Anda di halaman 1dari 38

# ICE PLANT DESIGN

## Capacity of plant = 114 Tons of Ice (TOI) per day

Tons of Refrigeration Approximation
From Kents Mechanical Engineers Handbook:
TOI
TR
0.61
TR

114
0.61
TR

186.88

Size of Can
From Kents Mechanical Engineers Handbook, p. 11-50:
Size of can = 11 x 22 x 44 in

## Thickness of Can Material

From Macintires Handbook of Mechanical Refrigeration, p. 380, Table
88:
U.S. Standard Gage
Sides:
Bottom:

No. 16
No. 16

## Weight of Ice block

From Kents Mechanical Engineers Handbook, p. 11-50, Table 1:
For 11 x 22x 44 in. ice can:
W = 300 lb

Temperature of Brine
From Kents Mechanical Engineers Handbook, p. 11-50, Table 1:
For 11 x 22x 44 in. ice can:
T = 15 F

Time of Freezing
From Kents Mechanical Engineers Handbook, p. 11-50:
Time of freezing may be calculated using the following formula:
2

7a
x=
32t
where:
x = time of freezing, hr
a = thickness of cake, in
t = temperature of brine, F

x=

7(11)2
3215

## Number of Cans Required

From Kents Mechanical Engineers Handbook, p. 11-50:
The number of cans may be computed using the formula:
N=

WH
24 C

where:
N = no. of cans
W = weight of ice, lb
H = freezing time, hr
C = weight of one ice block of ice, lb

N=

(114 x 2000)(50)
24 (300)

## Volume of Freezing Tank

VFT = Vice + Vbrine
where:
VFT = volume of freezing tank
Vice = volume of ice
Vice = L x W x H of ice can
Vice = 11 x 22 x 44
Vice = 10648 cu.in per block x 1600 blocks
Vice = 9859.26 cu.ft

## Vbrine = volume of brine

Based from Kents Mechanical Engineers Handbook, p.
11-51:
60 cu. Ft of brine per TR of ice is required.
Vbrine = 60 cu. ft per TR x 186.88 TR

## Vbrine = 11212.8 cu. ft

VFT = 9859.26 + 11212.8
VFT = 21072.06 cu. ft

## Size of Freezing Tank

For two freezing tanks of 800 cans each:

Length of Tank

## L = 2Cs + Nct+ Ci(Nc -1)

where:
Cs = wall clearance
Cs = 13 (includes additional 18 for brine agitator
space)
Nc = number of cans on a side
t = thickness of cake
Ci = ice can spacing
Ci = 3
L = 2(13) + 50(11) + 3(50-1)
L = 723 inches

Width of Tank
W = 2Cs + Ncw+ Ci(Nc -1)
Cs = 8
w = 22
W = 2(8) + 16(22) 3(16-1)
W = 413 inches

## Height of Freezing Tank

For two freezing tanks:
VFT = 2 ( L x W x H )
12
1 ft )3 = 2 ( 723 in x 413 in x H )
21072.06 cu. ft x (

H = 60.972 in

61 inches

## Dimensions of One Freezing Tank

Size = 723 x 413 x 61 inches

Heat Rejected from Water
Raw water is at 77 F.
Qice = mcpwtw + mhf + mcpiti
Qice = (300 lb)(1 BTU/lb-F)(77 32) F + (300 lb)(144
BTU/lb) +
(300 lb)(0.5 BTU/lb-F)(32-15) F
Qice = 1185 BTU/hr per block
Qice = 1185
1.055 kJ
1 BTU

1 hr
3600 s

BTU
hrblock

(50 hours)

x 1600 blocks x

24 hrs
50 hrs

1 TR
x 3.516 kW

Qice = 75.85 TR

## Heat Infiltration through Insulation

From Tranes Air Conditioning Manual, p. 361, Table 3-3 and Kents
Mechanical Engineers Handbook, p. 11-37, Table 19:

Side Walls

Material

Thickne
ss
(inches)

Thermal
Conductivity,
k
BTU

( hrft 2F

Capacitance,
c
BTU
(
)
hrft 2F

Corkboard
Cement mortar
Gypsum lightweight

3
2
-

0.27
5.0
-

3.12

Cover
Flooring
Still air

## aggregate (1/2 in)

Oak or maple wood
Cement mortar
Still air

0.75
5.0
-

1.15
5.0
-

## Qside walls = UAt

Asw = 2(L x H) + 2(W x H) x 2 tanks
Asw = 2(723 x 61) + 2(413 x 61) x 2
Asw = 1924

U=

ft 2

1
1 x 1 x2 1
+ + +
fo k 1 k 2 c
1

U=

1
3
2 1
+
+ +
1.65 0.27 5 3.12

U = 0.080401

Qsw = (0.080401

BTU
hrft 2F

BTU
2
hrft F ) (1924

## Qsw = 10152.38 BTU/hr

Qfloor = UAt
Af = L x W x 2 tanks
Af = 723 x 413 x 2
Af = 4147.208

ft 2

ft 2 ) (80.6 15)F

1.65

U=

k
x

U=

5
8

U = 0.6

BTU
2
hrft F

BTU
hrft 2F ) (4147.208

Qfloor = (0.6

ft 2

(80.6 15)F

## Qfloor = 163234.12 BTU/hr

Qcover = UAt
Acover = Afloor = 4147.208

ft 2

1
U=

1 x
+
fo k
1

U=

1 0.75
+
1.65 1.15

U = 0.7948

Qcover = (0.7948

BTU
hrft 2F

BTU
hrft 2F

) (4147.208

ft

)(80.6 15)F

## Qinsulation = Qsw + Qfloor + Qcover

Qinsulation = 10152.38 BTU/hr + 163234.12 BTU/hr + 216230.7976 BTU/hr
Qinsulation = 389617.2976

BTU
hr

1.055 kJ
1 BTU

1 hr
3600 s

1 TR
3.516 kW

Qinsulation = 32.474 TR

Qtotal = Qice + Qinsulation
Qtotal = 75.85 TR + 32.474 TR
Qtotal = 108.324 TR

Qtotal = 1.15(108.324 TR)
Qtotal = 124.5726 TR

130 TR

TR 186.88 TR
130 186.88 TR

(satisfied)

## COLD STORAGE DESIGN

For a 24-hour storage of frozen meat products:
Based from Kents Mechanical Engineers Handbook, p. 11-40, Table
21:

Product

Beef
Hams
and Loins
Lamb
Poultry
(fresh)

30 32

84%

27

98

Specifc
Heat
Above
Freezing
,
(BTU/lbhr-F)
0.75

28 30

80%

27

86.5

0.68

0.38

28 30

85%

29

83.5

0.67

0.30

28 30

84%

27

106

0.79

0.37

Temperatu
re Range,
F

Optimu
m
Freezing
Relative Temperatur
Humidit
e, F
y

Latent
Heat of
Fusion,
BTU/lbhr

Specifc
Heat
Below
Freezing
,
(BTU/lbhr-F)
0.40

Raw meat is at 59 F and taken from the storage at 0 F (frozen
meat).

Beef:
m = 4000 lb
QB = m [ cpAFt + LHF + cpBF ]
QB = 4000 [ 0.75(59 27) + 98 + 0.4(27 0) ]
QB = 531200 BTU/hr

## Hams and Loins:

m = 4000 lb
QHL = m [ cpAFt + LHF + cpBF ]
QHL = 4000 [ 0.68(59 27) + 86.5 + 0.38(27 0) ]
QHL = 474080 BTU/hr

Lamb:
m = 4000 lb
QL = m [ cpAFt + LHF + cpBF ]
QL = 4000 [ 0.67(59 29) + 83.5 + 0.3(29 0) ]
QL = 449200 BTU/hr

Poultry (Fresh):
m = 4000 lb
QP = m [ cpAFt + LHF + cpBF ]
QP = 4000 [ 0.79(59 -27) + 106 + 0.37(27 0) ]
QP = 565080 BTU/hr

Qproduct = QB + QHL + QL + QP
Qproduct = 531200 + 474080 + 449200 + 565080
Qproduct = 2019560 BTU/hr

## Space Required for Refrigerated Goods

From Kents Mechanical Engineers Handbook, p. 11-43, Table 24:
For 700 lb beef:
Space occupied = 108 ft3
Floor height = 12 ft
Floor space = 9 ft2
Using the same requirements for other meat products:
Mass total = 4 x 4000 lb
MT = 16000 lb

108 ft
700 lb

9 ft 2
700 lb

## Height of pile of meat = 12 ft

For easy handling of storing meat products, the height of pile of meat
is halved and the floor space is doubled (same volume of space
required).
Therefore:
Height of pile of meat = 6 ft
Floor space = 411.43 ft2

## From Macintires Handbook of Mechanical Refrigeration, p. 529:

25 to 40% of storage room is used for storing products.
For 30% storage space:
Total floor space = 1371.43 ft2

## Also, from Macintires Handbook of Mechanical Refrigeration, p. 529:

Allowance to receiving and shipping floors amounts from 4 to 5% of
total floor space.
For 5%:
Total Floor Space Required = 1443.61 ft2
ft2

1500

## Dimensions of Cold Storage

Size = 50 ft x 30 ft x 12 ft

Cold storage is designed based from the hottest temperature of
Manila/Luzon Philippines.
From ASHRAE: Month of May
Dry bulb temperature = 34.5 C or 94.1 F
Wet bulb temperature = 28.1 C or 82.58 F

Designed insulations:
From Kents Mechanical Engineers Handbook:

Material

Side Walls

Flooring

Brick (common)
Corkboard
Concrete
(cinder
aggregate)
Gypsum plaster
Concrete
(cinder
aggregate)

Thickne
ss,
(inches)

Thermal
Conductivity, k
BTU

( hrft 2F

Capacitance, c
BTU
(
)
hrft 2F

8
4

4.8
0.32

1.5

4.9

4.9

4.4
-

Ceiling
Still air
Outside air

Corkboard
Concrete
(cinder
aggregate)
Corkboard
Still air
Outside air

0.32

4.9

6
-

0.32
-

1.65
6.0

## Qside walls = UAt

Asw = 2(L x H) + 2(W x H)
Asw = 2(50 x 12) + 2(30 x 12)
Asw = 1920 ft2

U=

1
1 x 1 x2 1 1
+ + + +
fo k 1 k 2 c fi
1

U=

1 8
4
1
1
+
+
+
+
6 4.8 0.32 4.4 1.65

U = 0.06463

## Qside walls = (0.06463

BTU
2
hrft F

BTU
2
hrft 2F ) (1920 ft ) ( 94.1 0)F

## Qside walls = 11676.83 BTU/hr

Qfloor = UAt
Afloor = L x W

Afloor = 50 x 30
Afloor = 1500 ft2

U=

1
x1 x 2 1
+ +
k 1 k 2 fi

U=

1
3
5
1
+
+
4.9 0.32 1.65

U = 0.05937

Qfloor = (0.05937

BTU
hrft 2F

BTU
2
hrft 2F ) (1500 ft ) (94.1 0)F

## Qfloor = 8380.07 BTU/hr

Qceiling = UAt
Aceiling = Afloor = 1500 ft2

U=

1
1 x 1 x2 1
+ + +
fo k 1 k 2 fi
1

U=

1
6
4
1
+
+
+
6 0.32 4.9 1.65

U = 0.049166

BTU
hrft 2F

Qceiling = (0.049166

BTU
2
2
hrft F ) (1500 ft ) (94.1 0)F

## Qceiling = 6939.78 BTU/hr

Qwall = Qside walls + Qfloor + Qceiling
Qwall = 11676.83 + 8380.07 + 6939.78
Qwall = 26996.68 BTU/hr

## Computations for air properties outside the cold storage:

Pv = Pvm -

(PtPvm)( DB WB)
1546.6221.44(WB )

Pv = 3.8046 -

(101.3253.8046)(34.528.1)
1546.6221.44(28.1)

Pv = 3.3902 kPa

wo =

0.622 Pv
Pt Pv

wo =

0.622(3.3902)
101.3253.3902

wo = 0.02153 kg/kg

ho = 1.0062t + whfg
ho = 1.0062 (34.5) + 0.02153(2564.4)
ho = 89.925 kJ/kg = 38.656 BTU/lb

## Computations for air properties inside the cold storage:

tdb = 0 F = - 17.778 C
RH = 80%

Pv
Psat

RH =

0.80 =

Pv
0.12807

Pv = 0.10245 kPa

## From RenewAire Energy Recovery Ventilators Psychrometric Chart for

Low Temperatures:
hi = 0.7 BTU/lb

## From Dossats Principles of Refrigeration, air change load may be computed

using the formula:
Qv = W (ho - hi)

For W:
From Kents Mechanical Engineers Handbook, p. 11-48:
1
(
W = V v)
V = volume of air per hour of ventilated air
V = volume of room x air change rate
For warehouses:

ACR = 2 to 3 hr-1

(ASHRAE)
v = specifc volume of air specifed either outside space or as
supplied space
v=

0.287085(17.778+ 273)
101.3250.10245

## v = 0.7238 m3/kg = 11.58 ft3/lb

Therefore:
1
W = 2(30 x 50 x 12) ( 11.58 )
W = 3106.905 lb/hr
Qv = 3106.905 (38.656 0.7)
Qv = 117926.6 BTU/hr

## Heat Sources in Space

Heat from People/Workers

## From Dossats Principle of Refrigeration, Table 10-14:

Qpeople = 0.378 kW/person x no. of workers
For 0 F or -17.778 C, use -15 C as reference:
Qpeople = 0.378 kW/person x 6 workers
Qpeople = 2.268 kW x

1 BTU
1.055 kJ

[assumed]

3600 s
1 hr

## Qpeople = 7739.15 BTU/hr

Heat from Lightings
From Kents Mechanical Engineers Handbook
Qlights = 3.41 x total wattage of lights
Assume 40 fluorescent lamps with 15 W each:
Qlights = 3.41 x (40 x 15)
Qlights = 2046 BTU/hr

## Heat from motors and equipment

From Kents Mechanical Engineers Handbook:
Qmo = 2950 BTU/hr per hp for 3-hp and above motors
Assume maximum of 5 hp motors inside the cold
storage:
Qmo = 2950 BTU/hr x 5 hp
Qmo = 14750 BTU/hr

Qtotal = Qproduct + Qwall + Qv + Qpeople + Qlights + Qmo
Qtotal = 2019560 + 26996.68 + 117926.6 + 7739.15 + 2046 + 14750

## Qtotal = 2189018.476 BTU/hr

For miscellaneous loads, a safety factor of 10% of total heat
Qtotal = 1.1 (2189018.476)
Qtotal = 2407920.324 BTU/hr

## Tons of Refrigeration Required

From Kents Mechanical Engineers Handbook:
Tons =

12000

24 hr
x hr

x = hours of operation
x = 16 for a system operating above 32 F
x = 20 for a system operating below 32 F
Tons =

2407920.324
12000

Tons = 240.729 TR

Refrigerating Unit

24 hr
20 hr

245 TR

Condenser
40 C

Evaporator 2
130 TR
5 F

Evaporator 1
245 TR
-10 F

## As suggested by Kents Mechanical Engineers Handbook, for ice

plants, evaporator temperature is at 5 F.
As suggested by Macintires Handbook of Mechanical Refrigeration,
theres a 10 degree difference between the temperatures of the coil
and the room.
Condenser temperature is assumed based on the countrys air
condition.

## For Ammonia as refrigerant:

Pressures:
Pressure at condenser = Psat @ 40 C
Pcon = 1557 kPa
Pressure at evaporator for ice plant = Psat @ -15 C
Pevap2 = 237.09 kPa
Pressure at evaporator for cold storage = Psat @ -23.33 C
Pevap2 = 164.283 kPa
Enthalpies:
h1 = hg @ -23.33 C
h1 = 1432.58 kJ/kg
h2 = h @ 237.09 kPa and s1 = s2

h2 = 1480 kJ/kg
h3 = hg @ -15 C
h3 = 1443.9 kJ/kg
h4 = h @ 1557 kPa and s3 = s4
h4 = 1742 kJ/kg
h5 = h6 = hf @ 40 C
h5 = h6 = 390.587 kJ/kg
h7 = h8 = hf @ -15 C
h7 = h8 = 131.2745 kJ/kg

## Mass Flow Rates

m1 =

245 x 3.516
h 1h 8

m1 =

245 x 3.516
1432.58131.2745

m1 = m2 = m7 = m8 = 0.662 kg/s

m6 =

130 x 3.516
h 3h 6

m6 =

130 x 3.516
1443.9390.587

m6 = 0.4339 kg/s

mh3

mh6

m2h2

m7h7
mh6 + m2h2 = mh3 + m7h7
m(390.587) + 0.662(1480) = m(1443.9) + 0.622(131.2745)
m = 0.8477 kg/s

## Mass flow rate through high-stage compressor

m3 = m + m6
m3 = 0.8477 + 0.4339
m3 = 1.2816 kg/s

Compressor Power
For Low Stage Power
P = m1 (h2 h1)
P = 0.662(1480 1437.23)
P = 31.39 kW

## For High Stage Power

P = m3 (h4 h3)
P = 1.2816(1742 1443.9)
P = 382 kW

## *For high stage power, use 4 compressors with 96 kW power

each.
Refrigerant Piping
From Marks Standard Handbook, velocities for most refrigerants:
Liquid Lines:

3.3 to 22 m/s

Suction Lines:

38 to 250 m/s

Discharge Lines:

55 to 275 m/s

Suction Lines

At point 1
V1 = m1v1
m1 = 0.662 kg/s
v1 = vg @ -23.33 C
v1 = 0.7168 m3/kg
V1 = 0.662(0.7168)
V1 = 0.4745 m3/s
For d = 3 in.:
V = Av
0.4745 =

v = 104 m/s

(3 x

1
39.37

)2 (v)

## [satisfied the range]

At point 3
V3 = m3v3
m3 = 1.2816 kg/s
v3 = vg @ -15 C
v3 = 0.508013 m3/kg
V3 = 1.2816(0.508013)

V3 = 0.651 m3/s
For d = 3 in.:
V = Av
0.651 =

(3 x

1
39.37

v = 142.75 m/s

)2 (v)

## [satisfied the range]

Discharge Lines

At point 2
V2 = m2v2
m2 = 0.662 kg/s
v2 = v @ 237.09 kPa and s1 = s2
v2 = 0.56 m3/kg
V2 = 0.662(0.56)
V2 = 0.3707 m3/s

For d = 2 in:
V = Av
0.3707 =

v = 117 m/s

(2 x

1
39.37

)2 (v)

## [satisfied the range]

At point 4
V4 = m4v4
m4 = 1.2816 kg/s
v4 = v @ 1557 kPa and s3 = s4
v4 = 0.13 m3/kg
V4 = 1.2816(0.13)
V4 = 0.165 m3/s
For d = 1 in:

V = Av
0.165 =

(1 x

v = 144.72 m/s

1
39.37

)2 (v)

## [satisfied the range]

Liquid Lines

At point 5
V5 = m5v5
m5 = 1.2816 kg/s
v5 = vf @ 40 C
v5 = 0.0017257 m3/kg
V5 = 1.2816(0.0017257)
V5 = 0.002212 m3/s
For d = in:
V = Av
0.002212 =

v = 17.46 m/s

( x

1
39.37

## [satisfied the range]

At point 7
V7 = m7v7
m7 = 0.662 kg/s
v7 = vf @ -15 C
v7 = 0.0015185 m3/kg
V7 = 0.662(0.0015185)
V7 = 0.0009445 m3/s
For d = 3/8 in:
V = Av

)2 (v)

0.0009445 =

(3/8 x

v = 13.26 m/s

1
39.37

)2 (v)

## [satisfied the range]

Condenser
Based from Stoecker and Jones Refrigeration and Air Conditioning:
Designed Values for Condenser
Temperature at condenser = 40 C
Common temperature of water in and out the cooling
tower:
Temperature entering the condenser = 85 F
or 29.44 C
Temperature leaving the condenser = 95 F or
35 C
Nominal Size of Pipe = 1 in. Schedule 40
Outside Diameter = 1.9 in or 0.04826 m
Inside Diameter = 1.61 in or 0.040894
Thickness = 0.145 in or 0.003683
Tubes per pass = 14
No. of Tubes = 112 tubes

## Rate of heat rejected at the condenser

Qr = m4 (h4 h5)
Qr = 1.2816 (1742 390.587)
Qr = 1731.97 kW

Condensing Coefficient
hcond = 0.725 (

g 2 hfg k 3
tND

)1/4

For Ammonia at 40 C

1
1.7257

## hfg = 1490.42 390.587

hfg = 1099.83 kJ/kg
From Table 15.5, p. 300

= 0.000122 Pa-s

k = 0.447 W/m-K
Average number of tubes in a vertical row, N
N=

384
48

N=8

hcond = 0.725 (

## (9.81) ( 579.5 )2 (1099.83)(0.447)3

0.000122(5.56)(8)(0.04826)

## hcond = 764.5443 W/m2-K

Resistance of Metal
R=

x Ao
kA m
x = 0.003683
ksteel = 50 W/m-K

x Ao
kA m

x Ao
kA m

## = 8.6335 x10-5 m2-K/W

(0.00383)(0.04826)
(50)(0.044577)

Fouling Factor
1
hff

= 0.000176 m2-K/W

hw D
k

0.023(

VD
)

0.8

cp
0.4
k )

mw =

Qr
Cp t

)1/4

1731.97
4.187(3529.444)

mw =

mw = 74.458 kg/s

## Volume flow rate

V=

V=

74.458
1000

V = 0.07446 m3/s
Water velocity
v=

Volume
( no .of tubes per pass ) ( Area)

v=

0.07446

2
96[ ( 0.040894 ) ]
4

v = 0.5905 m/s

## To calculate the water-side heat transfer coefficient,

Use water properties at 32 C:

= 995 kg/m3

cp = 4190 J/kg-K

= 0.000773 Pa-s

k = 0.617 W/m-K

hw =

## 0.023(0.617) ( 995 ) ( 0.5905 ) ( 0.040894 )

[
]
0.040894
0.000773

0.8

(4190)(0.000773)
]0.4
0.617
hw = 2644.97 W/m2-K

## Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

1
Uo

1
ho

x Ao
kA m

Ao
hff A i

A0
hi A i
1
Uo

1
764.5443

+ (8.6335 x10-5) +

(0.000176)(1.9)
1.61

1.9
2644.97 (1.61)
Uo = 461.688 W/m2-K

## Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference

LMTD =

t max
t min

ln
t max t min

LMTD =

4029.44
4035

ln
( 4029.44 )(4035)

LMTD = 7.437 C

## Heat Transfer Area

Ao =

Qr
U o LMTD

Ao =

1731.97 x 1000
461.688(7.437)

Ao = 504.421 m2

Length of Tube
Ao = DLN
L=

504.421
(0.04826)(384)

L = 8.66 m

Fans
Fan Capacity
Based from Macintires Handbook of Mechanical Refrigeration,
p. 535
Fan capacity ranges from 6 to 10 times the volume of the
refrigerated space per hour.
For 10 times the volume of cold storage:
Fan Capacity = 10 (30 x 50 x 12)
Fan Capacity = 180000 ft3/hr or 1.42 m3/s

Power Required
P = QTDH
For a supply air temperature of -10 C:
Since at very low temperatures, the value of Pv is
relatively small,
v=

0.287085(10+ 273)
101.325

v = 0.745 m3/kg
Then,
=

g
v

9.81
0.745

= 13.165 N/m3

## Q = Fan Capacity = 1.42 m3/s

Assume a total head of 15 m.
TDH = 15 m

P = 13.165(1.42)(15)
P = 280.15 W
Assume 50% efficiency of fan.
Power = 560.3 W

Brine Pumps
Designed Temperature of Brine
From Macintires Handbook of Mechanical Refrigeration, a 5
degree temperature difference between the evaporator
temperature and the brine temperature is needed.
Evaporator Temperature = 5 F
Temperature at tank entrance = 10 F
Temperature at tank exit = 15 F
Mass Flow of Brine
From Kents Mechanical Engineers Handbook, p.11-52
Mass Flow of Brine = 242.4 lb/min per F rise of brine
temperature
mb = 242.4 (15 10)
mb = 1212 lb/min

## Volume Flow of Brine

From Kents Mechanical Engineers Handbook, p.11-52
Volume Flow of Brine = 25.2 GPM per F rise of brine
temperature

Vb = 126 GPM

## Power Required For Six Pumps

P = QTDH
Assume a total head of 10 m.
SGbrine = 1.16
Q = 126 GPM or 0.00795 m3/s
P = 1.16(9.81)(0.00795)(10)
P = 904.5 W
Assume 50% efficiency of pump.
Power = 1.809 kW