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An Indirect Approach Based on Clausius–Clapeyron Equation to Det

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An Indirect Approach Based on Clausius–Clapeyron Equation to Det

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Physics Letters A ()

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Physics Letters A

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www.elsevier.com/locate/pla

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determine entropy change for the rst-order magnetocaloric materials

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Kun Xu

a,

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Department of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Key Laboratory for Advanced Functional and Low Dimensional Materials of Yunnan Higher Education

Institute, Qujing Normal University, Qujing 655011, China

b

Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China

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a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 14 September 2015

Received in revised form 15 October 2015

Accepted 15 October 2015

Available online xxxx

Communicated by L. Ghivelder

Keywords:

Heusler alloy

Magnetocaloric effect

ClausiusClapeyron equation

Maxwell relation

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a b s t r a c t

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Taking into account the phase fraction during the structural transition for the rst-order magnetocaloric

materials, an improved isothermal entropy change ( S T ) determination has been put forward based

on the ClausiusClapeyron (CC) equation. It was found that the S T value evaluated by this method

is in excellent agreement with those determined from the Maxwell relation (MR) using magnetic

measurements for some Heusler alloys with a weak eld-induced phase transforming behavior, such

as NiMnSn Heusler alloys. In comparison with the MR based on isoeld magnetization measurements

(MRIF), this method is very convenient to obtain the S T derived from only few thermomagnetic curves.

More importantly, it is quite superior to the MR-based method in eliminating the overestimation of

S T due to the appearance of the spurious spike derived from MR employing isothermal magnetization

measurements (MRIT).

2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.

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1. Introduction

The magnetocaloric effect (MCE), which reects the magnetoresponsive ability of refrigerating when a magnetic material is submitted to the external magnetic eld variations, has emerged as an

attractive option in the new generation of energy-ecient cooling

technologies. Since the discovery of pseudo-binary Gd5 Si2 Ge2 compound by Pecharsky and Gschneidner in 1997 [1], the MCE became

a promising contender to the conventional vapor-compressive refrigerating methods under ambient conditions due to its environmental friendliness, higher cooling eciency and compactness. Since then, the giant MCE has also been extensively studied in other intermetallic compounds, such as MnAs1x Sbx [2],

MnFeP1x Asx [3], (Mn,Fe)2 P1x Six [4], La(Fe1x ,Six )13 /its hydrides

[5,6], and the family of Heusler alloys like NiMnGa [7] and Ni

MnZ (Z = In, Sn, Sb) [8]. Among these materials, the outstanding MCE is due to the involvement of latent heat produced by

structural transition in combination with magnetic ordering and

changes in the electronic band structure. In general, for the materials with direct MCE, both the lattice entropy change ( S L ) and

magnetic entropy change ( S mag ) contribute positively to the total measured MCE [9]. Whereas for the materials with inverse MCE,

the magnetocaloric response comes from the S L , and the S mag

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Corresponding author.

E-mail address: xukun0830@hotmail.com (K. Xu).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physleta.2015.10.029

0375-9601/ 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.

the rst-order magnetostructural phase transition (FOMT) tends to

be much more complicated than the second-order, i.e., purely magnetic transition.

As is well known, the characteristic parameters for a magnetocaloric compound are the isothermal entropy change ( S T ) and

the adiabatic temperature change ( T ad ) when a magnetic eld is

applied or removed. To fully exploit the MCE for a given material, it

is essential to clarify the evolution of S T or T ad with temperature and magnetic eld. Usually, determining the T ad with direct

or quasi-direct calorimetric methods is dicult and challenging.

Therefore, the simplest and most widely used experimental approach has been put forward, i.e., the S T can be derived from

Maxwell relation with a numerical form using isothermal magnetization measurements (denoted as MRIT here)

H 2

ST =

H1

M i +1 M i

M

H .

dH

T

T i +1 T i

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(1)

the last two decades. For example, a large experimental discrepancy led Gigure et al. [12] to claim that, rather than the MRIT,

the ClausiusClapeyron (CC) equation should apply to calculate

the MCE associated with FOMT, since its magnetization curve is

not a continuous, derivable function. Soon after, Gschneidner et

al. [13] argued that the discrepancy just originates from kinetic

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effect. Meanwhile, Sun et al. [14] also pointed out that CC equation is just a special case of integrated Maxwell relation and is

inadequate to evaluate the S T value for an incomplete transformation. Particularly, recent progress on the inverse MCE research for NiMnSn alloys aroused a new round of argument once

again. Zou et al. [15,16] claimed that the S T value is seriously

overestimated by MRIT in Ni43 Mn46 Sn11 due to the occurrence

of a magnetically inhomogeneous martensitic state. On the contrary, Maosa et al. [17] proved that the S T values respectively

obtained from MRIT and calorimetric measurements are in well

agreement for Ni50 Mn35 Sn15 . Despite the validity and generality of

MRIT being still under debate, it is undeniable that the direct application of MRIT would lead to some unphysical results. In most

cases, a spike is always observed on the S T ( T ) curve, especially in some materials with a pronounced eld-induced transition

[2,1822]. A spike value for Mn0.997 Fe0.003 As unexpectedly attains

up to 320 J/kg K for a eld change of 5 T under the ambient pressure [23]. This value is far above those reported for all

known magnetocaloric materials as well as the theoretical prediction. Such a colossal MCE can be attributed to the incorrect

application of MRIT, which gives rise to a spurious artifact. In fact,

some practical methods to modify the S T values obtained from

MRIT have been proposed by Liu et al. [24] and Cui et al. [25].

Nevertheless, the former one was found to be inadequate for an

extreme case of Mn0.99 Cu0.01 As [26], while the latter one is very

complex for the practical use. In addition to MRIT, the S T can

be also determined accurately by using Maxwell relation based on

isoeld magnetization measurements (referred to as MRIF here)

[27], but this method needs a large number of thermomagnetic

curves with great measuring cost. In the present work, a proper

method based on the CC equation using isoeld magnetization

measurements (CCIF) has been proposed to estimate the realistic

MCE for the magnetocaloric materials with FOMT. The feasibility

of this method was tested on the Ni43 Mn46 Sn11 , Ni50 Mn35 Sn15 and

Ni45 Co5 Mn36.6 In13.4 Heusler alloys with their inverse MCE, as well

as MnAs and Gd5 Si2 Ge2 compounds with direct MCE. All these experimental results demonstrate that such a new method using to

evaluate the S T is superior to the MR-based method.

as: (i) the isothermal M ( H ) curve measured on heating mode:

heating the sample at zero elds from T to the measuring temperature T i without overshooting the target temperature, and then

recording the isothermal magnetization M ( H ) by scanning elds

(0 H , T i ). Next, the sample was cooled back down to T at zero

elds, and heated to the next temperature, T i +1 , for measuring.

(ii) Isothermal M ( H ) curve measured on cooling mode: cooling

the sample down from T + to T i without undershooting the target temperature, and collecting the isotherm M ( H ) by scanning

elds (0 H , T i ). Afterwards, the sample was heated up to T +

at zero elds and cooled down to the next temperature, T i +1 , for

measuring. Before each M ( H ) curve measurement, the sample was

carefully recovered to the initial state, since the rst-order system

could remain partially transformed in higher magnetization after

removing the saturate eld if the cooling martensitic transformation is not crossed [26,29].

2. Experimental

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Nominal stoichiometry Ni43 Mn46 Sn11 and Ni50 Mn35 Sn15 ingots

were prepared by arc melting high-purity Ni, Mn, Sn metals under

an argon atmosphere. After melting, the samples were sealed in

evacuated quartz tubes in order to homogenize at 1173 K for 24 h,

and then subsequently quenched in ice-water. Their crystal structures and phases were veried by the X-ray diffraction (Rigaku,

Ultima IV) using Cu K radiation. The results show that both the

Ni43 Mn46 Sn11 and Ni50 Mn35 Sn15 samples are single phase with a

L21 cubic structure (austenite phase) at room temperature. The

magnetic characterizations were carried out by a Quantum Design VersaLab magnetometer (VersaLab, 3 Tesla). When dealing

with the Ni45 Co5 Mn36.6 In13.4 , MnAs and Gd5 Si2 Ge2 samples, the

correlatively experimental data were directly extracted from previous literatures [2,22,28].

The isoeld magnetization measurements were carried out as:

cooling the sample down to T (a full martensitic state) in the

absence of magnetic elds, and then the measurement was made

on increasing temperature from the T to T + (a full austenitic

state) with a scan rate of 1.0 K/min in the presence of magnetic

eld (H , T T + ). In this way, the isoeld M ( T ) heating curve

was obtained. Subsequently, the measurement was taken on the

decreasing temperature from the T + to the T without removing

the magnetic eld (H , T + T ), and the isoeld M ( T ) cooling

curve was acquired as well.

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Fig. 1. The M ( T ) curve under a static magnetic eld of 1 T for Ni43 Mn46 Sn11 sample

(full circles). The red and blue dot lines represent M A ( T ) and M M ( T ) obtained by

extrapolating the linear part of magnetization. The corresponding austenite fraction

f ( T ) is represented using a green solid line. (For interpretation of the references to

color in this gure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

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selected the intensively studied ternary Ni43 Mn46 Sn11 Heusler alloy as a representative. Fig. 1 shows its M ( T ) heating curve from

T = 150 K to T + = 240 K in the presence of a static eld H = 1 T.

The sample undergoes a reverse martensitic transformation from a

weak-magnetic martensite to a ferromagnetic austenite phase. To

our knowledge, the nite transition width is due to the inhomogeneous nature of the sample [10], and the transforming process can

be supposed to be continuous. In this case, austenite phase fraction, f ( T ), should be taken into account and it can be described

by using M ( T ) data. This is based on an assumption that the total magnetization is proportional to the phase volume fraction [10,

3033]. It is worth noting that the kinetic arrest effect [34] which

only occurs at very high elds is ignored here. In order to determine the f ( T ), it is necessary to rst obtain the magnetization

of full martensite M M ( T ) and austenite phases M A ( T ), which can

be roughly deduced by linearly extrapolating heating curve outside

the transforming region, as illustrated by the blue/red dot lines in

Fig. 1. By combining M M ( T ) and M A ( T ), the f ( T ) can be calculated by the below expression

f (T ) =

M (T ) M M (T )

M A (T ) M M (T )

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(2)

Following Eq. (2), the resultant f ( T ) curve at H = 1 T was obtained, as indicated by the green solid line in Fig. 1.

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Fig. 2. The schematic illustration of calculated f ( T ) (the black dashed line for H =

50 mT, and the green one for H = 3 T) and the corresponding f ( T ) (red solid

line) curves in the heating run for Ni43 Mn46 Sn11 sample. Inset: The M ( T ) heating

curve under elds of 50 mT and 3 T. (For interpretation of the references to color

in this gure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

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magnetic eld are equivalent thermodynamically as a driving force

for the phase transition [33], we believe that the impact of magnetic eld on the f ( T ) can be quantitatively estimated by using

M ( T ) curves measured under different magnetic elds. The inset

of Fig. 2 shows the M ( T ) curves with heating mode under 50 mT

and 3 T, respectively. From this gure, it is found that only a partial

phase fraction can be arrested by applying a moderate eld owing

to a broad transforming region (25 K) for the studied sample. In

order to obtain the exact amount of the change in f ( T ) triggered

by a change of magnetic eld ( H ) from an initial eld (H i =

50 mT) to a nal eld (H f = 3 T), we adopted the same approach

and plotted the corresponding f ( T ) curves at these two magnetic

elds as shown in Fig. 2. Consequently, the change of phase fraction induced by the change of magnetic eld, f ( T , H ), can be

computed using the expression f ( T , H ) = f ( T , H f ) f ( T , H i ),

as plotted by the red line in Fig. 2. Moreover, the total entropy

changes ( S tr ) across full transition can be quantitatively estimated by CC equation [35,36]

S tr = M (dT t /dH )1 .

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Fig. 3. (a) The M ( T ) isoeld curves upon heating and cooling in magnetic elds

of 50 mT, 1 T, 2 T and 3 T. (b) T t versus H phase diagram deduced from isoeld

curves. (c) Field dependence of M for Ni43 Mn46 Sn11 .

S T f S tr = f M

dT t

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(3)

dH

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two phases, while the dT t /dH is the change rate of phase transition equilibrium temperature with magnetic eld. Because the

f ( T , H ) directly reects the phase transformation completion

percent induced by a change of magnetic eld, evaluation of the

S T with the CCIF method has been well established as the following equation,

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(4)

elds are presented in Fig. 3(a). It is clearly observed that the T t

(the middle point in magnetization change) almost linearly decreases with the increase of magnetic elds. The values of dT t /dH

are about 2.03 K/T upon heating and 2.28 K/T upon cooling

(see Fig. 3(b)). From Fig. 3(c), one can notice that the M almost

keeps constant with increasing magnetic elds. The obtained average values are 50.7 emu/g on heating and 51.0 emu/g on

cooling. Substituting these parameters into Eq. (3), the values of

S tr for Ni43 Mn46 Sn11 are calculated to be 24.97 J/kg K and

22.37 J/kg K under heating/cooling modes, respectively. Moreover,

the f ( T , H ) from H i (50 mT) to H f (1 T, 2 T, 3 T) can be

computed by subtracting two corresponding f ( T ) curves. According to Eq. (4), the S T ( T ) curves are plotted in Figs. 4(a) and (b).

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Fig. 4. The calculated S T values for Ni43 Mn46 Sn11 : (a)(b) by CCIF; (c)(d) by

MRIT; (e)(f) by MRIF. The left panel shows those upon cooling, and the right panel

shows those for heating.

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calculated by using magnetic measurements based on Maxwell relation (i.e. MRIT and MRIF) for comparison, as shown in Figs. 4(c),

(d), (e) and (f). Obviously, the spurious spike does not appear in

these results. This behavior can be ascribed to an insucient Zee-

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Fig. 5. (a) The M ( T ) isoeld curves upon heating and cooling in magnetic elds of

50 mT, 0.5 T, 1 T, 2 T and 3 T. (b) T t versus H phase diagram deduced from isoeld

curves. (c) Field dependence of M for Ni50 Mn35 Sn15 . (For interpretation of the

references to color in this gure, the reader is referred to the web version of this

article.)

a complete transformation, resulting in an unsaturated S T for

Ni43 Mn46 Sn11 . Therefore, each S T ( T ) curve deduced from these

methods shows a peak shape, and their peak value are well coincident (13 J/kg K for a eld change of 3 T). Such a comparison

highlights the fact that these methods in estimating S T values

are quite effective. However, for the cooling protocol, the peak positions derived from CCIF and MRIF are relatively lower (3 K)

than that obtained from MRIT. This small discrepancy probably

originates from the intrinsic hysteresis effect for the studied sample.

Next, the same approach was implemented on another ternary

Heusler alloy of Ni50 Mn35 Sn15 , where T and T + were chosen

to be 120 K and 230 K, respectively. Compared to Ni43 Mn46 Sn11 ,

a larger thermal hysteresis (20 K) and a smaller saturate M

(28.0 emu/g upon heating and 31.0 emu/g upon cooling) are

remarkably displayed in Figs. 5(a) and (c). From Fig. 5(b), however,

the linear relation between T t and H drastically deviates in the

eld range below 0.3 T. Such a changing tendency has also been

reported in previous works [31,37]. It undoubtedly manifests that

the CCIF is incapable to evaluate S T for Ni50 Mn35 Sn15 over the

whole eld span. To solve this problem, we selected both the H i

and the H f in the linear region (see blue solid line) and collected

the dT t /dH with the values of 1.47 K/T and 1.75 K/T

upon heating and cooling, respectively. Utilizing these experimental parameters, the corresponding S tr calculated by Eq. (3) are

19.05 J/kg K and 17.71 J/kg K, respectively. These values are signicantly smaller than those in Ni43 Mn46 Sn11 sample. On the basis

of CCIF method, the temperature dependence of S T for the eld

change from H i (0.5 T) to H f (1 T, 2 T and 3 T) was presented in

Figs. 6(a) and (b). It also presents some large peaks around transformation point. In contrast with Ni43 Mn46 Sn11 alloy, however,

the maximum S T for the eld change from H i = 0.5 T to H f =

3 T in this sample rapidly decreases to 7 J/kg K and 9 J/kg K

during heating/cooling mainly due to reduction of the S tr . For

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Fig. 6. The calculated S T values for Ni50 Mn35 Sn15 : (a)(b) by CCIF; (c)(d) by

MRIT; (e)(f) by MRIF. The left panel shows those upon cooling, and the right panel

shows those for heating.

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Ni50 Mn35 Sn15 alloy, more importantly, the S T ( T ) curves calculated by every method (CCIF, MRIF and MRIT) are all coincident

(see Fig. 6), and are also in well agreement with that obtained

by quasi-direct calorimetric measurements [17]. These experimental results further prove that the CCIF method proposed by us to

determine MCE in NiMnSn alloys is faithworthy. According to

previous works [10,35], we can nd that an inverse MCE in Mnrich NiMn based Heusler alloys should primarily rely on three parameters including the M, the dT t /dH and the transition width.

Considering the fact that the magnetic contribution works against

the structural contribution in the NiMnSn system, it is necessary

to decrease the M suitably, and simultaneously maintain a strong

coupling to the magnetic eld for obtaining an optimized MCE.

Under this condition, in terms of Eq. (3), a larger S tr requires

a smaller dT t /dH . In this case, the only a partial phase transition

(corresponding to a small f ) would be arrested by magnetic eld

in the presence of wide transition width. For example, the dT t /dH

with a value of 2 K/T in Ni43 Mn46 Sn11 alloy, applying a magnetic

eld change of 3 T can only shift its f ( T ) curve by 6 K, which is

signicantly lower than that of transition width (25 K). As a consequence, only 50% of the transition can be induced by the eld

(see in Fig. 2) and resultant S T will thus be decreased dramatically in comparison to its S tr (see in Fig. 4). Therefore, we can

conclude that a relatively low dT t /dH is accompanied with a broad

transition width for these two NiMnSn samples, which leads to

the fact that f can only maintain in a narrow temperature interval, thus giving rise to a peak-shape S T ( T ) curves (see in Figs. 4

and 6). In reality, such a phenomenon actually reects the intrinsic nature of inverse MCE for NiMnSn system with martensitic

transformation.

A great deal of experimental studies indicated that the introduction of suitable transition-metal (Co, Fe, etc.) can improve

the inverse MCE of ternary NiMnZ alloys [22,3840]. For instance, Chen et al. have obtained an enhanced MCE in quaternary

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Fig. 7. The S T curves for a eld change H = 5 T of Ni45 Co5 Mn36.6 In13.4 by CCIF

(red open circles) and MRIT (black solid rectangles). The spike (shadow area) corresponding to MRIT was removed by the authors of Ref. [22]. (For interpretation

of the references to color in this gure legend, the reader is referred to the web

version of this article.)

Fig. 8. The S T curves of MnAs by both CCIF (solid lines) and MRIT (dot lines). The

original M ( T ) data and S T results derived from MRIT are extracted from Ref. [2].

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parameters ( M = 97.49 emu/g and dT t /dH = 5.0 K/T) for the

studied sample, an extremely high spike has been observed in its

S T ( T ) curve on account of the prominent eld-induced martensitic transition, as revealed by the square line in Fig. 7. Notably,

the spike value attains to 33.4 J/kg K for a eld change from 0

to 5 T, which exceeds the value of S tr (19.5 J/kg K). Such a result implies that the spike in S T ( T ) curve is an unphysical result

due to the overestimation by using MRIT. In fact, the authors also

deemed that an effective S T of this sample should be located

at the inection point, and the spurious spike was removed articially from the S T ( T ) curve (see in the shadow area of Fig. 7).

By applying CCIF, the S T ( T ) for the same magnetic eld change

is reconsidered in Ni45 Co5 Mn36.6 In13.4 , as shown in cycle line of

Fig. 7. More interestingly, it is found that the nal result from CCIF

is in nicely agreement with the spurious spike-removed curves

calculated from MRIT, and the problem of overestimation in the

S T ( T ) curve is eliminated effectively.

In addition to Heusler alloys, we also tried to generalize the

CCIF for the typical giant magnetocaloric materials, which usually

show a direct MCE in the vicinity of FOMT. Herein, the MnAs,

as a representative compound, was selected to test the generality of this method. For the MnAs compound, as being distinct from

aforementioned Heusler alloys, it often experiences a very sharp

transformation (with transition width less than 5 K) from a paramagnetic state with the orthorhombic NiAs-type structure to a

ferromagnetic state with the hexagonal MnP-type structure in the

cooling process [2]. In this case, Eq. (2) must be revised as follows:

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f (T ) =

M ( T ) M LT ( T )

M HT ( T ) M LT ( T )

(5)

Here, the M LT ( T ) and M HT ( T ) denote the magnetizations of lowand high-temperature phases, respectively. Adopting the M and

the dT t /dH with the values of 95.5 emu/g and 3.4 K/T, the S T of

MnAs in various magnetic elds were recalculated by using CCIF,

as displayed in Fig. 8. From this gure, it can be remarkably distinguished that the maximum S T for this sample is 28.09 J/kg K,

rather than the spike value (40.8 J/kg K) calculated by the authors. The appearance of spurious spike has also been observed

in other giant magnetocaloric compounds [28,41], which means

that the MRIT is incapable used in the case of mixed phase near

transition point. Consequently, from the results calculated by us,

the S T quickly reaches a saturated value at a low magnetic eld,

while the further increasing magnetic eld only plays a pivotal

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Fig. 9. (a) The S T curves of Gd5 Si2 Ge2 by MRIT, CCIF and another M ( T )-based

method in Ref. [28]. (b) The background removed S T curves from these three

methods. (c) The S T curve by CCIF with consideration of the variation of M.

Insets: The eld dependences of T t and M.

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intrinsic nature of MCE in MnAs with its FOMT. These ndings also

pronounce that the CCIF applying for a giant magnetocaloric system is very credible.

In the end of this paper, we adopted this method on another

important system with FOMT, Gd5 Si2 Ge2 . The same as MnAs, a direct MCE in Gd5 Si2 Ge2 is also associated with a prominent eldinduced phase transition, resulting in a spurious spike presented

in its S T ( T ) curve by the MRIT method [28]. Here, we extracted

the necessary data in Gd5 Si2 Ge2 from Ref. [28]. From the insets of

Fig. 9, in the case of studied compound, it can be clearly found

that its M reaches saturation (85.9 emu/g) rapidly followed

by a monotonous decrease with further increasing eld strength,

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JID:PLA

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0.4 T with a slope of 6.064 K/T. Using these two parameters,

we calculated the S T (0.4 T 5 T) according to CCIF, which

is compared with the results estimated by MRIT (0.4 T 5 T) and

another M ( T )-based method (0 T 5 T) in Ref. [28], as shown in

Fig. 9(a). Unexpectedly, the S T ( T ) curve obtained by CCIF deviates from MRIT, and the areas under these two S T curves are also

different. It contradicts the fact that the area under S T curves

at the same condition should be the same [26,28]. By a carefully

observation on the S T values outside the transition range, the

S T from MRIT maintains a nonzero value, while the S T from

CCIF has been reset to zero in the process of normalization by

Eq. (5). The former behavior originates from the weak magnetization variation with temperature, which leads to the discrepancies

in the areas under these two S T curves. As shown in Fig. 9(b),

the background of S T curve deduced by MRIT was removed, and

the area under this curve reduces greatly from 537.4 J/kg to a value

of 354.3 J/kg. This value becomes smaller than that calculated by

CCIF (390.2 J/kg) in turn, indicating that the integrated S T from

CCIF seems to be overestimated. For the S T evaluated by CCIF in

Figs. 9(a) and (b), the parameter M has been chosen to be the

maximum value. Considering the fact that both the M and the

S tr actually decrease with the magnetic eld, the method of segmentation has to be adopted to re-evaluate the S T by CCIF. The

magnetic eld region can be divided into several sections. For each

section, both the M and the dT t /dH are approximately viewed as

constant, and the related S Ti can be determined by CCIF directly.

Consequently, the total S T can be easily calculated through the

accumulation of S Ti using the following equation:

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ST

n

S Ti

n

i

f i M i

dH

dT t

(6)

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[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

[14]

[15]

[16]

[17]

[18]

[19]

[20]

[21]

[22]

[23]

[25]

[26]

4. Conclusions

[28]

In summary, the method based on CC-equation while accounting for the phase fraction change was developed to determine

the S T for some representative materials, such as NiMnSn,

NiCoMnIn, MnAs and Gd5 Si2 Ge2 . Our experimental results unambiguously demonstrated that this method is a quite simple and

effective way to obtain a realistic value of S T in the particularly interesting class of magnetocaloric materials. In comparison

to MRIF, moreover, this method only requires a few M ( T ) curves

and reduces the cost of measuring signicantly. Such a method

should be helpful to equitably deal with the MCE for many magnetic materials during FOMT.

[29]

[24]

[27]

[30]

[31]

[32]

[33]

[34]

[35]

[36]

Acknowledgements

[37]

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11364035, 11404186, and 51371111),

the Key Basic Research Program of Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (Grant No. 13JC1402400), Project

for Innovative Research Team of Qujing Normal University (Grant

No. TD201301), and Project for Applied Basic Research Programs of

Yunnan Province (Grant Nos. 2013FZ110 and 2012FD051).

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[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

into ve sections, and their S Ti curves were shown in Fig. 9(c). By

using the above equation, the area under CCIF curve is reduced to

355.9 J/kg, which is coincident excellently with MRIT (354.3 J/kg).

Therefore, such a CCIF method based on Eq. (6) could be extended

to more general cases, even if the M and dT t /dH are not constant.

54

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