem-solving activities

Promoting Learner-centered teaching methodology.

Enables teachers to facilitate focused development of English language skills

Meets affective needs of learners

Assessing and getting feedback is easy.

Listening activities and games enhance effective learning process.

English language teaching can no longer take place in an effective manner within a traditional
method of teaching. The impact and influence of Information Technology on society and
education have made ICT based language teaching a necessity. With the help of ICT- based tools
and constantly growing number of available educational resources, language teachers can be able
to teach individually and in personalized way also. The use of several medias and real world
experiences can help language teachers with different teaching styles to assimilate the content
according to the need of the students. Teachers must use technology deliberately for the
betterment of learners in their learning process.
Works Cited:

Chapelle, carol A, Computer Applications In Second language Acquisition, Cambridge: CUP, 2001

Damodar, G., Shailaja P & Rajeshwar M, IT Revolution, Globalization and Teaching of English, New Delhi:
Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 2001


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Mishra, Binod & Chauhan Gajendra S., Communication in a Globalized World , Delhi: Authors Press, 2009

Nagaraj, Geetha, English language Teaching, Hyderabad: Orient Longman Pvt. Ltd., 2008

P. Eliah, A Handbook of English for Professionals, Hyderabad: BS Publications, 2009

Raman, Meenakshi, Choudhary, S K, Sharma Sangeeta & Lata, Pushp (Eds.), Soft Skills: Cornerstone of
Professional Success, New Delhi: Jain Brothers, 2009

Raman, Meenakshi, English language Teaching, New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 2004

Ray, K Mohit, Studies in ELT, Linguistics and applied Linguistics, New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers &
Distributors, 2004

Sharma, Sangeeta& Mishra, Binod,Communication Skills for Engineers and Scientists, New Delhi: PHI
Learning Pvt.Ltd.,2009

Singh, Sanjay Kumar, Aspects of Functional English, Mandsaur: MIT Mandsaur, 2009

Venkateshwaran, S., Principles of Teaching English, New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House PVt. Ltd., 2007


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Role of ELT in Inclusive Development

Dr. Neelam Tikkha
MMV, RTM Nagpur University

This paper explores the role performed by English Language teachers and various digital
technologies like Mobile, Internet and Computer in promoting inclusive and sustainable growth.
English Language Teachers with the use of appropriate digital technology can help
underprivileged audience and bridge the divide and promote inclusive growth. Vernacular
medium students do not have good vocabulary and do not get proper training to compete with
students from English Medium. English Language Skills have gained tremendous importance in
digital and global era. There are a number of global universities that are coming up in India
itself but, with lack of English Language Skills many vernacular medium students are left
Lack of English Language Skills can make or mar the identity of a person. There are rise in
international news channels like Russia Today, France 24, DW, CNN, NHK world. Gen Z does
not like to read books in Russian language but in English.(Russia Today News Channel 2016)
English Language exams like IELTS, TOEFL for immigration and studies abroad become a


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barrier to growth and development of brilliant doctors, nurses, physiotherapists, lawyer and other
Key Words: Inclusive growth, digital alienation, professional growth

Image 1 (Handicap international n.d.)

Introduction :
English language is no longer a language of Elite, but it is a language of empowerment. This
paper explores the role performed by English Language teachers and various digital technologies
like Mobile, Internet and Computer in promoting inclusive and sustainable growth. English
Language Teachers with the use of appropriate digital technology can help underprivileged
audience and bridge the divide and promote inclusive growth. Vernacular medium students do
not have good vocabulary and do not get proper training to compete with students from English
Medium. English Language Skills have gained tremendous importance in digital and global era.
There are a number of global universities that are coming up in India itself but, with lack of
English Language Skills many vernacular medium students are left behind.
Lack of English Language Skills can make or mar the identity of a person. There are rise in
international news channels like Russia Today, France 24, DW, CNN, NHK world. There are
channels that provide with information on technology, Medicine, research, cooking, shopping,
travel and a variety of other information. Gen Z does not like to read books in Russian
language, but in English.(Russia Today News Channes 2016) English Language exams like

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IELTS, TOEFL for immigration and studies abroad become a barrier to the

growth and

development of brilliant doctors, nurses, physiotherapists, lawyer and other professionals.

English language is needed to communicate with the world. Pundit Jawaharlal Nehru rightly,
said English is a window to the world. We notice information overload in English and students
with language disability are unable to utilize it.
People have a lot of options to acquire wealth of information and live up to date with technology
becoming affordable and popular. Simple mobiles are also enabled with functions that help to
improve language. The most interesting part is that even disabled children can benefit from it.
We can help them give an identity. There is a dwarf group that Baruah from Assam has started a
theatre troupe for other dwarfs . He had had a number of problems because of the ridiculing and
snide remarks he had to face in the society. He narrates the mockery of normal children who
ridiculed him with statements like "Will you ever marry? What did your mother eat to produce you?" says
"Our hearts ache when we step out of the house, people don't treat dwarfs as
human beings," Baruah says, tears streaming down from his large brown eyes.
Often he would walk away, fast. "I act unmoved."(Alzazeera News 2015)
Now he has developed a niche for himself by starting his own troupe. Similarly if
teachers support such students no one would be left behind.
An effort to integrate technology with teaching will enhance learning experience. There are
students who are disabled and so poor that they cannot attend college but, if they are provided
with interactive digital platform that would provide them support they would not be left behind
for sure. Another, interesting thing is present generation whether with disability or normal are
fond of mobile phone.


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Image:2- i Dr. Neelam Tikkha

Image 2- ii


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Image2 -iii Students engrossed in Cell phone Dr. Neelam Tikkha

Image2 iv : image i,ii iiii,iv - Payal Nikhade an 80% blind student intensely involved with
mobile Dr. Neelam Tikkha
The most interesting thing is that digital teaching is affordable for both institutions and students.
It is highly interesting too. Moreover, teachers need not fear that they would be replaced by

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Image 3: Dwarfs Aim Highwith Own Theatre Troupe(Das 2013)

Image 4 See the Child -Before the Disability(UNICEF India 2013)

Furthermore, mobile devices have features like notes , can carry a number of text books,
dictionaries , thesaurus , books on vocabulary grammar books and grammar and vocabulary
games , You tubes and songs . Moreover, it provides with an interactive platform. The United
Nations World Food Program (2009) started to use mobile technologies to help Iraqi refugees
with food and resource distribution processes. It will be absurd if educators do not take
advantage of mobile innovations in equalizing educational access for disadvantaged children.


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Moreover, Present generation has an addiction for mobile and social media.

In fact, the

addiction is so great that in China it is being treated like a disease. There are a number of boot
camps (NHK, 2015) that have been started to get rid of this addiction. The addiction can be
diverted to positive direction by utilizing mobile effectively for teaching and learning of
language. Further mobile cellphones have an advantage of video and giving life like experience.
Pictures attract interest which can be proven by the fact that government has imposed tobacco
companies to have pictures of cancerous gums and teeth on the packets of cigarettes which has
resulted in squeeze felt by the tobacco companies (Alzazeera News , 2015).
Mobile has various apps Now, a day mobile cellphones are enabled with numerous features and
are very affordable hence, students from all classes can buy. Mobile phones are very handy and
portable easily circulated and substantially affordable, and have the possibility to be
pedagogically substantiating along with other resources in education. Mobile cellphones are
especially useful since students handle them as toys. Moreover, they give pictorial, life like and
at times comic experiences which, provides with experiential learning. Touch screen mobiles
further improve interaction. A survey by The Joan Ganz Cooney Center reported that Children
start using mobiles at a very early age rather, many children under the age of 12 own mobiles.
ipods, gaming devices. A variety of mobile apps can be used for teaching and learning. Mobile
learning apps are no longer luxury items. A Mobile cellphone is a useful tool even in the
villages and remote areas where there are power cuts and interrupted power supply. It is further
useful because it can be easily carried from one place to another. It can be called learning on the
Report further states that:

Mobile devices encourage students to learn anywhere, anytime because they can
process information inside or outside the classroom.


Mobile technologies are relatively inexpensive and can reach underserved students with
limited incomes.


Mobile devices teach students social skills that are necessary for success in the
21 st century.


Mobile devices are small and are a natural fit for use within the learning environment.

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Mobile technology provides students with a personalized educational experience because

the devices can be customized and used in many different ways.
Further there are many great apps designed by various companies like apple has

designed 5 great apps for I phones. The 5 apps are illustrated below:

Fig 5 :App icon


Hi Native: this app helps learning language effectively as it supports 120

different languages.

Fig6:Hi Native (Matheus, 2016)

This app is very useful as people can get in touch with native speakers of the language
people want to learn as the name of the app suggests Hi Native. It is an app which
makes learning of language very interesting. The tall claims made by the designer of
the app that ;
HiNative does what an accomplished dictionary or any other rich website fails to do
(Matheus, 2016) requires to be really proven. It also helps learn native pronunciation
and get to know finer nuances of a culture and native perspective. Communicating in
real time helps develop interest in learning a language. Talk to the world (Matheus,
2016) aptly describes the app.


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ii) Busuu:

Fig7: Busuu: (Matheus, 2016)

This is an app which helps to practice with native speakers what key phrases and
vocabulary that you have learned. It also has audio and video feature that helps to
learn with photos and voice which makes it even further learning interesting.
The app claims that : Over 50 million people already learn languages with
Busuu.Worldwide community.Practice your language skills with our international
community of over 50 million native speakers.Proven learning method: Our awardwinning content is curated by an in-house team of educational experts and
teachers. (Bussu)
iii) Brainscape is an app : This app allows to create flash cards of your own or one
can even take help of the information by experts through the app. The app relies on
using intervals of time and previous learning. It helps rate knowledge of material on
a scale of 1-5 and the app will provide with the quiz and offer solution and guidance
on the areas on which a learner needs to focus more.

Fig8:Mind snacks (Matheus, 2016)

iv) Mind snacks : This app helps learning with added fun . The platform it
provides is of games. This app can be used to teach people of all ages. One can
interact and learn necessary vocabulary and conversational skills.

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v) Babbel : This app is specially designed to improve the pronunciation. You can

Fig 9 : Babbel (Matheus, 2016)

Fig10Duolingo owl: (Rosell-Aguilar, 2014)

one of the main drivers in the mobile learning revolution is the sheer number of
apps that are available from different app stores. In May 2013, the number of apps
downloaded from the iTunes App store alone reached 50 billion(Saunders and
Howorth 2013). And the wealth of options is particularly notable for language apps.










( ) and Busuu but there are plenty more to choose from
because the nature of the smartphone makes it ideal for absorbing language and
honing language skills. (Rosell-Aguilar, 2014)


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The app claims that 34 hours of duo lingo is equal to 1 semester study at the university
(Duolingo) It uses all the four skills reading , writing , speaking and listening to improve
language skills. Learning is through games and it also rates the performance by allotting
marks. PC magazine reported that Among apps for learning a language , you cant beat
Duolingo and Wall street Journal said, far and away the best frr language learning app
These apps are free and hence anybody interested can utilize them without having to
spend a penny. Moreover, learning is fun and one can learn according to ones
convenience. Learning of second language can be a fun, interesting and simplified if
teacher uses innovation and technology. Teachers need training to learn to use
various apps that are available for use since technology changes very fast and most
language teachers are not so very proficient in the use of mobile technology. Even if
teachers can motivate and initiate students into use of mobile technology students
are curious and will explore several other features that can help to learn second
This shows that Joan Ganz Cooney Centers report on five predominant challenges that
face mobile learning are unwary today and limitations seem to be dated.


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Image 11 : Step Up 2 Dr. Neelam Tikkha


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It is important for syllabus framers to keep in mind inclusive development of students. Care
must be taken to see that subject compulsory English is such that it is interesting and easy, so
that everyone is involved. But, syllabus framers are not bothered . Cambridge book prescribed
for BA II- Step Up II - Improve your English (Jachak 2015) has certain exercises which
vernacular medium students use rote method to overcome the challenge. If vocabulary is to be
taught words of daily use which are difficult should be taught. Furthermore, etymology will help
more than teaching words taken from foreign language. Another major challenge the book poses
is teaching of note making through story The Last Leaf . The story is very difficult to
understand so how can students focus on note making.
Conclusion: It is high time that teachers try to see the child before the disability . Teaching
coupled with technology will enhance learning and would be instrumental in helping students
with learning disability. Inclusive development needs to be operationalized through relevant
strategies, improving people with disabilities access to services in all sectors.
A persistence approach and great thoughtfulness is essential to facilitate the development of an
empowering system that will maximize learning for people with disabilities and enhance
their social participation, through a combination of inclusive mainstream and support services.
For the majority of people with disabilities, answer to their skills in language improvement can
be found at their alma mater.
Alzazeera News . News. December 23, 2015.
Bussu. Busuu. n.d. (accessed January 24, 2016).
Das, Bijoyeta. Dwarfs Aim High. February 24, 2013.
/2013/02 /201321810372543399.html (accessed February 17, 2016).
Duolingo. n.d.
Handicap international. Inclusive Development Strategies. n.d. (accessed Feb 19, 2016).
Jachak, Ajiet, Dahat, Swapnil, Roy Renuka. Step Up II - Improve your English . New Delhi : Cambridge
University Press India Ltd. , 2015.
Matheus, Tiffaney. 5 Great iPhone Apps You Can Use To Learn A Foreign Language. 2016. (accessed
January 24, 2016).


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NHK. 2015.
Rosell-Aguilar, Fernando. How smartphone apps are revolutionising language learning. April 29, 2014. (accessed January 24, 2016).
Russia Today News Channel. Moscow, January 30, 2016.
Russia Today News Channes. Moscow, January 30, 2016.
Saunders, Rob, and Adam Howorth. Apples App Store Marks Historic 50 Billionth Download. 2013. (accessed January 24, 2016).
UNICEF India. See the Child- Before the Disability . May 31, 2013.
watch?v=jpstyRlkVVg (accessed Feb 17, 2016).


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The Namesake a Journey of Quest for Identity of Name

Ms. Yogita P. Barbuddhe
Research Scholar
Department of English
Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University, Nagpur

The aim of the paper is to focus the way in which Jhumpa Lahiri explores the dilemma of name
and immigrants sense of identity and belongingness in the novel, The Namesake. The paper
discusses immigrants role in the present day world, the major issues of multiculturalism,
struggle for name,identity and belongingness suffered by the characters in the novel. The author
explores her experiences as an immigrant through her characters in the novel. The Namesake is
essentially, a story about the struggles and hardships of a Bengali couple, Ashoke and Ashima
Ganguli, who immigrate to the United States to form a life outside of everything they know and
their sons struggle to overcome the conflict of his name, Gogol.
Keywords: Immigrants, multiculturalism, cultural dislocation, journey motif.

In the immigrant fiction journey motif is highlighted. There are journeys over continents,
between countries, cities and localities within the same cities. The characters in this fiction fly,
sail, ride in cars, trains, buses or simply walk. The overall thing is one of perpetual movement. In
such type of fiction there is an all pervasive sense of restlessness and nervous energy that fills the
work. The incapacity of the characters to find a home is touching and pitiable. Home for
character is not a quest for spiritual identity but a search for roots.
We can categories the group of immigrants on the basis of the degree of assimilation in the
foreign culture : those who have spent only their adult lives in a foreign land; those who are born
and grow up there or go there as children. The longing to behave and dress like everyone else is
very strong and urgent in the children and adolescents growing in a foreign land. This creates


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inside and outside conflicts in the mind of the immigrants.The second generation immigrants, in
their attempts to assimilate, suffer a dual loss. Firstly, they lose their cultural roots and become
outsider within their own home and foreign to relatives in their homeland, secondly, they remain
outsiders to the mainstream into which they try so desperately to assimilate. This is the unique
predicament of the second generation immigrants. Jhumpa Lahiri has experienced this
predicament. Nationality, tradition and belonging are the themes of Jhumpa Lahiri's fiction
spring from the complexities of her own life. She was born to Bengali parents in London, grew
up in Rhode Island, often vacationed in Calcutta during her youth, and presently lives on the
border of Greenwich Village.
Lahiri shares her feeling as an immigrant, for her there is sort of a half-way feeling of being
American But her parents never thought of themselves as American, despite the fact that they
applied for and received citizenship. She says;"They've lived here now for more than half of their
lives, and they raised a family here and now have grandchildren here. ... It has become their
home, But at the same time, for my parents, I don't think either of them will ever consciously
think, 'I am an American. 1Lahiris parents were always isolated from mainstream American
culture. Despite the fact that they spoke English, they were betrayed by their accents.
Regarding the identity or immigrants identity Lahiri presents her opinion which shows bitter
experiences of her individual life as an immigrant. In one of her interviews she says, The
question of identity is always a difficult one, but especially so for those who are culturally
displaced, as immigrants are, or those who grow up in two worlds simultaneously, as is the case
for their children. The older I get, the more I am aware that I have somehow inherited a sense of
exile from my parents, even though in many ways I am so much more American than they are.
bothered me growing up, the feeling that there was no single place to which I fully belonged. 2
Lahiri presents this predicament of quest for identity through her works especially through her
debut novel, The Namesake. The protagonistof the novel, Gogol Ganguli, is an identical
character of Lahiri. The story of the novel has woven around the name that suggests identity. The
thirty-six-year-old author admitsthat in her childhood she never felt comfortable with her
name;When I entered the American world as a child, I endlessly had to explain to people how to
say my name and how to spell it and what it meant, I really felt like my name was causing people

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pain on some level, It was painfully bastardized and it just sounded so silly to me."3This identity
crises, sense of alienation, and assimilation of several cultures shaped Lahiri.
The novel,The Namesake, is narrated through the sensibilities of four different characters, Gogol
Ganguli, his mother Ashima, his father Ashoke, and his wife Moushumi. All of them reveal
different aspects of the material world and the personal relationships which are a part of their
outer identity. Of these four people, Ashoke alone seems to have found the balance among the
different aspects of self that inspire him to live comfortably in a foreign country. He makes a
shell of various things such as connection with his family back in India, a network of Bengali
friends whom he has known since coming to America, a house that he has lived in for years, and
familiar Indian customs blended with American ones until the blending itself becomes familiar,
all of which provide an outer protection for an inner self. The material world of America seems
to be a source of unhappiness to Ashima. Throughout the book, she struggles torecover the
material and social things of her life in India and yet somehow adapt herself to life in the country
to which she has come. For both Gogol and Moushumi, the process of finding a way to live
comfortably with what seems to them a double identity is even more complex.
During the first part, Ashoke Ganguli seems to want to help his son discover a way in which to
live with the complexity of identity. The novel shows that the contested aspects of Gogol`s
identity converge in his name. To begin with, following Bengali custom, he attempts to give him
two identities, one identity, his daknam or pet name, who he is to the people who have known
and loved him all his life, and another name, his bhalonam, his good name, who he is to the
outside world. Gogol`s name, both his daknam and his bhalonam marks his distance from and
difference within mainstream American culture. Lahiri devotes a major part of her narrative to
explore the fluidity of Gogol`s identity through the ambiguity in his name. Gogol`s name results
from the non arrival of a letter from his grandmother in Calcutta. He is hastily christened
Gogol after his father`s favorite Russian writer-fulfilling the administrative regulations of the
American hospital in which he is born. Thus, we have Gogol Ganguly: Bengali due to his
parentage, American due to his place of birth, and Russian due to the association with writer,
Nikolai Gogol.


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The narrative progressively shows Gogol`s love-hate relationship with his name. At the
beginning of the novel, Lahiri details how Gogol detests his name that separates him from the
American milieu he would like to be compatible with. Ashoke later selects good name for Gogol
as Nikhil. Nikhil could be easily Americanized to Nick! Cultural differences seem to create
confusion whenever and wherever Nikhil has to mention his name. The father tries to explain the
idea of good name and nickname but his teacher refuses to see what it all means. Shes not
convinced and so Gogol continues to be known by the name which seems to have fastened itself
tightly to him, refusing to let go. The name seems to trouble Gogol all through his school and
college education.Ashoke has given his son two names, two identities, but Gogol must find their
meaning for himself in the country and the time in which he has been born. And with his
acceptance and rejection of his two names, he begins a pattern of first accepting and then
rejecting outer identities that seem imposed on him by others and which he is seems unable to
distinguish from his essential self. He seems to think he must be one thing or another, Bengali or
American, rather than accepting ambiguity and multiplicity.
The perception of the name Gogol is different to Gogol and to Ashoke. Though Gogol
constantly wonders about the reason for his having such an unusual name, his father have no
doubts about the appropriateness of the name to him, Gogol was his savior because it was a
volume of Gogols writings that he was reading when the terrible train accident took place. It
was the book and a few pages that he clutched in his hand which saved him. But to Gogol
Ganguli, Gogol is simply a strange name that he has been saddled with by accident.
Throughout the novel, many of the most significant conversations between Gogol Ganguli and
Ashoke begin with Nikolai Gogol, as Ashoke attempts to connect with his son through Gogol
the same way that the Russian writer connected him to his grandfather. But Gogol Ganguli
rejects these gestures, not recognizing them for what they are. When Gogol Ganguli is fourteen,
his father gives him a hard-bound copy of Gogol's short stories; Gogol thanks him politely and
then continues listening to his Beatles' album. When he receives the copy, he looks intently at the
picture of the author, searching for some resemblance and hoping against hope that there is none.
There is a sense of relief because the only thing they share is their name. Ashoke wants to tell
Gogol why the author is so special, he does not do so as he realizes that a birthday is a


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celebration of life and hence there should be no talk of death. When Ashoke quotes to him, "We
all came out of Gogol's Overcoat," Gogol Ganguli asks, "What's that supposed to mean?" His
father doesn't answer, but merely tells him it will make sense to him someday. (78)
Characteristically, Lahiri doesn't tell us how it makes sense to Ashoke, or how it will later make
sense to his son. Hence the mystery of the name continues to haunt Gogol Ganguli. Gogol is
convinced that he has to change his name and his parents realize that there is no other way out
for Gogol in his predicament.
The change of his name seems to alter Gogols personality because after this his confidence
grows and he seems to mingle with the land of his birth. He does not feel an outsider, he loses his
self conscious attitude. Whenever this is a natural maturity after adolescence or whether the
change of name is responsible for this can be argued. He admits to the judge that he wants to
change his name because he has always hated it and as he walks out of the court room there
seems to be an extra lilt to his walk-he feels like a prisoner who walks out a free man.
Later, when Gogol is no longer officially Gogol but Nikhil, Ashoke does tell him directly part of
the personal significance of the name to him, how it was by dropping the page of Gogol that he
was rescued the night he almost died. finally Gogol hears his father narrate the story of his
experience of 28 years ago he listens. For Ashoke, Gogol is a new life, a rebirth, the creation of
another life in another country, both his own life and his children's. While Gogol Ganguli is
disturbed by this knowledge. His name suddenly means something different, suddenly means a
lot and suddenly the sound of his pet name, uttered by his father as he has been accustomed to
hearing it all his life, means something completely new, bound up with a catastrophe he has
unwittingly embodied for years.
Although Nikhil is an Indian name, it enables him to try on a sophisticated identity he thinks he
wants, sexy, cool, "normal." He is "Nick" in dialogue later in the novel, especially when he is
talking to Americans who are not the children of immigrants. Nikhil is his overcoat which makes
the ways in which he is different from other Americansinvisible. Ashokes sudden and
unexpected death of a heart attack changes Gogols way of life. Gogols material self has melt
down with this shocking incident. The novel develops with the sufferingexperiencesof Gogol at
the breakup of his marriage with Moushumi.


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Here Lahiri reveals life as an accidental thing. Ashoke's life was accidental as well, having the
good luck to survive a train wreck when the genial man next to him died, and having married a
stranger who turned out to be a person he could love and respect. But he had also made
conscious decisions to change his life, as he did in coming to America. He seemed to have inner
resources his son lacks, including an acceptance of the irrational and of the fluidity of his own
identity. Perhaps by understanding more about his father and what a writer like Nikolai Gogol
meant to his father, Gogol could understand something of his own passivity as well and the
inadequacy of the ways in which he had sought to define himself.
It is immediately after this insight about the accidental quality of his own life that he finds the
copy of Nikolai Gogol's short stories which his father had given him those many years ago, and
reads for the first time the inscription that his father had written for him, "The man who gave you
his name, from the man who gave you your name"4. He reads this while a celebration of
multiplicity and hybridity is taking place downstairs, a Christmas and going-away party for
Ashima, attended by her Bengali-American friends who have made a Christian holiday now part
of their own family tradition even though they are not Christian. It seems an emblem of the
potential for a continuous blended and fluid identity that Gogol may be now ready to accept
about himself.This is the predicament of Gogol Ganguly regarding his search for identity through
his name. It ends with reconciliation with his identity which is given to him by his parents.
Question of identity has remained a source of conflicts for those who are grown up in two worlds
simultaneously. Lahiri blends the two worlds, two cultures and creates inner turmoil for many of
her characters who struggle to balance the Western and Indian influence. Thus, Jhumpa Lahiri as
a writer finds her identity through her protagonists who do look back but pick and choose the
best of both the cultures, that of their homeland and of their host country. From this we can form
an opinon about Lahiri that as a writer she has found her home as a permanent dwelling place in
the literary world.
References :

Jhumpa, Lahiri. number =681425, 17 October



Jhumpa, Lahiri. number =681425, 17 October



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Lahiri, Jhumpa. The Namesake, Boston Houghton Mifflin Company.2003, p.288.

Kaur, Tejinder. Cultural Dilemmas and Displacements of Immigrants in Jhumpa Lahiris The Namesake. The
Journal of Indian Writing in English 32.2 (July 2004)
Khalilulla, M. Ibrahim. A Critique of Jhumpa Lahiris The Namesake. The Quest 23.2 (Dec 2009)
Mahanta, Banibrata Of coats, Names and Identities : Jhumpa Lahiris The Namesake. Dialogue 1.1 (June 2005)
Mishra, Jyoti. Merging Identities : Jhumpa Lahiris The Namesake. The Quest 19.1 (June 2005)


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Laws with Reference to Family Conflict

Dr. Jayashri R Kharwase (Rehpade)
Associate Professor in Social Work, Swami
Vivekanand College of Social Work, Nagpur.
E-mail : jayashrikharwase

With the growing number of divorce in the country, the law pertaining to it and the
procedure followed in the Family Courts need continuous review, particularly because of lack of
education among women and also very less awareness about the law.
The author has tried to concentrate on financial aspects, which is handled in the form of
alimony, mostly to women. However, the issue cannot be isolated from other factors like
education, occupation, awareness about law and legal procedure etc. The study is restricted to the
women approaching Family Court, Nagpur. Although the women approaching the Family Court
are satisfied with the produce followed in the court, the amount of alimony, the feel, is lesser
than they need or expected. This feeling might be the result of women approaching the court
from economically weaker sections. The alimony is given based on the income of earning
partner (mostly men), which is also low or in some cases shown lesser than actual earning. In
majority of the cases women get between Rs1,000 and Rs 1,500. The respondent women have
strongly advocates proper enquiry into the total earning and other resources of the husband,
instead of relying on the documents submitted by him. The investigations should be done by the
court before deciding the amount to alimony.
The application for alimony is filed under Section 125 of criminal procedure Code and is
handled irrespective of other complaints, if any, pertaining to divorce or other dispute between
husband and wife. A greater awareness about the existing law for protection of women is
necessary to prevent women suffering from separation from her husband. Many of them either
return to their parents family or fall prey to anti-social elements. The amount of alimony should
reviewed periodically and increased with the increasing cost of living.


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Although the Family Courts were set up through an Act in the year 1984, the law
pertaining to alimony is old one. Section 125 of CrPC deals with financial protection to women
in case of separation, divorce, physical, mental or financial abuse and deprivation. It does not
discriminate women based on the caste and religion. The traditional Hindu rules or laws do not
approve the concept of divorce, But the women separated from her husband for any reason had
right to seek alimony even in ancient Indian tradition.
Besides expressing their opinion about the court procedure and law pertaining to
alimony. The women have opined that the Family Courts should be managed by women only.
The opinion cannot be considered only based on majority of women's demand, as men also
approach Family Courts seeking redressal of their grievances. It is also wrong to say that men are
biased or cannot understand the problems faced by women in family disputes. In the recent past
it has also been alleged that the law, which is mostly in favour of women, is being exploited by
women themselves. Men also suffer from the existing legal provisions, which have been framed
keeping in mind higher quantum of the affected or exploited women in the society. It can also be
stated that the law should be so amended that it become gender-neutral.
Financial and social security : the author has found that financial security of the affected
women should be considered by the Court. The financial resources of the husband should be
properly investigated before deciding the decision on granting financial security to women is
decided. The assessment can be done through a reliable agency, appointed or authorised by the
court to do so. The amount of alimony should be 50% of the earning of the husband. In majority
of the cases husbands refuse to take responsibility of children, which adds to the problems of the
women. The women also feel that adequate arrangements for their security in the court premises
should be ensured. They are under treats, particularly from the husband or in-laws. This is
because in majority of the cases (87.70%), the their right over the relations with in-laws were
found to be strained.
The women have also demanded that their right over the property should be protected,
This demand is raised mainly to secure future of the children.


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The mediation process started in the Family Courts has also started yielding positive
results. As emotions of the parties to the dispute is a major factor, the persons handling the cases
and the judges are required to deal with the case very carefully.
Despite the efforts by social reformers like Savitribai Phule, Jyotiba Phule, Ramabai
Ranade and others lack of proper education and awareness about social legislation is major
hurdle in securing proper life for women. Various forums are active in generating awareness
about the law. However, the level of understanding of the women should be evaluated and then
the awareness programmes should be formulated, This will help in disseminating information in
a more effective manner among those who actually need them the most.

Finding in Brief

Majority of Women seeking help of Family Court are between 23 to 37 years of age and
are less educated.


Majority (59.20%) are from urban areas.


Women seeking alimony have financial constraints (57.60%). Most of them repay loans
from the amount received in the form of alimony.


Majority of them require help of lawyer (77.29%).


Family Court is required to help deficiencies in applications and other documents.



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Reading The Key To Learning

Dr. Jayashri R Kharwase (Rehpade)
Associate Professor
Swami Vivekanand College of Social Work, Nagpur.

Giving someone literacy skills is rather like teaching a person to drive and then giving
them only a few drops of petrol to practice with- the machine is perfect and the driving skill has
been acquired but it is not yet an automatic skill because there has not been enough practice.
Once the fuel runs out the driving skill becomes useless and begins to deteriorate. Giving
someone the reading habit, on the other hand, involves providing a continuous supply of easily
processed fuel so that the new driver can go places, can get to enjoy driving and can eventually
realise the limitless possibilities it opens up.
The initial step is getting the driver to appreciate what exciting new trips the fuel makes possible
so that he or she will search for more fuel when the current supply runs out. In other words it is
necessary to provide people with enough easily accessible interesting books for them to find
reading so enjoyable that they themselves want to do more of it. This has to be achieved
somehow of the newly literate will never consolidate their skills by using the libraries, because
they will not know what delights lurk within.
People start trying a new food or a new drink or any new experience because it becomes
available in a familiar place and because it is enjoyable. People make the new food part of their
regular diet if it continues to be available long enough for them to decide they do not want to do
without it. It is the same with books. Once people have developed the reading habit they will
come looking for the books. Until that time the libraries will stock their shelves in vain and the


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literacy workers will have largely their efforts. It is not only newly literate, however, who need
the reading habit in order to mentally grow and fulfill their potential.
The aim of the study was to understand the general nature of reading interest and habit of people
above the age of fifteen.2. To study the development process of

these interests.

Date were collected through questionnaire, and the data were analyzed in respect of reading of
newspapers, magazines, and books. Social psychology of readers and interests of various age groups were analyzed separately. A supplementary investing on the reading development of VII
to XII class students was done.
The following were the important findings of the study:

Newspapers were read more than any other material.


Women in every age group read less newspapers,


Magazines reading increased with age.


Men read more than women.


Sports magazines were very popular up to the age 40.


Development factors of reading related to psychological growth and socio-cultural

advancement were different at different age level.


At the primary stage only the story books were read.

Importance of inculcation of reading habits amongst youth

It is a well-known fact that when there were no televisions or computers, reading was a
primary leisure activity. People would spend hours readings books and travel to lands far awayin their minds. The only tragedy is that, with time, people have lost their skill and passion to
read. There are many other exciting and thrilling options available, aside from books. And that is
a shame because reading offers a productive approach to improving vocabulary and word
power, It is advisable to indulge in at least half an hour of reading a day to keep abreast of the
various styles of writing and new vocabulary.


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It is observed that children and teenagers who love reading have comparatively higher
IQs. They are more creative and do better in school and college. It is recommended that parents
to inculcate the importance of reading to their children in the early years, Reading is said to be
significantly help in developing vocabulary, and reading aloud helps to build a strong emotional
bond between parents and children. The children who starts reading from early age are observed
to have good language skills, and they grasp the variance in phonics much better,
Reading helps in mental development and is known to stimulate the muscles of the eyes.
Reading is an activity that involves greater levels of concentration and adds to the conversational
skills of the reader. It is an indulgence that enhances the knowledge acquired, consistently. The
habit of reading also helps readers to decipher new words and phrases that they come across in
everyday conversations, The habit can become a healthy addiction and adds to the information
available on various topics, It helps us to stay in-touch with contemporary writers as well as
those from days of yore and makes us sensitive to global issues.

Recent Trends Of Print Media In Development Communication

Development communication Using Print Media Especially, print media as a Traditional
media of development communication is the closest to people who need messages of
development like the farmers and workers. Such forms of media are participatory and effective,
As far as the print media is concerned, after Independence when Five Year Plan were initiated by
the government for planned development, it was the newspapers which gave great importance to
development themes. They wrote on various government development programs and how the
people could make use of them. They cover about farming and related subjects and information
about weather, market rates, availability of improved seeds and implements. The scientific and
technological advancements have brought about steady fast development in the media world.
New media are coming up while the old ones are being improved upon and in this process their
availability has increased manifolds, They are now conquering event the remote and distant
regions of the world, This multifaceted development has brought about a lot more variety than
could be imagined. There has been growing multiplicity between the media and this process is
still continuing. As a result the Indian people are facing plenty of choices, Print medium was the


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first to be used as mass media for communicating the information. Till today print media is one
of the powerful media among the rural people.

Ways to improve reading habits

Make Yourself comfortable:
Reading improves concentration. Also concentration is needed while reading. So whenever we
are reading any books we should make ourselves comfortable in a chair or on our bed so that we
can concentrate on the book we are reading. We should cherish the content we are reading and
for that to happen it is important that we are choose a comfortable position for ourselves. I
personally prefer to lay on easy-chair or rest my back on a pillow in bed and then read. I am not
saying that sitting or laying the most comfortable position as it can vary from person to person. I
have friends who stroll while they read. Just make yourself comfortable while reading.

Buy book with pictures :

If you are new to reading and find yourself lost in the ocean of words then prefer to buy books
which have some pictures or pictorial representation of the story or the content you are reading.
Basically the pictures will give you brief idea about the content of the books. Your natural
inquisitive nature will tend to know more about the pictures and as a result you will start reading
and as you read you will try to relate the contents to the picture . This will also help you to
improve your imagination skill.

Read Regularly :
Like any other habit it is important that you should read regularly to improve your reading skill.
If you are very disciplined then you can make a routine and allot one hour of time every day for
reading books. If you do not have a regular routine schedule then try to read at any moment.
Don't always depend on story books for improving reading habits. If you are very busy or have a
hectic schedule, try to read the entire newspaper every morning. This will not only help you to
improve your reading skill but will make you aware of the current affairs and increase your


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Reading is an important activity in the process of learning. In the movement of human society, it
has been given a greater importance and becoming one of the essential aspects of the functioning
of human beings, who are collectively involved in the regulation of society and exposure of
knowledge and revelation of literate society.
Reading involves the people's participation growth literate society. So, reading shapes food
personality, ideas, right thinking and attitude change, So, people who are involved in reading
habits to create literate society in our country,
The above discussions reveals how important the reading habit is? and for creating the literate
society, which helps for the development of any country,





Lee C. Dighton,(1971). The Encyclopedia of Education. VOL No. 7.The Macmillan Company & The
Free Press.


Naik S.N. (1981). Reading Interest and Abilities of Adolescents and Asults.Ph.D., Thesis, Edu., Kar.


Rajan,R, (2001). "Reading Interest of Neo-Literates", The Education Review, Vol,44.


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Zaheda Sultana
Mumtaz College, Osmania University
Mobile No.: 9963899450
e-mail :

Teaching Literature through language entails proactive involvement of the teacher and active
involvement of the learner. Literature in the classroom leads to various opportunities that can be
exploited to the learners advantage. This paper presents some challenges and possible strategies
to cope with them from teachers perspective. It also presents ideas for assessment of suitability
of literary texts and the unlimited scope that literary texts offer in an ELT classroom. Idea to use
the text in the classroom for ESL/EFL learners for their linguistic, social, cultural and intellectual
potency is briefly enumerated. The practical principles of teaching literature and the stages in the
process of teaching literature are also a part of this paper.
Keywords: Literature, stimulus, supplement, representational, challenges, strategies, practical
Literature in ELT
Human nature is intrinsically wired to enjoy a narrative with intrigue and complexity. But
the potential that literary works offer for language learning is largely untapped.
Literature was a part of language teaching in traditional classrooms. However after the
introduction of functional language teaching and language for communication, its role
diminished. The first decade of this century has seen that Literature in the Language class room
is on a revival. Its role in language classroom has been reassessed and the teachers now opine
that literature is a rich input to help students as a stimulus to express themselves effectively.
Many universities around the globe now offer a number of literature courses as part of
undergraduate program. The graded books of language learning are slowly being supplemented

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by Literature in ELT classrooms. They are being increasingly used to introduce learners to a
range of cultures, regions and world Englishes. This resource is available in the form of novels,
poems, short stories, plays and songs. It is also in graffiti, cartoon strips, films and
advertisements. The literary texts are an expressive and musical language learning source that are
supported by audio-visual aids like music CDs, film clips, audio-texts and pod casts.
The nature of literary texts is representational rather than referential (Mc Rae, 1994).
According to Mc Rae, referential language coveys message at one level whereas representational
language engages the learner emotionally and cognitively. Representational texts help learners to
empathize with others and become creative. They can be more motivating than the referential
material of traditional classroom.
Challenges in the Classroom
Most teachers of English as a foreign language dont feel comfortable with literature in a
language class. Perhaps they are themselves in a state of recovery from the unpleasant memories
of their own days as learners. They were probably not exposed to the charm and beauty of
literary texts. They might even be recovering from the burden of huge literary terms and
unsuitable passages that were imposed on them. There are others who dont enjoy reading books
and hence have not developed a taste for literature. For some other teachers literature and
language are two separate islands that exist independent of each other. A few others are of the
view that literature is for advanced adult learners and thus unsuitable to the language level of
most students. They also feel that the curriculum is in itself too much to cope with and literature
would be an additional burden.
Duff and Maley (2007:12-13) believe that most teachers can cope with these challenges
in a language class if the following aspects of teaching are converted into a series of questions
that examine the appropriacy of literature in a learning situation.

Text selection: Is the subject matter relevant to the group? Will it interest the learners?


Task selection: Is the level of difficulty of the task, text and language appropriate to the
level of the learners?


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Text size: Is the text short and light enough to be used in the class? Is it possible to
provide larger text for development of the context and characters?


Cultural appropriacy: In a mixed group of culturally diverse learners is the text offensive
in its content?


Cultural difficulty: Does the text require details of cultural and literary concepts as
background knowledge? Is it so unfamiliar that outsiders fail to understand its essential


Teacher inhibitions: Is the teacher prepared to help the learners to appreciate the writers
use of language to produce desired effects? Is there a platform to explore this powerful
teaching resource?


Academic constraints: Is the time sufficient to include the literary texts in addition to the
prescribed English language texts? Is there a specific skill or skills that fit into class time?

Literature in classrooms:
Colie and Slater (1990:3) have put forward some reasons that could enthuse a language
teacher to use literature in the language classroom.

Valuable Authentic Resource: The meaning of literature as distinguished by John Mc Rae

(1994) has two forms. The literature with capital L that includes classics, from John
Milton to Shakespeare and beyond. The other literature with a small l is one that has
samples of real life contexts like popular fiction, travel time tables, city maps, cartoons,
bank forms and newspaper articles. Both of these literatures have defined roles in the
class room.


Cultural awareness: Literary texts are tools readily available not only for language
acquisition but also cultural knowledge. Travelling to places for cultural understanding to
gain first-hand experience is most desirable. The second best option is through the novels
themselves. Though they hold out an imaginary world, the historical, social, cultural back
ground described is a virtual trip of discovery. This discovery of the characters fears,
joys, customs, beliefs and dreams transport the language learners into a world of different

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April, 2016

experience. The world thus created can help a learner to feel the codes of conduct,
preoccupations and attitudes of mind.

Language improvement: A piece of literature can be used as a stimulus just as a set of

language items, a picture or an object. It provides a wide range of lexis, syntax and
variety of sentence structures. They help develop creative skills by encouraging learners
to become more productive and adventurous while they perceive the diversity and
richness of the literary texts. Literature invites learners to go beyond its simplest formsfrom what is said to what is implied. Since it packs many ideas in a few words, it is ideal
for language production. Care must be taken to choose texts that are relevant to the
learners level of language comprehension and their interests.


Individual enrichment: The personal involvement that encourages a learner to soak in

the text makes the lexis and phrases less relevant than the development of the story. The
learners are sucked into the plot and find themselves immersed in the story till the
climax. They may identify with a character and begin to share its emotions. The learners
understand the construction of effective arguments and are motivated by the
contradictions and complexities of the text. George Eliot (1866/1967: 9-10)commented
that aesthetic teaching is the highest of all teaching because it deals with life in its
highest complexity. Literature encourages the learners to appreciate superior aesthetics
of writing and become independent assessors of their learning. Study of literature offers
insight into life by widening their thinking through critical and analytical skills.


Ambiguity: In addition to the above reasons, Maley (1989:12) has listed ambiguity as one
more reason to include literature in the language class. Literature has different meanings
for different people. In a class of 20, there may be 20 different reactions to a literary text.
The first advantage is each learners opinion and interpretation has validity. The second
advantage is, the difference in the opinion adds to genuine exchange of ideas that could
also be animated discussions. The elastic nature of the text permits infinite scope for
individual perspective.
The themes dealt with in the literature are common to all cultures. In spite of different
approaches of writers, they remain relevant at all times to all human beings. Learners

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April, 2016

also become aware of socio linguistic factors such as sociolects, regional creoles, dialects
and jargon. This in turn polishes learners awareness of various varieties of English
language. It helps non-native speakers of English in gaining access to target language in
its varied hues.
How to use literary texts:
Tessa Woodward (2004: 101) lists some practical principles of teaching literature.

A literary work must be chosen for the sole purpose of suitability to the learners needs. It
may be funny or short, rather than being a good literature.


Enjoyment and comprehension must be increased either by using A.V. aids or mime and
role play.


Paraphrase must be attempted to let the message through to the learner. The original
words by the author can be checked to note how well chosen they are for particular


Help must be extended to the learners to bond with the characters in the texts. This
connection brings the text alive.


The response of the learners must be treated as important as the authors.


Learners must be guided to create their own version of the story.

Teaching ideas:
Penny Ur (2005: 200-204) has suggested that learning and teaching of a piece of
literature can be a process of three main stages.
Stage 1: Encounter and Impact:
The aim of teaching is to make learners perceive the form ad meaning of the text so that
some form of intellectual and emotional impact is made. They may not understand each word but
they have to comprehend overall meaning. For this purpose a teacher usually has to teach all
essential words that are new but are central to the content. Penny Ur does not see warm-up

ISBN 81-86067-27-2

April, 2016

activities as essential. Though they raise motivation, curiosity and orient learners towards
thinking, these activities may prejudice the learner after what they have been led to believe.
Limited introductory work to indicate the general topic or essential cultural background is
preferable. From that point, it is better to let the literature speak. Additional exploration follows
Ur lets the momentum set in and enjoyment to follow as most literature is meant to be
read or heard as a continuous text. Detailed study is put off until the first reading is done.
Reading the text aloud in the class and learners following it in their respective books is
possibly a good way to make a clear first impression of the literary content and also the form of
the literature.
Asking open ended questions to elicit a quick summary, opinion or views helps to
develop brief discussion and raise questions that can be put on the board.
Stage 2: Understanding and familiarization:
In this stage the learners are encouraged to interact with the literary texts exhaustively.
This familiarizes the learners with the vocabulary and sentence structure. It also helps them to
follow the sequence of the unfolding events. The characters become more meaningful and the
text is understood in depth and detail. This could be done by locating for unknown chunks of
language, noting down the relevant bits, sharing ideas for alternative title, enacting pieces of the
text, pictorial representation or designing a book cover or advertisements for the texts.
Stage 3: Analysis and interpretation:
This stage requires a deeper look into the meaning and implications of the content. It does
not necessarily require knowledge of the literary terms. This stage is meant usually for higher
level of learners as it requires the ability to uncover new layers of meaning leading to critical
appreciation of writing. This stage is suitable for activities like group discussion initiated by the
teacher with open ended cues to compare, infer, explain, predict and identify with. This helps
learners to develop their own interpretation and meaning which is an important asset in language
learning. Finally, a teacher can infect the learners with her/his love for literature and enrich
them with coherent ideas about what and how of the text.

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April, 2016

English language programs are now including literature in many ESL and EFL
classrooms. Though many teachers accept literature as an interesting and valuable resource, the
approach towards including it is, in its formative stage. If learners have free access to literary
texts, all skills of language can be improved. If a literary discourse is used as a tool to enable
learners to practice a skill then the pre, while and post lesson plan can be effective. In other
words a communicative lesson plan that consists of pre-reading tasks, interactive while-reading
tasks and follow activities for post-reading. Consolidation, extended understanding of vocabulary
and creative writing establish the required connection between language and literature. Learners
could also participate in stage performances and public display of learner produced posters and
role plays. Since a number of books are written for learners of other languages and translation
gaining popularity, literature may now appeal to learners with different learning styles.
Teachers who are apprehensive about ways to develop learners ability in appreciating
literature could benefit by reading articles, books, visiting websites, attending courses, seminars
and workshops and joining special interest groups where new ideas are born.
Duff, A.&Maley, A. (2007). Literature (Resource Books for Teachers), Oxford: Oxford University Press.
McRae, J. (1994).Literature with a small l.Macmillan Education.
Tessa Woodward (2004). Planning Lessons and Courses (Designing sequences of work for the
language classroom), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sybil Marcus, A Guest Post on 21 October 2015. Literature in ELT: Integrating Literature into Language Learning
| TESOL Blog.
Collie, J. and Slater, S. (1990). Literature in the Language Classroom: A Resource Book of ideas and activities.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Maley, A. (1989).Down from the pedestal: Literature as Resource, Literature and the learner: Methodological
Approaches, Cambridge: Modern English Publications.
Supriya, S. (2010). Literature Aids in Teaching Language Skills.ELT@I 48(1).
Penny Ur (2005). A Course in Language Teaching: Practice and Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
Eliot, G. (1866/1967).Letters to Fredric Harrison. F.R Leavis Introduction to Silas MarnerHarmmodsworth:
Penguin Books.


ISBN 81-86067-27-2

April, 2016

nkfjnz fuewZyu dk;Zdze o O;kolk;hd lektdk;Z

izk- panq jkeHkk ikVhy
lgk;d izk/;kid
vkBoys lektdk;Z egkfo|ky; HkaMkjk

vktP;k ifjfLFkrhr izR;sd fodlukhy o fodlhr nskkPkk fopkj dsyk rj nkfjnzkps
izek.k gs vf/kd fnlr vkgs - lkekftd & jktdh; o vkfFkZd thoukrhy ,d xaHkhj
leL;k Eg.kwu nkfjnzkdMs ikfgys tkrs +vfodlhr nskkr izfrMksbZ mRiUu deh vlrs o
jk"Vh; mRiUukP;k okV.khr Qkj eksBh fo"kerk vlY;keqGs v;k nskkr nkfjnzkph
leL;k mn~Hkors + Hkkjr nskkyk Lokra; feGkY;kuarjP;k dkGkpk fopkj dsyk rj vls
y{kkr ;sbZy fd nkfjnzkps ojpsoj izek.k ok<r vkgs o gh vfrk; fparsph ckc vkgs +
nkfjnzkP;k voLFksr vUu] oLk]o fuokjk ;k fdeku xjtkaph iwrZrk gks kdr ukgh +
ladsrkCn % nkfjnzh] fueZqyu]O;kolkf;d lektdk;Z]

izLrkouk %
nkfjnzkalca/kh vusd ys[kdkauh vkivkiys osxosxGs fopkj izLrqr dsysys vkgs + ts yksd
vkiY;k nSufnu thoukr thouekukph vFkkZr jkg.khekukph fdeku ikrGh xkBq kdr
ukghr R;kauk *nkfjnzh * fdaok *xjhc yksd * vls EgVys tkrs + i.k thoukph fdeku
ikrGh dks.krh

o R;k fdeku ikrGhoj thou tx.;klkBh izfrMksbZ fdrh mRiUukph

vko;drk vkgs ;klaca/kh erHksn vkgs +mnk +;kstuk vk;ksxkP;k erkuqlkj izR;sd O;Drhyk
2400 dWyjht o kgjh Hkkxkr 2100 dWyjht vUu izfrfnu feG.ks vko;d vlrs

ISBN 81-86067-27-2

April, 2016

+xzkeh.k Hkkxkr 76#i;s izfrMksbZ mRiUu o kgjh Hkkxkr izfrMksbZ 88#i;s +rj nkaMsdj
vkf.k jFk ;kaP;k ers xzkeh.k Hkkxkr izfrMksbZ 170#i;s ] kgjh Hkkxkr izfrMksbZ 271#i;s
etqjh feG.ks vko;d vkgs +gs u feGkY;kl R;kauk nkfjnzjsks[kkyhy yksd vls Eg.krk
;sbZy +nkaMsdj vkf.k jFk ;kaP;k ers kgjh Hkkxkr 50 VDds o xzkeh.k Hkkxkr 40 VDds
yksd nkfjnzjsks[kkyhy thou txr vkgs +ksretqj]ksrdjh]vYiHkq/kkjd]HkVdsvkfnoklh]
lhekar ksrdjh]nfyr]ikajikfjd m/kksxkaPkk gkl >kY;keqGs csdkj >kysys dkjkxhj
bR;knhpk lekosk nkfjnz yksdkar gksrks +csdkj]v/kZcsdkj]vla?kVhr {kskkr dke dj.kkjs
Jehd bR;knhapk lekosk ukxjh Hkkxkrhy nkfjnzkr vl.kk;kar dsyk tkrks +
feyj vkf.k jksch % lkekftd n`"Vhdksukrqu nkfjnz Eg.kts LiV Lo#ikr vl.kkjh
vl.kkjh vlekurk gks; +
ek;dsy gWfjaXVu % fofk"V lektkrhy ewY;]fookl vkf.k izpfyr rakKkukkh feGR;k
tqGR; vUu] oLk] fuokjk]vkjksX;]fk{k.k vkf.k euksjatukiklqu oafpr vl.ks Eg.kts
nkfjnz gks; +
xksnkMZ % nkfjnz gs vkk oLrwapk vHkko fdaok vi;kZIr iwrhZ vkgs dh th ,d O;Drh vkf.k
R;kaP;koj voyacwu vl.;kdfjrk LokLFk] vkjksX; vkf.k dk;Z{kerk fVdowu Bso.;klkBh
vko;d vkgs +
lkekU;r% nkfjnz Eg.kts ewyHkwr xjtk u Hkkxfork ;s.;klkj[kh ifjfLFkrh O;Drhps
mRiUu brds deh vlrs fd O;Drh vUu]oLk o fuokjk ;k fdeku xjtk iw.kZ djrk ;sr
ukgh + dkghuh fofk"V nskkr vl.kkjs loZlk/kkj.k ljkljh thoueku Eg.kts ewyHkwr
xjtk vls EgVys rj dkghaP;k ers] fuokZgklkBh vko;d xjtk Eg.kts ewyHkqr xjtkaP;k
dYiuk dkGkuqlkj cnyR;k vkY;k vkgsr +


ISBN 81-86067-27-2

April, 2016

nkfjnz fueqZyuklkBh kkldh; mik; ;kstuk %

Hkkjrkyk Lokra; feGkY;kuarj izR;sd Hkkjrh;kaP;k eukr vkh vis{kk gksrh fd
vkrk pkaxys fnol ;srhy vFkkZr nskkP;k fodklkcjkscjp R;k fodklkph QGs [kkyP;k
oxkZi;Zar iksgprhy vkh vis{kk gksrh + ijarq oLrqr% 65 okkZauarj lq)k vkFkhZd fodklkpk
Qk;nk xjhc tursyk >kyk ukgh + ;kapk ifj.kke vkiY;kyk ikgk;yk feGkyk rks 2013
&2014 P;k fnYyh ;sFkhy fo/kku lHksP;k fuoM.kqdhr dstjhoky ;kaP;k vki ikVhZps
ljdkj LFkkiu >kyh +vusd dk;ns vkf.k mik;;kstuk d#ugh Hkkjrkrhy nkfjnz deh
>kys ukgh +myV rs ojpsoj ok<r vkgs +
nkfjnz fueqZyuk djrk Hkkjr ljdkjus [kkyhy dk;Zdze xzkeh.k fodkl vkf.k
jkstxkj fufeZrhlkBh lq# dsysys vkgsr +

Lo.kZt;arh xzke &Lojkstxkj ;kstuk&1999@

jk"Vh; xzkeh.k thoUuksRrh vfHk;ku -2011

2 bafnjk vkokl ;kstuk


laiq.kZ xzkeh.k jkstxkj ;kstuk&2001

4 iariz/kku xzke lMd ;kstuk

5 iariz/kku xzkeksn; ;kstuk &2000&01

lqo.kZt;arh kgjh jkstxkj ;kstuk &1997

7 vaR;ksn; vUu ;kstuk &2001

8 okYEkhdh vkacsMdj vkokl ;kstuk&2001
9 jk"Vh; xzkeh.k jkstxkj geh ;kstuk &2005
10 vf/kd mRiknu ns.kk;k ok.kkapk dk;Zdze &1965

ISBN 81-86067-27-2

April, 2016

11 iariz/kku jkstxkj ;kstuk & 1993

nkfjnz fueqZyukaps mik; %

yksdla[;k o`/nh fu;af=r dj.ks

jkstxkj fuekZ.k dj.ks

for.kkRed U;k;

ksrtfeuhojhy Hkkj deh dj.ks

dkG;k /kukph lekIrh

;kstuk o R;kaP;k vaeyctkouhps fodsahfdj.k

v;k izdkjs nkfjnz fueqZyukaps mik; vlys rjh ;k lkscr fotsps mRiknu o

forj.k ;kr ok< dj.ks] jkstxkjfufeZrhlkBh mfVkfHkeq[k o dkyc/n Lo:ikP;k ;kstuk

r;kj dj.ks] fodkl dk;Zdzekr yksdkapk lgHkkx ok<fo.ks bR;knh- nkfjnz fueqZyukaP;k
dk;Zdzekr xSjkkldh; laLFkkauk lgHkkxh d#u ?ks.ks- gk nkfjnz fueqZyukalkBh ,d izHkkoh
mik; B# ldrks

O;kolkf;d lektdk;Z %
O;Drhps thou le`/n dj.;klkBh fofo/k ekxkZpk voyac djrk ;srksekuo ijLijkaP;k laca/kkr jkgrksmn~Hkorkr-


g;k ijLij vkarjf;kae/kwu o laca/kkrwu leL;k

ek.klkP;k thoukoj lrr cnykps] ifjfLFkrhaps vk?kkr gksrkr-

ekxkZauh ekuoh thoukr fofo/k leL;k fuekZ.k gksrkr-


tls& vijk/k] cky vijk/k]

vfLFkjrk] jksxjkbZ] O;lus] ekufld vktkj] o`/nkoLFksP;k leL;k] fuokZflr] HkwdaixzLr]

naxyxzLr] vlqjf{krrk] csdkjh] nkfjnz;] dkSVqafcd leL;k] yksdla[;sph ok<] vHkko xzLrrk
g;k leL;k lksMo.;kl] enr dj.kkjk lektdk;Z gk ,d O;olk; vkgs-


O;Drhps dY;k.k lk/krkauk O;Drh dY;k.kkpk lektdY;k.kkkh vl.kk;k laca/kkoj Hkj o


ISBN 81-86067-27-2

April, 2016

lkekftd lglaca/kkojhy Hkj lektdk;kZps oSfk"V;s vkgs-

ukrslaca/kko:u n`"Vhdksu]

R;krhy cny] mipkj] izfrca/k] izxrh] iquoZlu gh lektdk;kZph deZ{ks=s vkgsr-

;quksph 1959 ph lektdk;kZph O;k[;k %

lektdk;kZpk msk O;Drh o frps lkekftd okrkoj.k ;kr lek;kstu fuekZ.k

dj.;klkBh enr dj.ks vkgs- gh ,d la?kVhr jhrhjus] i/nrkhji.ks dsyh tk.kkjh rh

vkgs- O;Drh] xV fdaok leqnk;kauk] cnyR;k lektkkh lek;kstu dj.;kr ;s.kk;k
nwj dj.;klkBh o R;kaP;k lek;kstukkh lacaf/kr @lek;kstu dj.;klkBh vl.kk;k xjtk
iw.kZ dj.;klkBh r;kj dsysY;k fdaok ;kstysY;k ra=kapk o i/nrhpk okij ;kr dsyk tkrksO;Drh] xV o leqnk;kauk cnyR;k lkekftd LFkkukakh lek;kstu djrk ;kos Eg.kwu
lgdk;kZRed rh}kjs vkfFkZd o lkekftd ifjfLFkrhr lq/kkj.kk ?kMowu vk.kyh tkrs- vkk
rhauk lektdk;Z EgVys tkrs-

nkfjnz;kps funsZkkad

(Indicaters of poverty)

nkfjnz;kph O;kIrh Bjfo.;klkBh thouekukph fdeku vko;drk Eg.kwu th ikrGh

fufpr dj.;kr ;srs fryk nkfjnz; js"kk (Below poverty line) vls Eg.krkr-

nSfud vkgkjkrhy m"ekad

MkW- nkaMsdj P;k ers 2250 dWyjh

;kstuk vk;ksxkP;k ers 2400 dWysjh xzkeh.k {ks=kdjhrk]

(Daily calories in food)]

;kstuk vk;ksxkP;k ers 2100 dWysjh kgjh {ks=kdjhrkk

njMksbZ mRi

(Per Capita Income)


ISBN 81-86067-27-2

April, 2016

dsanzh; xzkeh.k fodkl ea=ky;kP;k /kks.kkuqlkj nkfjnz;js"kk gh fofHk jkT;kr

13900 :i;kiklwu rj 16900 :i;sis{kk deh mRi xVkrhy O;Drh nkfjnz; jsks[kkyhy
ekuys tkrsk

ewyHkwr xjtkaph iwrZrk

(Fulfilment of Basic Needs)

v] oL=] fuokjk g;k izR;sd O;DrhP;k ewyHkwr xjtk vlwu ftoar jkg.;kkBh
izR;sd O;Drh R;k ewyHkwr xjtkaP;k iwrZrslkBh iz;Ru djhr vlrsk

jkg.khekukpk ntkZ

(Standard of Living)

jkg.khekukpk laca/k O;Drhyk fuoklkph iqjslh lks; vkgs fd ukgh vkf.k yTtk
j{k.kklkBh vaxHkj oL=s vkgsr dh ukgh ;kP;kakh vlrksk

njMksbZ [kpZ

(Per Capita Expenditure)

thoukkh lrr la?kkZ d:ugh tsOgk nq;e xjtkaoj [kpZ d: kdr ukgh vkk
O;Drh nfjnzh let.;kr ;srkrk

nkfjnz;kps dkj.ks %
oS;fDrd dkj.ks

lkekftd dkj.ks

vkfFkZd dkj.ks




okbZV lo;h
ekufld nqcZyrk

lkekftd ljapuk
tkrh; O;oLFkk
lkekftd :<h&ijaijk
xfyPN oLR;k


ksrhps ekxklysi.kk
vi;kZIr fodkl
ok<rh yksdla[;k
mRi o ekyeRrsps
vleku forj.k
k csdkjh
k nG.koG.k vkf.k lapkj
xzkeh.k Hkkxkr vi;kZIr

ISBN 81-86067-27-2

April, 2016

nkfjnz;kps nqifj.kke %








lanHkZ xzaFk lqph %

izk +dkskkiYys]y{e.k +Hkkjrkrhy lkekftd dY;k.k izkklu +vkSjaxkckn % fo|k cqDl


yksVs jk- t- Hkkjrh; lekt vkOgkus vkf.k leL;k-ukxiqj % fiiGkiqjs vW.M daifCYkklZ]2011


ISBN 81-86067-27-2

April, 2016

iqfyl fujh{kdksa dh Hkwfedk ,oa lekt dk;ZdrkZ

dh vko;drk
izk- uanfdkksj Hkxr
kks/k Nk= ,oa foHkkx izeq[k
vijk/kkkL=]U;k; o lekt dk;Z
vkBoys lekt dk;Z egkfo|ky;] HkaMkjk

iqfyl foHkkx ds ekrkgr lekt esa dkuwu vkSj O;oLFkk LFkkfir djus dh
ftEesnkjh gS A tc mDr ftEesnkjh dk fuokZgu fd;k tkrk gS rks ns[kk tkrk gS fd iqfyl
vkSj turk ds chp lsrq dk dke djrk gS iqfyl fujh{kd uked vf/kdkjh A bl
vf/kdkjh dh Hkwfedk ds varxZr gh dkQh dk;ksZa dk lekosk gksrk gS A bls viuh Hkwfedk
fuHkkrs le; dkQh dfBukbZ;ksa dk vkSj ck/kkvksa dk lkeuk Hkh djuk iM+rk gS A dkuwu
vkSj O;oLFkk ,oa izfrca/kkRed Hkwfedk fuHkkrs le; iqfyl fujh{kdksa dh leL;kvksa dk
lEiw.kZ v/;;u fd;k tk ldrk gS A xkSj djus okyh ckr gS fd iqfyl fujh{kd vf/kdkjh
dh Hkwfedk dkQh tfVy gksrh gS vr% mldh Hkwfedk dks vkSj vklku cukus rFkk dkuwu
vkSj O;oLFkk dks LFkkfir djus ds fy, iqfyl Fkkuksa esa rK lekt dk;Zdrk dh
vko;drk vf/kd utj vkus yxh gSA D;ksfd iqfyl vf/kdkjh dkuwu dks HkfyHkkafr
tkurk gS fdarq tc ikfjokfjd ekeys gks ;k fQj turk ls lEca/k LFkkfir djus dk le;
gks rc og ukdke gksrk gS A iqfyl ij izku mBrs gSa A bl ekeys esa iqfyl fujh{kd
vf/kdkjh izfkf{kr ugha gksrk gS tcfd lekt dk;ZdrkZ Mhxzh ds lkFk oSKkfud i)fr ls
ikjaxr gksrk gS A ogk tkurk gS fd dSls leL;kvksa dk fuiVkjk dsl LVMh] lkeqinsku
ds }kjk fd;k tk, A
ladsrkCn % iqfyl fujh{kd] lekt dk;ZdrkZ] lqiwnZ]

izLrkouk %
lekt esa vijk/kksa dh jksdFkke vkSj fu;a=.k ds fy;s iqfyl uked laLFkk dk mi;ksx fd;k
tkrk gSaA orZeku le; fnu&c&fnu bruk vf/kd tfVy gksrk tk jgk gSa fd bls lkekU;

ISBN 81-86067-27-2

April, 2016

minskksa o ijEijkxr fopkjksa }kjk fu;af=r djuk lEHko ughaa gSaA iqfyl dks lekt ds
vijkf/k;ksa ds fo:/n izFke izfrj{kk iafDr ekuk tk ldrk gSaA VSoucke ds erkuqlkj
iqfyl }kjk gh loZizFke vijk/k rFkk vijk/kh ls lEcfU/kr dk;Zokgh dh tkrh gSa] blhfy;s
mu ij tks izkjafHkd dk;Zokgh dh tkrh gSa] ogh ckn ds lHkh pj.kksa ij U;k;ky; rFkk
tsy vkfn dk vk/kkj curh gSaA blfy;s vijk/kh dk irk yxkuk] mldks fxjrkj djds
U;k;ky; esa mifLFkr djkuk rFkk ml ij dkuwu dh vogSayuk dk vfHk;ksx yxkuk iqfyl
dk drZO; ekuk tkrk gSaA nwljs] ljy 'kCnks esa ;g Hkh dgk tk ldrk gSa fd iqfyl dk
izeq[k dk;Z oLrqr% dkuwu vkSj O;oLFkk LFkkiu djuk gSaA blh dk;Z dks laikfnr djus
dk dk;Z iqfyl ny ds fofo/k in ij vklhu vf/kdkjh djrs A dkuwu vkSj O;oLFkk dks
cuk, j[kus ds fy, buesa lcls vge Hkwfedk iqfyl fujh{kd vf/kdkfj;ksa dh gksrh gS A
;s vf/kdkjh eq[;rk iqfyl Fkkuksa ,oa fofo/k kk[kkvksa esa fu;qDr gksrs gSa A


fujh{kdksa dk turk ls lh/kk lEidZ vkrk gS A bUgsa dk;Z dk cks> Hkh dkQh gksrk gS vkSj
budh enn ds fy, lektdk;ZdrkZ vge Hkwfedk fuHkkrk gS A Fkkuksa dh ikfjokfjd]
lkekftd gks ;k vkijkf/kd dslsl gks mues oSKkfud i}fr ls lqy>kus dk dk;Z og djrk
gS A iqfyl vkSj lektdk;ZdrkZ dks fuEu izdkj ls le>k tk ldrk gS A
iqfyl vaxzsth dk kCn gSa] tks ;wukuh 'kCn ^^iqfyl** ,oa ySfVu 'kCn ^^iksfyfV;k** ls
cuk gSaA 'kCndksk ds vuqlkj bldk 'kkfCnd vFkZ gSa& uxjiky ;k vkj{kh A bl izdkj
^^iqfyl** 'kCn dk iz;ksx ,d ,slh izkklfud O;oLFkk ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSa ftldk dk;Z
1- 'kkfUr O;oLFkk dh LFkkiuk rFkk 2- dkuwu dks ykxw djus ls gksrk gSaA
izksQslj lnjySaM ds 'kCnkuqlkj & ^^iqfyl 'kCn izkFkfed :i ls jkT; ds mu vfHkdj.kksa
dh vksj ladsr djrk gSa] ftudk dk;Z dkuwu vkSj O;oLFkk] foks"k dj fu;fer vijk/kh
lafgrk dks ykxw djuk gksrk gSaA**


ISBN 81-86067-27-2

April, 2016

eksj;kVhZ ds vuqlkj ^^;g flfoy vf/kdkfj;ksa dh ml laLFkk dh vksj ladsr djrh gSa tks
'kkfUr vkSj O;oLFkk dks LFkkfir djus] vijk/k dk irk yxkus o mldh jksdFkke djus
,oa dkuwu dks ykxw djus esa yxs gq, gSaA**
bl izdkj iqfyl jkT; dk ;g izHkkokkyh vfHkdj.k gSa] tks dkuwu vkSj O;oLFkk dks
cuk;s j[krk gSa rFkk budks Hkax djus okys O;fDr;ksa dks U;k;ky; ds lqiqnZ djrk gSaA
lkekftd ,oa U;kf;d {ks= esa iqfyl dks ,d egRoiw.kZ LFkku izkIr gSa] D;ksafd vijk/kh ls
izFke lk{kkRdkj iqfyl gh djrh gSaA ljy 'kCnksa esa ge ;g dg ldrs gSa fd iqfyl
O;oLFkk jkT; }kjk LFkkfir U;k;;U= dk ,d vax gSa] tks ,d izfrfuf/k gksus ds ukrs
vijkf/k;ksa dks [kkstus rFkk fxjrkj djus dk iz;kl djrk gSa rFkk vijk/kksa dh Nkuchu
djds vkSj dkuwuksa dk mYya?ku jksdrs gq;s lEiw.kZ lekt esa 'kkfUr vkSj dkuwu O;oLFkk
cuk;s j[kus esa lgk;d gksrk gSaA

Hkkjrh; iqfyl dk bfrgkl%

Hkkjr dh orZeku iqfyl O;oLFkk ewyr% fczfVk i/nfr ij vk/kkfjr gSaA

;g O;oLFkk

yxHkx Ms<+ lkS o"kZ iqjkuh gSa] ysfdu bldk vkk; ;g dnkfi ughaa fd blds iwoZ Hkkjr
esa dksbZ iqfyl O;oLFkk gh ugha FkhA Hkkjr ds izkphu bfrgkl esa fn[kkbZ nsrk gSa fd
iqfyl Hkkjrh; lekt dh fg nsu gSaA

loZizFke bldk xBu Hkh Hkkjr esa gh gqvkA

izkphu xzUFkksa euqlafgrk] jkek;.k] egkHkkjr vkfn esa Hkh iqfyl dh gh rjg dh O;oLFkk
dk mYys[k feyrk gSaA ml dky esa iqfyl izkklu jktk ds gkFkks esa dsfUnzr gksrk FkkA
lkFk gh iqfyl dks 'kkfUr&O;oLFkk LFkkfir djus ds {ks= esa dk;Z djus dh iwjh&iwjh
Lora=rk FkhA
xqIr dky esa iqfyl izkklu ,d vyx foHkkx ds v/khu dk;Z djrk FkkA

pksyks ds

'kkludky esa iqfyl dk lqlaxfBr Lo:i esa xBu gks pqdk FkkA ml dky esa vijkf/k;ksa

ISBN 81-86067-27-2

April, 2016

dk irk yxkus ds fy, vf/kdkjh fu;qDr fd;s tkrs FksA xqIr 'kklu dky esa iqfyl cy
ds eq[; vf/kdkjh dks ^^egkn.Mkf/kdkjh** dgk tkrk Fkk] ftlds v/khu] vf/kdkfj;ksa dks
^^n.Mkf/kdkjh** dgk tkrk FkkA

g"kZo/kZu ds 'kklu dky esa iqfyl vf/kdkfj;ksa dks

^^lkaf/kd**] ^^pkS;ksZ/kkf.kZd** rFkk ^^n.Mikfkd** dgk tkrk Fkk] tks ftyk] dLcs vkSj xkao
dh 'kkfUr&O;oLFkk cuk;s j[kus ds fy, mRrjnk;h gksrs FksA

lezkV vkksd ds ,d

fkykys[k esa a ^^iqfl** uked vf/kdkjh dk fooj.k feyrk gSaA fkykys[k ls ;gh Li"V
gksrk gSa fd vkksd ds dky esa a Hkh iqfyl&O;oLFkk Fkh] tks tsy] n.M foHkkx vkSj U;k; dk
dke djrh FkhA
eqxydky esa 'kkafr O;oLFkk cuk, j[kus ds fy, eqxy 'kkldks us Hkh ,d lqlaxfBr iqfyl
O;oLFkk ykxw dh FkhA

ijUrq ;g i/nfr iwoZorhZ fgUnw dkyhu O;oLFkk ls iw.kZr% fHk

iqfyl ds eq[; vf/kdkjh dks ^^QkStnkj** dgk tkrk Fkk] ftlds v/khuLFk

vf/kdkfj;ksa dks ^^njksxk** ;k ^^dksroky** dgrs FksA iqfyl cy ds lcls dfu"B oxZ ds
deZpkjh dks ^^flikgh** dgk tkrk FkkA xqIrpj foHkkx dks ^^[kqfi;k iqfyl** dgk tkrk
Fkk] ftldk dk;Z vijk/k vkSj vijkf/k;ksa dk irk yxkus rFkk tkp&iM+rky djus esa
iqfyl cy dh lgk;rk djuk FkkA

izkar ls izeq[k iqfyl izkkldh; vf/kdkjh dks

^^lqcsnkj** ;k ^^ukfte** dgk tkrk FkkA

Hkkjr esa fczfVk 'kklu ykxw gksus ds i'pkr dqN o"kksZ rd fczfVk 'kkldks us eqxy
O;oLFkk dks gh dqN ifjorZuksa ds lkFk tkjh j[kkA lu 1816 ds vf/kfu;e ds vuqlkj
xkao dk eqf[k;k ogk dh iqfyl dk insu vf/kdjh gksrk FkkA og vijkf/k;ksa dks idM+dj
mUgSa ftys ds iqfyl vf/kdkjh dks lkSairk Fkk] ijUrq NksVs eksVs ekeys og Lo;a fuiVk
ysrk FkkA lu 1860 ds iqfyl vk;ksx us blh O;oLFkk dks FkksM+s cgqr ifjorZuksa ds lkFk
xzkeksa esa ykxw fd;s jgus dh vuqkalk dh FkhA


ISBN 81-86067-27-2

April, 2016

Hkkjr esa lu 1857 dh kafr xnj ds ifj.kke Lo:i fczfVk 'kklu dks izpfyr iqfyl
O;oLFkk esa ifjorZu djus dh vko;drk vuqHko gqbZ D;ksafd iqfyl dh T;knfr;ksa ds
dkj.k turk dk jks"k c<+ x;k Fkk rFkk iqfyl ls mldk fookl iw.kZr% mB x;k FkkA
vr% iqfyl vf/kfu;e] 1861 ikfjr x;k ftlds }kjk iqfyl cy dks iquxZfBr fd;k x;k
rkfd og vijk/kksa ds fuokj.k dk dk;Z izHkkoh <ax ls dj ldsA vijk/k vkSj vijkf/k;kssa
dh tkp & iM+rky ,oa irk yxkus ds vykok iqfyl dks ;krk;kr O;oLFkk] i'kqvksa dks
wjrk ls cpkus] ukk[kksjh] tuLokLF; lEcU/kh ladVks ij fuxjkuh j[kus vkfn ds
vfrfjDr dk;Z Hkh lkSais x;sA fczfVk 'kklu }kjk lrr iquZfujh{k.k iz.kkyh ls xBu fd;s
tkus ds dkj.k Hkkjrh; iqfyl izkklu dks lalkj dh mRre O;oLFkk ekuk x;kA
lu 1947 esa foHkktu ds dkj.k nsk jktuhfrd o lkekftd lae.k fLFkfr ls xqtj
jgk FkkA

vktknh ds ckn blh iqfyl ,DV lu 1861 ds vk/kkj ij dqN lakks/kuksa ds

lkFk orZeku Hkkjrh; iqfyl dk xBu fd;k x;kA

egkjk"V jkT; iqfyl ny dk laxBu rFkk jpuk %

egkjk"V jkT; dh LFkkiuk 1 ebZ 1960 dks gqbZ] ijarq fQj Hkh egkjk"V jkT; iqfyl ny
dk bfrgkl cgksr fg izkphu gSaA D;ksafd Hkkjrh; iqfyl vf/kfu;e 1861 esa vfLrRo esa
vk;k fQj Hkh blds igys ls egkjk"V esa ^iqfyl ny* bl uke ls igpkuk tkrk FkkA
orZeku esa eqacbZ iqfyl dk;nk 1951 o"kZ esa s tkjh gqvk FkkA

bl vf/kfu;e ds }kjk

iqfyl ny ds dkedkt fufpr gqosA vius nsk esa egkjk"V iqfyl ny dk uke izfl/n
gSaA bl lEiw.kZ ny ds izkklu dh ckxMkSj iqfyl egklapkyd ds gkFk esa gSaA iqfyl
egklapkyd ds enr ds fy, buds dk;kZy; esa fuEu vf/kdkfj;ksa dh fu;qfDr dh xbZ gSaA

iqfyl egklapkyd
vfrfjDr iqfyl egklapkyd
dkuwu o lqO;oLFkk

ISBN 81-86067-27-2


April, 2016

lgk;d iqfyl egkfujh{kd

dk;nk o lqO;oLFkk
foks"k iqfyl egkfujh{kd
lgk;d iqfyl egkfujh{kd
foks"k iqfyl egkfujh{kd
foks"k iqfyl egkfujh{kd
izfk{k.k o [kkl iFkds
foks"k iqfyl egkfujh{kd
foks"k iqfyl egkfujh{kd
foks"k iqfyl egkfujh{kd
fu;kstu o leUo;
lgk;d iqfyl egkfujh{kd
foks"k iqfyl egkfujh{kd
lgk;d iqfyl egkfujh{kd

vkt orZeku esa egkjk"V jkT; ds iqfyl ny esa fuEu vf/kdkfj;ksa ok iqfyl
flikfg;ksa dk lekosk gSaA
iqfyl egklapkyd
vfrfjDr iqfyl egklapkyd

ISBN 81-86067-27-2

April, 2016

vfrfjDr iqfyl egkfujh{kd

iqfyl egkfujh{kd
fo'ks"k iqfyl egkfujh{kd
ukxiqj 'kgj ds iqfyl foHkkx dk laxBu bl izdkj dk fn[kkbZ nsrk gSaA
iqfyl vk;qDr
vij iqfyl vk;qDr
iqfyl mivk;qDr
lgk;d iqfyl vk;qDr
iqfyl fujh{kd
lgk;d iqfyl fujh{kd
iqfyl mifujh{kd
lgk;d iqfyl mifujh{kd
iqfyl gokynkj
iqfyl ukbZd
iqfyl fkikbZ
efgyk iqfyl fkikbZ
iqfyl Fkkuksa dh la[;k % ukxiqj ,oa HkaMkjk ftyk &

ukxiqj 'kgj % iqfyl Fkkus

& 24

ukxiqj xzkfe.k % iqfyl Fkkus

& 23

HkaMkjk 'kgj % iqfyl Fkkuk

& 1

HkaMkjk xzkfe.k % iqfyl Fkkus

& 12


ISBN 81-86067-27-2

April, 2016

izR;sd Fkkus esa nks vFkok dgha&dgha iqfyl fujh{kd ,oa vU; 'kk[kkvksa esa budh
fu;qfDr gksrh gSaA
iqfyl laxBu dh jpuk vkSipkfjd ukSdjkkgh dk ,d izdkj gSa] rFkk blesa Hkwfedk ,oa
Hkwfedk/kkjh dk vf/kd egRo gSaA D;ksafd fcuk buds dk;Z ds laxBu ds msk lQy ugha
gks ldrsA bl fy, iqfyl dfeZ;ksa dh Hkwfedk vius vki esa vyx gh egRo j[krh gSaA
gj in ij Hkwfedk, vyx vyx gh egRo j[krh gSaA gj in ij Hkwfedk, vyx vyx
gSaA ;g dguk vuqfpr ugha gksxk dh budh Hkwfedk ds vusd igyw gSa ,slk gksrs gq, Hkh
iqfyl dfeZ;ksa dks viuh Hkwfedk dh ckjhfd;ksa dk iw.kZr% Kku gksrk gSaA ,slk Bksl :i ls
ugha dg ldrsA mlh izdkj Hkwfedk fuHkkus esa lg;ksxh ?kVd] vkus okyh vlqfo/kk,a ;g
Hkh Hkwfedk ds dqN igyw gSa A

lektdk;ZdrkZ dh vko;drk %
lektdk;Z vH;kle iw.kZ djus ds i'pkr lekt dk;ZdrkZ vius Kku o dkSky dk
oSKkfud i/nfr ls mi;ksx djds lekt esa leL;kvksa dk O;kolkf;d n`f"Vdks.k dks lkeus
j[kdj fujkdj.k djrk gSa] vr% og fofHk foHkkxksa esa a viuh lsok,a iznku djrk gSaA
blh ckr dks /;ku esa j[kdj iqfyl foHkkx esa a vijks{k ,oa vLFkkbZ lekt dk;ZdrkZvksa dh
fu;qfDr;k gqbZ gSa fdarq ijks{k :i ls iqfyl Fkkuksa esa a lekt dk;ZdrkZvksa dh LFkk;h
fu;qfDr;k ugha dh tk jgh gSaA tcfd iqfyl Fkkuksa esa vijk/k izfrca/k ds fy, lekt
dk;ZdrkZ dh ije vko;drk dbZ fjiksVZ ,oa lektdk;Z fo}kuksa }kjk ckj&ckj O;Dr dh
tkrh jgh gSaA iqfyl Fkkuksa esa a lekt dk;ZdrkZ dh ije vko;drk utj vkrh gS njly
lektdk;ZdrkZ tksfd LukRdksRrj inoh/kkjh gksrk gS vkSj mls oSKkfud i}fr o rduhfd
:i ls dsl LVMh] fjiksfVZax djus esa egkjr gkfly gksrh gS bl dkj.k og fofo/k dslsl
gy djus esa ikjaxr gksrk gS Aog iqfyl Fkkuksa o iqfyl foHkkx dh vU; foks"k kk[kkvksa
esa O;kIr dslsl dh isafMax Qkbyksa dk fuiVkjk vius gquj ds cy ij dj ldrk gS A

ISBN 81-86067-27-2

April, 2016

lektdk;ZdrkZ dh vko;drk bl fy, Hkh t:jh tku iM+rh gS fd og iqfyl fujh{kdksa

ds dke dk cks> cgqr gn rd gydk dj vkSj muds chp leUo; LFkkfir djus dk dk;Z
Hkh dj ldrk gS A
lekt dY;k.k ds {ks= esa a dk;ZdrkZvksa ds ckjs esa a dqN xyr /kkj.kk Hkh gSaA
LoSfPNd dk;ZdrkZ] ckyokM+h v/;kid] cky lsfodk] lnuksa ds v/kh{kd] fpfdRlk
dk;ZdrkZ] eq[; lsfodk] lekt&fk{kk vk;kstd vkfn lcdks lkekftd dk;ZdrkZ dgk tkrk
gSaA lkekftd dk;Z esa a lkekftd dk;ZdrkZ ls vfHkizk; ml dk;ZdrkZ ls gSa] tks ch-,- ikl
djus ds i'pkr~ fdlh ekU;rk izkIr lkekftd&dk;Z&laLFkk ls nks lky dk O;kolkf;d
izfk{k.k izkIr djds fMxzh vFkok fMIyksek izkIr djsA nwljs 'kCnksa esa a lekt dk;Z esa ogh
dk;ZdrkZ dke dj ldrk gSa] ftlus izfk{k.k&iz.kkyh ls fufpr Kku izkIr djus dk izkIr fd;k gksA bl Kku dh izkfIr ds fy, fuEufyf[kr fo"k; lfEefyr gksrs
gSa A


O;olk; dh cqfu;knh fof/k;k rFkk izfof/k;k

fofk"V dk;Z{ks= dk izfk{k.k

{ks=&dk;Z QhYModZ i/nfrA

bl izfk{k.k ds lkFk&lkFk lkekftd dk;ZdrkZ esa O;olk; ds izfr fu"Bk] leok; psruk
vkSj O;kolkf;d bZekunkjh gksuh pkfg, vkSj dk;ZdrkZ dks fujarj dke feyus ds lkFk
mldk esa gurkuk Hkh feyuk pkfg,A
dbZ ckj ;g dgk tkrk gSa fd O;kolkf;d lekt&dk;ZdrkZ ds ikl og fu"Bk ughaa gksrh]
tks fd nq%[kh yksxksa dh lsok djus ds fy, vko;d gSaA ;g /kkj.kk Bhd ughaa gSa fd
voSrfud LoSfPNd dk;ZdrkZ gh lekt&lsok ds dk;Zeksa dks vPNh rjg dj ldrk gSaA
izfk{k.k ds lkFk&lkFk lkekftd dk;ZdrkZ dks lsokFkhZ ds lkFk lgkuqHkwfr rks gksuh gh


ISBN 81-86067-27-2

April, 2016

pkfg,] fdUrq jkxkRed laca/k ughaa gksuk pkfg,A dk;ZdrkZ lsokFkhZ ds lkFk feydj dke
djs] u fd lsokFkhZ ds fy,A
LoSfPNd dk;ZdrkZ ds mi;ksx dks lket&dk;Z esa de LFkku ughaa fn;k tkrkA okLro esa a
lket dY;k.k dk iwjk {ks= LoSfPNd dk;ZdrkZvksa ds gkFk esa gSaA ysfdu tgk LoSfPNd
dk;ZdrkZ] turk vkSj lekt&dk;Z laLFkk ds chp laidZ iSnk djrk gSa] ogk O;kolkf;d
dk;ZdrkZ lsokFkhZ ds lkFk dk;Z djds mldh vko;drkvksa dks iwjk djrk gSa A ;g Li"V gSa
fd LoSfPNd dk;ZdrkZ rFkk O;kolkf;d dk;ZdrkZ dk viuk&viuk i`Fkd~ {ks= gSaA dksbZ
,d nwljs ds fcuk lf; lsok ughaa dj ldrkA
Hkkjr esa vc rd lekt&dk;Z LoSfPNd laLFkkvksa }kjk gksrk jgk gSa vkSj vkxs Hkh ,slk gh
gksxkA blfy, LoSfPNd dk;ZdrkZvksa dh vko;drk gesa jgSaxhA blds lkFk&lkFk lsok
dks vf/kd mi;ksxh] iz;kstukRed rFkk izHkkoh cukus ds fy, O;kolkf;d dk;ZdrkZvksa dh
vko;drk izfrfnu c<+rh jgrh gSa A vktdy O;kolkf;d lekt dk;ZdrkZ lkekftd ;kstuk
fuekZrk] lkekftd izkkld] lnu&v/kh{kd] lekt fk{kk la;kstd] Ldwy lkekftd dk;Z
lsod] ifjoh{kk vf/kdkjh] funskd] ifjokj fu;kstu fk{kd vkfn inksa ij dk;Z dj jgSa
gSa A

lanHkZ xzaFk lwph %


bZukenkj vjfoan] iqfyl nSuafnuh] eqacbZ% egkjk"V jkT; iqfyl] 1998A


diwj ,p-,y-] iqfyl ,MfefuLVsku] fnYyh% bZ-,l-,l- ifCydsku] 1989A


pkSgku ,e-,l-] vijk/kkkL= ,oa vijkf/kd izkklu] bykgkckn% lsaVy ykW ifCydsku]


ijkatis u-oh-] vijk/kkkL= ,oa naM izkklu] bykgkckn% lsaVy ykW ifCydsku] 1995A


c?ksy Mh-,p-] vijk/kkkL=] fnYyh% foosd izdkku] 1993A


csMsdj Ogh-,p-] gk Vw jkbZV vlkbuesa V] fjlpZ isij] MsljVsku vWaM fFklsl] fnYyh% dud
ifCydsku] 1982A


HkkaMkjdj iq-y-] lkekftd lakks/ku i/nfr] ukxiqj% nRrlu izdkku] 1976A


Hkq"k.k ch] fMDkujh vkWQ lkskkWykWth] fnYyh% vueksy ifCydsku] 1989A


esa Jke ,l-,l-] lkekftd lakks/ku ^^izkR;f{kdkaP;k n`f"Vus**] ukxiqj% ,l-ds- lsYl] 1995A


eqdthZ jfoanzukFk] lkekftd 'kks/k o lkaf[;dh] fnYyh% foosd izdkku] 1992A


ISBN 81-86067-27-2

April, 2016


fn?ks ,l-Mh-] vVd% iqfyl dk;nk% ukxfjdkaps gDd] eqacbZ% eksukfodkk izdkku] 1998A


nqcs jesa kizlkn] fodklkhy lekt vkSj iqfyl] fnYyh% lfOglsl ifCyfkax gkl] 1978A


jLrkSxh vkj-ds-] vijk/kkkL= esa jB% latho izdkku 1996A


jkor gfj".k] lektkkL= dks"k] t;iqj% jkor ifCydsku] 1995A


jkor gfj".k] lektkkL= fodks"k] t;iqj% jkor ifCydsku] 1998A


jLrkSxh vkj-ds-] lektkkL= ds fl/nkar] esa jB% latho izdkku 1995A


oktis;h ,l-vkj-] lkekftd vuqla/kku rFkk losZ{k.k] dkuiqj% fdrkc?kj] 1961A


olq uxsanzukFk] fgUnh foodks"k] fnYyh% ch-vkj- ifCyfkax dkWiksZjsku] 1986A


Lokeh feuk{kh] iqfyl vkSj lekt] fnYyh% fdrkc?kj] 1997A


flag ,e-ih-] iqfyl izkWCye vWaM fMysekl bu bafM;k] fnYyh% feRry ifCydsku] 1989A


flag Ogh-]ch-] lkekftd vuqla/kku losZ{k.k ,oa lkaf[;dh] esa jB% jktho izdkku] 1993A


ik.Ms; rstLdj] ik.Ms; vkstLdj] lektdk;Z &nkZu] y[ku% Hkkjr izdkku] 2009A


ISSN - 2454-2105

Vol. III, Issue No. 2, April to August, 2016


Subhash S.Ghawghawe
M.Com. G.D.C. & A.
Retd. Co-operative Office Grade - I
Cell : 9168313965

Abstract :
The focus of this study is Management system of Tirupati, an important pilgrimage centre for
Hindus deriving its importance and popularity due to location of sacred Hindu Shrine of Sri
Venkateshwara Swami (an incarnation of God) atop the seven sacred hills of Tirumala located in
Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh. According to Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams (TTD), the
main religious institution in the form of a charitable trust formulated by the state under the TTD
Act, over 22.6 million pilgrims visited the temple during 2014 thereby offering Rs.831 crore in
'Srivari Hundi'.
Key Words : Management System, Tirupati Tirumala Shrine

I Introduction
Religion is one of the social institutions of this country and it is a product of human ingenuity
with the purpose of enabling man to be at peace with himself and with the supposed agency that
would guide and control the universe.
Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams (TTD) is the main religious institution in the form of a
charitable trust formulated by the state under the TTD Act. In recent years by launching various
schemes and programmes, the activities of the TTD have spread over to different parts of the
country. There had been a lot of dissatisfaction among the people over the working of different
religious institutions in the State and on their utilization of funds. In recent times, the
administration of the TTD had been subjected to severe criticism. Public interest and
Government concern seemed to have increased in the matter of proper functioning of the TTD.


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The operations of the TTD are not confined to the propagation of the Hindu religion, but also
enter into the national life by extending its helping hand for social upliftment of the people in the
country. Apart from the worships provided in the temple, for pilgrims, the TTD is providing
extensive facilities and amenities to visiting pilgrims for their comfortable stay when they came
for darshan of the Lord Tirumala. So far, no attempt was made for a comprehensive study of the
administration and finances of religious institutions in Andhra Pradesh and with special reference
to the TTD, which is considered to be one of the richest temples managing body in the world. It
was felt desirable to go into all aspects of administrative and financial matters and investment
pattern of the TTD to have a close look on its effective functioning.
A glimpse of the ancient management & administration

The history of the region commences with the Mauryas who extended their sway to the

south after overthrowing the Nandas. After the decline of the Mauryan Empire, the territory
constituting the present Chittooor district came under the control of the Satavahanas whose rule
lasted for more than four centuries. The region then passed under the Pallavas, & the territory
passed out of their control in the middle of the 4th century A.D., when the Gupta ruler.

The Prabandha Four Thousand, the ancient Vaishanava piece of Literature are poems

attributed by tradition to a certain number of devotees, generally counted as twelve and called as
Alvars. This Literature throws a considerable light on the history of Tirumala & it refers roughly
to the five centuries from 300 to 800 A.D. Three of these are known as the first Alvars, described
as singers in the classical Tamil, viz, poygai alvar, bhutam alvar and Pey alvar. Poygai Alvar, a
Vaishnav devotee, is the first of these early alvars and he is the author of the first centum of the
last thousand of the four thousand in the prabandha. He refers to this place as a sacred kshetra
(region) where Lord Vishnu has in his infinite grace manifested himself. Thus, it is clear that at
this stage the temple at Tirumala was a Vaishnavite temple and that alvar is devoted to Vishnu
and none else.

Next after the early Alvars comes Nammalvar. From Nammalvar onwards we have a

group of seven Alvars who are later in time and these also make a reference to Tirumala in their
literature. We may therefore conclude that to the Alvars whose period of life may be held to
extend from the Sangam period from the 3rd century after Christ to the 8th century A. D. when
Tirumangai Alvars flourished there has been a continuous tradition that there is a shrine called
Vengadam dedicated to Vishnu.

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The earliest inscription found in the Tirumala temple mentions the Bana prince, named

Vijayaditya, who flourished in the early half of of the 9th century. This prince is said to have
made a gift to Lord Venkatesvara at Tiruchanur .

One of the earliest Chola inscription of the temple depicts that in Madiraikonda Ko-

Parakesarivarman alias Parantaka I, ruled from 905 to 955 A. D. had gifted a lamp. It is known
from other inscription that Parantaka II Sundara Chola was the king who slept at the Golden
Hall. These two bits of evidenc show that Parantaka-devi-amman, the donor of pattam to
Tirumala, was the queen of Sundara Chola. Raja Raja I is represented by three epigraphs. The
first has already been noted as that of the Parantaka-devi-amman who presented to Lord
Venkateshwara a pattam weighing 52 kalanju of gold and set with six rubies, four diamonds and
28 pearls. Some historical introduction are preserved on a few detached slabs at Tirumala which
throw light on the functions and powers of the local political assemblies and on the process of
representation or petition to the king for the grant of land to the temple.

Jatavarman Sundara Pandya I (1250 to 1275 A.C.) placed a gilded kalasam over the

vimanam of Sri Venkateswara's shrine.


It was only in 1193 A.D. that the grant of land was made by Virarakshasa Yadavaraya

(who was not the ruler) for a daily food offering of Sri Venkatesa called Tirumanthra
tirupponakam. On the south base of the Gopuram there is another inscription of the year 1209
A.D. which tells us that the Yadavaraya Ruler Tirukkalathi Devar had made a tax free grant for
the general purposes of the temple. The village of Padirivedu in Asvamukkilainadu was granted
in 1262 A.D. by Vira Narasinga Deva Yadavaraya for the daily food offering to
Tiruvengadamudaiyan. An inscription of the year 1234 A.D. shows that the queen of
Viranarasinga presented 64 cows and two bulls for setting up to perpetual lamps.

Tirumala Tirupati was under the rule of the Vijayanagara emperors since 1336 A.D.

during which period the temples assets were accumulated. In 1517 Vijayanagara ruler Sri
Krishna Deva Raya, on one of his several visits to the temple, given gold and jewels,
enabling the Vimana (inner shrine) roofing to be gilded. Statues of Sri Krishna Deva Raya and
his married person stand in the premises of the temple.

Harihara the founder of Sangama dynasty in 1336, was succeeded by his brother Bukka I

whose son was Kumara Kampana. During this period as per the inscriptions, grants for the
village to the temple for a sandhi (offerings) twice a day in the name of Bukkarayan is again

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referred to in Saka 1379. A record of 1390 A.D. mentions the festival during which psalms were
sung within the hearing of the processional image and his consort. Devaraya II is represented by
half a dozen inscriptions. In 1429 A.D. he made a grant of three villages for certain daily

Saluva Peri Mallayadeva Maharaja (Saluva dynasty of Vijaynagar) comes to notice in the

year 1446. & the inscription registers the payment of 3000 honnu as kanike for the God.

It was only when Narasimha Saluva died in 1505 AD, another usurper Vira Narasimha,

(Tuluva Dynasty) deposed the last ruler and seized the throne for himself., Vira Narasimha was
succeeded by his younger brother, Krishnadeva Raya, by far the greatest ruler of Vijayanagara
and the most famous king in the history of India. Krishna Deva Raya lavished on the Tirumala
Venkateswara Temple numerous objects of priceless value, ranging from diamond studded
crowns to golden swords. Sri Krishnadevaraya, a staunch devotee of Lord Sri Venkateswara, had
visited the shrine seven times during his lifetime and made a range of precious offerings to the
Lord during his every visit. As per the inventory prepared by the expert committee based on the
inscriptions, the Emperor had presented one Ratna Kireetam, studded with precious stones such
as garnets (2822), emeralds (160), diamonds (423), rubies (3), sapphires (10), cat eyes (1), agate
(1) and pearls (1,339) during his first visit on 10-2-1513. In all, its total weight is recorded at
3,308 tunkhas (each tunkha is equal to 2.5 grams). On his second visit on 2-5-1513, he presented
vidudhara' (a gold ornament), three pairs of bhujakeerthis, three swords with sheaths, two
sheaths with tassels, a pendent, two pairs of addigalapeta with a gold chain and a kireetam
(crown). During the third visit on 13-6-1513, he offered to the Lord nine kinds of precious
stones. Sri Krishnadevaraya performed a Kanakabhishekam' for the Lord with 30,000 gold coins
(varahalu) during his fourth visit on 6-7-1514. One thrisaram' (three-stringed ornament), a pair
of kadiyams were donated along with the gold coins during the visit. A copper statue of Sri
Krishnadevaraya along with his consorts Tirumala Devi and Chinnadevi paying obeisance to the
Lord was presented during his sixth visit on 16-10-1518. A peetambaram' studded with nine
kinds of precious stones, was donated on his last visit on 17-2-1521. The description of each
antique with the kind of metal and the stones used for its making and its weight was mentioned
in the report.


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Achyuta Deva Raya, the step brother of Sri Krishna Devaraya became the king of Vijayana-gara.
In 1533 A.D. King Achyuta Devaraya repaired stone steps of the pushkarini of Sri Venkateswara
and got a new Pushkarani constructed near the old one.
12. With the decline of empires and dynasties, the British took over the management in 1801
A.D. and credited the income under the general revenues of the State. During the middle of the
19 th century they conferred the administration of the temple of Sri Venkateswara to the then
Mahant Sri Sevadasji of the Hathiram Mutt in 1843 A.D. Subsequently, the administration by the
Mutt came to an end in 1933 when the Committee system of management replaced Mahants. By
virtue of the Hindu Religeous Endowment Act, 1951, and the Andhra Pradesh Hindu Religeous
and Charitable Endowment Act, 1966, the management and administration was handed to a
Board of Trustees representing people from all walks of life. In 1979 the Tirupathi Tirumala
Devasthan Bill was passed and the management became autonomous with a committee of
management and also a Board. This self contained legislation has enabled the administration of
the temple to be run on efficient lines.

The Administration:

The present administrative set up of TTD under the new TTD Act is as FollowsGovernment

TTD Board

Management Committee

Executive Officer
Table 1 ( The present day administrative setup of TTD):
Administrative setup of TTD
TTD Board & Management Committee
Executive Officer TTD
Joint Exe. Officer

Special Officer

Financial Advisor
Chief Accounts Officer



Dev. Law

tor of


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The Executive Officer is the chief executive of TTD assisted by two Joint Executive Officers,
Chief Vigilance and Security Officer, Conservator of Forests, Financial Advisor & Chief
Accounts Officer, and Chief Engineer. Besides, there are officials to look after the different
branches of administration. The organization maintains 12 temples and their sub-shrines, four
dozen departments, strong work force to tackle the special challenges thrown up by throngs of
worshippers in managing the temple complex, its choultries, guest houses, other shrines
on/down hills, public places, ghat roads, crowd control, prasadam making laddu, Gods
jewellery, donations, hundi collections, hair tonsuring, queue complex and Pushkarani,
Annadanam complex, visits of VIPs, thousands and thousands of worshippers, Health, food,
travel, securities, drinking water and many duties.
Table 2 ( The decision making process):



Release of funds

feedback from

Decision-making process

Ministerial Staff: Concerned Case

worker/ Superintendent/A.E.O.(S)/
Dy.E.O.(S)/ J.E.O.
Teaching Staff: Concerned Case
D.E.O./ J.E.O.
Case worker/ Superintendent
/A.O./C.A.O./ F.A.&C.A.O./ E.O.
Depending upon each case.
Case worker/ Superintendent/
A.O./C.A.O./ F.A.&C.A.O./ J.E.O./
E.O. Depending upon each case.
Concerned Case worker/
Depending upon each case.
Concerned Case worker/
Depending upon each case.

Designation of final
decision making

TTD Board
Government of A.P.
For new schemes or
contingencies decision
making authority is TTD
Board of Trustees.
TTD Board
TTD Board.

The recruitment of personnel is being done through Services Wing in respect of Ministerial Staff,
technical staff, etc., and Education Wing in respect of Teaching Staff. All other wings submit
the particulars of required staff to the Services Wing/Education Wing based on the vacancies
arising due to retirements/ expired personnel. The two wings consolidate the total vacancies in
TTD and process for recruitment as and when necessary. As per the recruitment rules, the
vacancies are being filled up by issuing notification in local news papers as well as from

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Employment Exchange by inviting applications from the eligible candidates.

A Selection

Committee will select eligible candidates.

Similarly, budget work is being done through Accounts Wing.

All other departments will

submit the budget proposals to the Accounts Wing. Budget is being allocated in accordance with
the rules in force by the TTD Board. The funds are generally released based on approved Budget.
In case of contingencies the funds are released after obtaining approval of the TTD Board.
Feedback has been gathered from public through Call Your E.O. weekly program, press,
petitions, complaints, requisitions, letters, and suggestions.
Table 3 (The discharge of functions) :

Function /
TTD policy

Norms / standards of performance set


Ensuring the pilgrims visiting Tirumala and Tirupati, satisfactory

darshan, sevas and fulfillment of their vows.


Ensuring satisfactory services in Kalyankatta, Annadanam and


service centers, etc.


Endeavouring to provide safe, comfortable stay and hygienic, peaceful

and spiritual environment.


Encouraging and Motivating its employees and volunteers in providing

information and services and making continuous improvements in all
activities which would fulfill spiritual needs of the pilgrims.


Being transparent and judicious in the use of offerings to the Lord and
other resources of TTD.

Thus, the chief executive officer ;


Provides services, amenities, welfare safety measures for the pilgrims, devotees and
worshippers resorting to TTD

Utilizes funds for religious and charitable purpose under the Board of trustees

Preserves the security, religious and holy environment at Tirumala

Looks after the Civic Administration of Tirumala Hills area

Leases the TTD lands and alienates the immovable of the TTD property

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Fixes dictum in the temples with respect to the fees for the performance of archana or any
service or ritual or utsavam or ceremony connected with the TTD.

Makes proper collection of offerings made in temples.

Recruits personnel in respect of Ministerial Staff, technical staff, etc., and Education Wing
in respect of Teaching Staff .

Ensures that the pilgrims visiting Tirumala and Tirupati may have satisfactory darshan,
sevas and fulfillment of their vows.

Ensures satisfactory services in Kalyankatta, Annadanam and other service centers, etc.

Eendeavors to provide safe, comfortable stay and hygienic, peaceful and spiritual

Encourages and to motivates employees/staff and volunteers in providing information and

services and making continuous improvements in all activities which would fulfill spiritual
needs of the pilgrims.

Show transparency and judiciousness in the use of offerings to the Lord and other resources
of TTD.

iii) The Management


Queue system at Tirumala:

Inflow of Domestic and Foreign Tourist to the Devasthanam during 2000-2009

(in millions) is shown in the table given below:

Table 4


Growth %


Growth %

Over a period of ten years the number of visitors has increased by four folds. Such a huge traffic
generates tremendous stress on the social and physical infrastructure of the temple town. There
are 32 waiting compartments to house pilgrims while they await darshan. The average waiting


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capacity of these compartments is 500. About 17,000 pilgrims can be held in waiting at any time.
The average waiting time for darshan can vary between 2-12 hours depending on the day and
season. There is tremendous uncertainty as when darshan would happen. There is also anxiety as
how long is the wait. There is no accurate information to the pilgrims on what is ahead. Because
of the commitment to the pilgrimage process, individual pilgrims go through this tedious
experience with reverence and patience. Finally, pilgrims arrive in the front of the diety. The
actual darshan lasts for about 1 to 2 seconds. However, the pilgrims can have a view of the
diety from a distance of 30 meters from the main entrance. The travel time is about 45 seconds.
Actually, the passage towards darshan admits a file of 6 or 7 columns of pilgrims to go through
the darshan process simultaneously.

Sudarshanam queue system model:

The procedure of the queue system in Tirumala is continuously being improved from time to
time. An innovative idea introduced is the Sudarshanam which means auspicious meeting of
the God the Lord Venkateswara. It is a biometric system. A band is fixed to the individual
persons hand 2 or 3 days before as a token with date and time mentioned on it. A web camera
photo of the person is also taken at that time and recorded onto the computer. Such offices or
centres are distributed all over India at selected cities like Hyderabad, Chennai, Bangalore, Delhi
etc. The arm band is all weather proof and cannot easily be destroyed for a few days unless one
can cut it with a blade or scissors. Additionally, one can reserve the date and time much in
advance, may be about one or two months in advance. It is just a ticket with a magnetic marker
given to the person with finger impression and web camera photo recorded.

A Case Study of Five Hindu Temples in Southem Ontario, Gillian McCann, University of Toronto.
A Comparative Study of Lord Jagannath Temple and T.T. Devasthanam Sarat Chandra Mahapatra, Orissa Review, July
Aiyangar S.K (1940) A History Of Tirupati, Tiru-mala Tirupati Devastanam Committee, Madras, pp. 9698.
American Missionaries and Hinduism. by Sushil Madhava Pathak, Vol. 42, No. 1 (Spring, 1969), pp. 111-113 Published
by: Pacific Affairs, University of British Columbia.
Angwin, J. (2003, August 21). Head Trip: Indian Hair Finds Parts in Hollywood . The Wall Street Journal , p. 2.
A monograph on Somapalem temples : (Chittoor district) / by N.S. Ramaswamy, 1981
Annual Report 2009-10, Ministry Of Tourism, Government Of India , International Journal of Engineering Research and
Development ISSN: 2278-067X, Volume 1, Issue 4 (June 2012), PP.01-05


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Subhash S.Ghawghawe
M.Com. G.D.C. & A.
Retd. Co-operative Office Grade - I
Cell : 9168313965

Abstract :
Some people believe that the dual image of Shiva & Vishnu is Balaji or Venkateshwara the 9 the
Lord. In Tirumula there is a pushakarni Thirth. According to the myth this Thirth Pushakarmi
was imported in the richest temple in India. Lord Vishnu came to Tirumula on the request of
Lord Brahmadev & Narada before near about 5 thousand years ago- Afterwords Avtar was
Started. Lord Vishnu attributed with taking 10 such Avtars. Rama and Krishna Avtars are
considers to be the two greatest Avtars of Vishnu in human form. After the complition of the
Krishna Avtar era Lord Vishnu desceneded on earth from his heavenly abode in Vaikuntha.
Venketeshwara, also known as Govinda, Shrinivasa, Balaji,Vasudev and Venkatacalapati in the
form of the Hindu god Vishnu. The name Venketeshwara stems from the Indian language of
Sanskrit where Ven translates to Sin, Kata Translates to destruction and Ishwara translates to
Supreme Lord. The form is more popular in Southern India.
Key Words : Management System, Tirupati Tirumala Shrine
History of Tirumula :
The mythology involved with the Temple and the concept of divinity attached with the same
compelled me to peep in to the historical background of the Tirumula Temple. The political
history of the region commenses with the Movrys who extended their sway to the South after
overthrowing the Nandas. In ancient Tamil Literature the sacred shine of Tirumula ils reffered to
by the name Vegandom. This is generally understood to refer to the hill. After completion of the
Avtar of Lord Krishna, Lord Vishnu came to Tirumula in the name Srinivas. Srinivas married
with Devi Padmavati. For their staying, Lord offered to Tondaman the younger brother of the


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Ajashraja to construct a Temple their for which near about 5000 years ago from to day.
Afterwords gradual develop;ment were done.
Medieverl Period :
9th to 17th century A.D. shows that the Tirumula temple bears several inscriptions of
considerable interest giving us full details about the temple. We have full and complete
information on the buildinghs and endowments and the noumorous visits to the temple by the
Vijaynagar rulers, especially the emperes Krishadevaraya and Achyutaraya. Among the great
rulers of South India, Raj-Raja is known to hav ebeen directly connected with the shrine of
Tirumula . Tirupati and Tirumula was below the rule of Vijaynagar emporars simce 1336 A.D.,
during which period the temples assets were accumulated. In 1517 Krishnadevaraya on one
among his several visits to tyhe temple, gave gold and Jewels.
Tirumula hills is a distinctive geological wonder located 1 km North of the Tirumula hills
temple, near the Chatra Teertham in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. The seven hills, also
called sapthagiri. Hence the lord is named Sapthagirinivasa. The seven peaks are called
Sheshadri, Neeladri, Garudadri, Anjanadri, Vrushabadri, Narayanadri, and venkatadri. The
temple is on Vemketadri and is also known as the Temple of Seven Hills.
The presiding deity of the temple is Lord Venketashwara a form of the Hindu God Vidhnu. The
temple draws millions of pilgrims and is the busiest pilgrimage center in the world. Tirupati is
connected by air with Hyderabad, Chennai and Bangolore.
Geographical Conditions
Being the world famous tourist-place of visit, the clamatic conditions, rainfall, temperature,
humidity, cloudiness posotions. The Tirupati hills are situated at the boot of a range of hills
known by several names, including seshachala, Venkatachala and Balaji.
Other Structures of the Tirumula Temple
A peep into the other structures like the Ranga Mandapam which has been construced according
to the Vijayanagar style of architecture, the Kalyana Mandapam which was built during 1600


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Study for the Goodness of Devotees

Detailed knowledge with respect to the information centers that have been established on the part
of the TTD management. Information with respect to the Public Amenities complexes at both
Tirupati and Tirumuls which provide dormitory type accomodation with lockers, free of cost has
been laid down in detail.
Information with respect to the e-Darshan centers, Sanitation and water supply, the Annamdam
(free meals) process, jthe whole process of hair tonsuring and its disposal the process of water
supply, catering services, Transportation Services, Health serious improvement in construction
of Temple, Various Arjit Pujas ans sevas, the planning for happiness and betterment of devotees
etc. have been studied.
References :
A monograph on somalapen temples (chittor distt.) by N.S. Ramaswamy.
History of Tirumula Temple by Dr. N. Ramesan IAS
Websites :
1. to/tirupatitemple