ASTM Tests

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ASTM Tests

© All Rights Reserved

- Sieve Analysis of Fine Aggregate
- A Conceptual Model for Designing Recycled Aggregate Concrete for Structural Applications
- Quality
- Quality Assurance Quality Control
- An Experimental Study on Partial Replacement of Sand with Crushed Brick in Concrete
- Concreting Methodology
- Concrete Society
- 215870640-Validation-Report-on-the-2-Phase-Line-Sizing-3.pdf
- Utilization of Recycle Aggregate in Cement Concrete Paver Blocks for Heavy Traffic
- Bitumen Extraction
- UTILIZATION OF CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLISHED WASTE MATERIAL IN CONCRETE: A REVIEW
- C173C173M
- M-25 MIX
- CMT FINALS Compiled Exercises
- Handout 4 Aggregates
- Exp.4 CMT
- شرح مفصل لمارشال مع تعريفات الجهاز
- C35 – 01 (Reapproved 2009)
- Experimental Study on Workability and Strength Characteristics of Concrete Containing Waste Marble Aggregate along with Marble Slurry Powder
- Technology in Industry Ass#4

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Table of Contents

Introduction

Pg. 3

Description

Pg. 4

Test Results

Pg. 5

Analysis

Pg. 8

Conclusions

Pg. 10

1|Page

Table of figures

Table 1: Specific gravity and absorption of the course aggregate

Pg. 5

Pg. 5

Pg. 6

Pg. 6

2|Page

Introduction

This lab contain two parts, one part being on ASTM C127 Relative Density Absorption and

the second part on ASTM C136 Sieve Analysis. Part one of this lab includes three weights: Dry,

Saturated Surface-Dry, and Wet (submerged). Using these three weight values, Bulk Specific

Gravity, Saturated Surface-Dry Specific Gravity, Apparent Specific Gravity, and the Absorption

percentage can be determined. These values can be essential to construction especially when

determining how much water must be added in a concrete mix.

Part two of this lab determines the grain size distribution of the mixture of fine and coarse

aggregate using a sieve analysis. The weights measured in each sieve are recorded and used to

determine the Percent Retained, Cumulative Percent Retained, and Percent Passing; values can

be found in Table 3. These values help to complete a Grain Size Distribution Graph, which is

displayed in Figure 1.

A sieve analysis has real word applications in civil engineering because different sizes of

aggregates can be combined together to create strong surfaces, thus determining the amounts

for different sizes of aggregates can be very important. For example, dams require a build of sand,

gravel, and clay to remain strong. The seven oaks dam near Bernardino California uses multiple

layers of aggregates that range from the size of boulders all the way down to sands. The

combination of aggregates determines a specific grade that characterizes a surface.

3|Page

Description

The Relative Density and Absorption portion of this lab include a testing procedure that

requires specific materials. It is also a standard test method can be found in ASTM C127. Materials

included aggregate, a scale on a lab table, a scale with a cage suspended in water, and a towel.

When beginning this lab it is important to record the oven dry weight of the aggregate. Once this

weight is recorded, the aggregate must then be placed in the cage that is suspended in water.

Once all of the aggregate is in the cage, all of the entrapped air must be removed. This can be

done by shaking the container while it was immersed. The container and the aggregate must be

fully immersed in the water before the weight is recorded. Once a weight been properly

measured, the aggregate must then be removed and placed on a towel. The aggregate must then

be rolled in the towel until all of the visible water is removed. It is important to ensure that no

evaporation of water occurs from the aggregates pores during the surface drying. After the drying

process has occurred, the weight of the aggregate in its saturated surface dry condition can be

recorded. Once all of this is completed and recorded, calculations can be made. This is displayed

in Table 1.

The Sieve Analysis portion of this lab is also a standard test method that can be found in

ASTM C136. Its procedure requires specific materials such as 2.0 kg of aggregate, Sieves No. 4 to

No. 200, a pan to collect the aggregate that passes all of the sieves, a mechanical shaker to help

the aggregate pass through the sieves, as well as a scales, and some brushes. This lab requires

2.0 kg of aggregate; this can be obtained by using the electronic scale to measure out the

aggregate. It is important to properly zero the scale before measuring the aggregate, in addition

the container holding the aggregate must not be included in the weight of the aggregate. Once

the correct amount of aggregate has been obtained, the mixture can be poured into the sieve

set. It is important to make sure that the sieves are in the correct order. This means the No. 4

sieve is on top and the No. 200 sieve is on the bottom. The pan will be placed below the No. 200

sieve to collect the dust. The dust is not considered fine aggregate and is not included in Table 2.

The sieve must then be placed in the mechanical shaker where it will be shaken for 5 minutes to

separate the aggregate. After the aggregate has been separated, each sieve can be carefully

separated and the aggregate in each tray can be weighed and recorded. The brushes can be used

to free any material that is lodged within the sieve. It is important to make sure the scale is zeroed

and the bowl has be emptied after each tray is measured. All the values for theses weights are

recorded in Table 3. Table 2 includes additional calculated values as well as Figure 1, which graphs

the results.

4|Page

Test Results

ASTM C127 Data

To Calculate

Value (grams)

2002.5

2014.5

1210

A/(B-C)

2.489123679

B/(B-C)

2.504039776

A/(A-C)

2.52681388

(B-A)/A*100%

0.599250936

Absorption %

The data for ASTM C127 in Table 1 includes the Sample Dry Weight, Sample Saturated

Surface Dry Weight, and Net Submerged Weight of Sample. These values are used to calculate

Bulk Specific Gravity, Saturated Surface Dry Specific Gravity, apparent Specific Gravity, and the

Absorption Percentage.

ASTM C136 Data

Value (grams)

% of Total

2000

100.00%

no. 4)

697

34.85%

sieve no.4 excluding the pan)

1285

64.25%

2000.5

100.03%

The data for ASTM C136 in Table 2 includes the weight before and after the sieve test was

run. The percentage values were calculated by taking the value in grams divided by the Pre-Sieve

weight, and multiplied by one hundred. This information can help assist in determining error.

Additionally this chart does not include the weight of dust that was collected in the pan.

5|Page

Opening (mm)

Mass (g)

% Of Retained

Aggregate

Cumulative % of

Retained

Aggregate

% Finer

No. 4

4.75

697

34.84%

34.84%

65.16%

No. 8

2.36

300

15.00%

49.84%

50.16%

No. 16

1.18

41.5

2.07%

51.91%

48.09%

No. 30

0.6

382

19.10%

71.01%

28.99%

No. 50

0.355

457.5

22.87%

93.88%

6.12%

No. 100

0.15

73

3.65%

97.53%

2.47%

No. 200

0.075

31

1.55%

99.08%

0.92%

18.5

0.92%

100.00%

0.00%

Sieve

Size

Pan

2000.5

70.00%

60.00%

50.00%

40.00%

30.00%

20.00%

10.00%

0.00%

10

0.1

6|Page

0.01

Figure 1 was created by using the data calculated in Table 1. Figure 1 uses the Opening

(mm) and the % Finer portions of Table 3, it is graphed in logarithmic scale. The % of Retained

Aggregate was calculated by dividing the Weight of Retained Aggregate by the Total Aggregate

Weight. The Cumulative % of Retained Aggregate was calculated by taking the sum of the % of

Retained Aggregate of the sieve and all previous values. The % Finer was calculated by subtracting

the Cumulative % of Retained Aggregate from 100%.

Additional Calculations from Table 3 and Figure 1

Grain diameter at 10% passing: D10 = 0.397

Grain diameter at 30% passing: D30 = 0.631

Grain diameter at 60% passing: D60 = 3.928

Coefficient of Uniformity: Cu = D60/D10 = 9.906

Coefficient of Curvature: Cc = (D30)2/(D60 x D10) = 0.255

1:

+ 0.6 = 0.39

(0.06 0.28)

2:

+ 1.18 = 0.63

(0.28 0.48)

3:

+ 4.75 = 3.93

(0.50 0.65)

The grain diameter at 10%, 30%, and 60% were calculated using linear interpolation.

Equations 1, 2, and 3 show how linear interpolation was used to calculate each values. The Grain

Diameter values are significant when determining the Coefficient Values. The coefficient values

help to characterize the aggregate.

7|Page

Analysis

There are three specific gravities that include Bulk Specific Gravity, Saturated Surface Dry

Specific Gravity, and Apparent Specific Gravity. There are many differences between the three

different types of gravity. The most obvious difference is the way that each specific gravity is

calculated. Table 2 will show the values for the specific gravities and how they were calculated.

Bulk specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a given volume of aggregate to the weight

of an equal volume of water. This is useful because it can help determine if voids in a material

are permeable. Bulk specific gravity is calculated by taking the sample dry weight divided by the

sample saturated surface dry weight minus the net submerged weight of sample. This is

significant because the bulk specific gravity calculates the mass and includes the dry bulk mass

and volume.

The saturated surface dry specific gravity is calculated by taking the sample saturated

surface dry weight divided by the sample saturated surface dry weight minus the net submerged

weight of sample. This is significant because the gaturated surface dry specific gravity calculates

the voids and includes the mass and net volume of both the aggregate and water.

The apparent specific gravity is calculated by taking the sample dry weight divided by the

sample dry weight minus the net submerged weight of sample. This is significant because the

apparent specific gravity calculates the mass without pours and includes the bulk mass and wet

volume.

Absorption is the weight of water absorbed by dry aggregate particles, this is important in

freezing conditions to help determine how much an object will expand and contract. Our final

absorption rate was 0.599%. This is important to know in an application setting such as creating

a design for a concrete mix. The absorption value must be known in order to accurately adjust

the batch weights to account for the moisture. If the absorption rate is too low then the

aggregates will supply free water to the mix, but if it is too low then it will absorb some of the

water. This is important because the water to cement ratio contributes to its compressive

strength, permeability, and its durability. Its permeability can be very important if a watertight

structure is required or in conditions where water can freeze and thaw.

For this lab, the No. 4 sieve is considered the maximum aggregate size. The nominal maximum

aggregate size is the diameter of the smallest sieve opening through which most of the particles

pass. This amount is usually around 95%, the maximum aggregate size is the diameter of the

smallest sieve opening through which the entire sample passes. Since this lab does not include a

sieve where all or 95% of the sample passes, we will assume that the sieve that allows the most

amount of the aggregate to pass through as the maximum aggregate size. Thus, the No. 4 sieve

is the smallest sieve that allows the most amount of aggregate to pass through.

Our results were not ideal. For example, our cumulative percent was 100.03%, which is

slightly higher than 100%. This value can be shown in Table 2. We can attribute some of our errors

8|Page

to both systematic and human error. Systematic error includes the sieves having aggregate stuck

inside of the mesh that could not be freed before the lab took place. These aggregates could have

been freed during the mechanical shaker process or from the brushes. Human error includes not

double checking each sieve to ensure that each one is clean of loose aggregates that could

become part of our sample.

The value for the Coefficient of Uniformity (Cu) is 9.906 and the value for the Coefficient of

Curvature (Cc) is 0.255. If there is a (Cu) value greater than 5 then it typically means that the

sample is well graded, and if there is a (Cu) value that is greater than one but less than three it

typically means that the sample is dense. However, both values must follow these principles for

either to be considered true. Thus, we can conclude that this sample is neither dense nor well

graded. The Coefficients of uniformity and curvature are significant when determining the grade

and density of a material. This is important because determining the properties of an aggregate

can help to determine what uses the aggregate are good for and what needs to be done to the

aggregate so that its conditions are suitable. For example a gap graded aggregate would be a

good material to compact to increase its stability.

The graph can be found in Figure 1 and would classify as gap graded due to the near horizontal

slope at point 1 (2.36, 50.16%) and point 2 (1.18, 48.09%). From the ASTM C136 procedure, we

can see in table 3 that between sieve No. 8 and No. 16 there is very little change, meaning this

aggregate classifies as gap graded and has a blend of both small and relatively large grain sizes.

The aggregate has few voids and low stability, but is easiest to compact with good interlocking.

9|Page

Conclusion

In part one of the lab on ASTM C127 Relative Density and Absorption three values were

collected: Sample Dry Weight, Sample Saturated Surface Dry Weight, and New Submerged

Weight. This helped determine four calculated values: Bulk Specific Gravity, Saturated Surface

Dry Specific Gravity, Apparent Specific Gravity, and the Absorption Percentage. It was also found

that Apparent Specific Gravity has the largest value, while Bulk Specific Gravity is less. Apparent

Specific Gravity measures the specific gravity of the solid volume, thus it will have the highest

value. From this, we can conclude that taking different kinds weights of aggregates can be very

important when looking to make a design. For example the specific gravity can be used in

applications such superpave mix design. The absorption percentage is also important in when

doing a concrete mix design. The values retrieved for the specific gravity ranged from

approximately 2.4 to 2.5 specific values can be found in Table 1. In addition, an absorption

percentage of approximately 0.6% was calculated. These values are acceptable for the stone

aggregate in use. Typical Specific Gravity values for crushed stone or gravel usually range from

2.6 to 2.65 our values were very close to this.

In part two of the lab on ASTM C136 Sieve analysis values for each sieve were determined

allowing a Grain Size Distribution Graph to be created. From the Figure 1 and Table 3, values for

D10, D30, D60, could be calculated using linear interpolation. Thus values for C u, and Cc, could be

calculated. From the Sieve analysis, it could be concluded that aggregate used in this lab was

considered gap graded, due to the horizontal slope in the graph as well as the small change in

Percent of passing aggregate between No. 8 and No. 16 sieve. The values for C u, and Cc were 9.9

and 0.25 respectively. Since Table 3 and Figure 1 helped determine that the aggregate was gap

graded, the values for Cu and Cc coordinate with this information. Those values told us that the

material is not well graded or dense.

Recommendations for this lab would include ensuring that the sieves are completely

clean before pouring aggregate into them. This includes clearing out the mesh of each sieve so

that lodged aggregate cannot become a part of the new material. In addition, I think that this lab

could be improved by including another aggregate in the sieve analysis that has a different grade

so that analyzing the Grain Size Distribution Graph and Coefficients can have a deeper meaning

for the lab groups.

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