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PLAN PREPRATION

Aims and Objectives


The prime aim of the study is to prepare a sustainable urban development plan for the city of
Bhopal and its environs. The preparation of a scientific and environmentally compatible
development plan requires consideration of all components of the environment that exist
today and the environment to be created tomorrow.
Objectives
To prepare urban land use maps using high spatial resolution IRS satellite data
depicting level-II urban land uses such as residential, industrial, commercial,
public and semi public uses, recreational, transportation etc.
To prepare urban sprawl map using multi-date satellite data depicting the citys
growth through time, direction of growth etc.
To prepare a transportation network map for the entire Bhopal Planning area
To prepare natural hazard maps related to flood, erosion and earthquake prone
areas.
To prepare hydro geomorphology, groundwater prospect, drainage, surface water
bodies, slope and soil information maps for urban suitability analysis
To identify suitable areas for urban development as well as the areas to be
conserved.
To prepare a proposed land use map.
Approach/ Concept
The planning concept through time has changed and the preparation of plan
focuses on sustainability of urban environment. Therefore, the main focus in
development planning is in line with the Green Paper on the Urban Environment
(Agenda 21). The Report identifies the challenge of urban sustainability to "solve both the
problems experienced within cities and the problems caused by cities. Therefore the city
managers and developers must seek to meet the social and economic needs of urban
residents while respecting local and regional natural systems, solving problems locally where
possible, rather than shifting them to other spatial locations or passing them on to the
future". It is in this context, the sustainable development is identified as a much broader
concept than environmental protection. It has economic, social and cultural as well as
environmental dimensions, and embraces notions of equity between people in the present
and between generations. It implies that further development should only take place as
long as it is within the carrying capacity of natural and man-made systems. Hence, the
preparation of environmentally compatible plan must look into management of natural
resources, the urban economy, social issues, mobility and accessibility, land use planning,
urban regeneration, cultural heritage and tourism. It is in this regard, the procedure for the
preparation of a environmentally compatible urban development plan has changed through
time. This is primarily due to the fact that dimensionality of input data has increased
tremendously through time. So, the methodology for the preparation of sustainable
development plan has been modified to incorporate more number of physical, social, cultural
and economic parameters. The detailed methodology adopted for the preparation of a
development plan of Bhopal city employing latest technology is described below.

Planning Methodology
As per this methodology, it is prerequisite to project the population for the year
2021. Therefore, various statistical techniques have been employed to project the population
of Bhopal.
Planning Area for the year 2021. Then, it is required to prepare thematic maps
and integrate them in GIS environment, application of weighted index model and finally
identify the suitable areas for construction and conservation.

Perspective Period
Development Plan of Bhopal - 2021
Planning Unit
Limits of Bhopal Planning Area :North: Village Rojibeg, Ratatal, Khajuri, Nipaniya jaat, Khamkheda, Islamnagar,
Dhasipura, Puraman bhavan, Satikheda, Imliya and upto the Northern boundary of
village Sukhi Sevaniya.
East: Village Sukhi sevaniya, Chopada kalan, Pipliya, Jaherpir, K anasaiya, Jhiriya
kheda, Chhavani adampur, Bilkhiriya, Sakalpadariya, Lalpura, Bansiya, Amjhara,
Bavadiya khurd, Bagaroda pipliya and upto the Eastern boundary of village Kunjangarh.
South: Village Kunjangarh, Bangrasiya, Deepadi, Samrada, Pipaliya rani, Khadbumliya,
Kodi pipliya keso, Semri kalan, Imliya jargar, Thuakheda satgadi, Bhanpura,
Samasgarh, Mitthukhedi, Sarvar and upto the Southern limit of village Amla.
West: Village Amla, Badhjhiri, Jhagariya khurd, Semri bajiyapat, Sikandrabad, Lasudiya
gosai, Mugaliya chhap, Lakhapur, Khajuri sadak, Khetla khedi, Bakaniya bhouri,
Parvaliya sadak, Chandu khedi, Kurana, Khejada dev, Mani khedi -kot and upto western
boundary of village Rosibeg.
The planning area includes Bhopal Municipal Corporation and Small Urban Area (Kolar
Nagar Palika). Information about various villages included in planning area

Phasing
The plan envisages to activise the plant implementation process in critical areas to be
development in two broad phases. The first phase will address the requirement of up to year
2014 and second phase shall address to the requirement of 2014 to 2021.
In order to implement the plan proposals, intense programme resource
mobilisation and yearly development budgeting will have to be engineered through

partnership approach among landowners,


developers and public agencies.

developers,

community groups,

private

Decision Support Systems


The sectors considered for Baseline Data collection and analysis and also for
assessing the present and future needs and demands Population Projection Procedures
Remote
Sensing
Data
Interpretation
Generation of Merged Data Product
Thematic Mapping
Base Map Preparation
Preliminary Interpretation
Ground Truth Data Collection
Database Design
Generation of Spatial Framework
Spatial Data
Non-Spatial Data

Assessment of Future Requirements

Demographic analysis
Population is one of the dynamic elements in urban ecology. The settlements are like
living organisms, i.e. constantly changing their growth pattern, influencing and being
influenced by their neighbouring settlements, national and state politics and with the
integration of the economy at a global level the changes taking place in the market. Some
of the factors that contribute to population increase are in-migration, high birth rate,
changing socio-economic amenities and factors like reorganisation of territorial
boundaries.
The population and its distribution in different parts of Bhopal region is an
important input in planning for the region. Population data and decadal growth rate da ta of
Madhya Pradesh state and four districts adjoining Bhopal district is shown in Table.

Socio-economic analysis
The census data has been collected from census department. This database has been
imported to Arc/Info GIS environment and integrated with village boundaries. To
establish a relation with village boundary and census data records the census code
were used as a key filed. Different non-spatial parameters have been used to derive
spatial patterns related to population density, percent SC/ST population, percent
literacy, percent cultivators and percent employment. The details of these parameters are
presented in Table.

Population Density
Population density is defined as the total number of persons per unit area. Population
density is an important indicator of the levels of development concentration. The density
pattern has been estimated on a village basis and thus is a reflection of the
development in the villages. The density has been categorized in 6 categories as shown in
Table. Major settlements falls in very low density having <150 persons per hectare. 60
villages are having population density >1001 persons per hectare.

Literacy
Literacy indicates level of education in the area. Percent literacy is divided in four
classes as shown in Table. Map indicates clearly that villages having very low literacy rate (<

30) are distributed mainly in Northern part of region around Berasia town. Also
575 Villages have more than 50% literates.

Workers
Percent participation of the people in various act ivities is an indicative of the economic base
of the district. The major classes of participation are agricultural activities, industrial
activities, cultivation and other activities. The higher the participation of the population
of a village, the economic base of the village would be sound. Different classes under
worker participation are given in Table. It is observed that North-East area falls in very
low work participation ratio.

Amenity / Facilities analysis


Economic infrastructure and services like education, medical and communication etc.
play vital role in economic development. Composite index has been computed for all the
settlements which is a sum of weighted averages on a availability of amenities under
different categories (education, medical and communications). W eight for an amenity is
assigned on the basis of its relative importance within a category and is expressed as the
proportion of settlements not having this particular amenity. The detailed analysis in relation
to education, medical and communication facility indices in the region has been carried out.
A Composite Functionality Index map was generated by integrating all these indices to
determine the settlement hierarchy in terms of their service areas.
Educational Facilities
Educational Facility Index has been calculated based on educational facilities like

primary school, Middle school, High school etc.. Map shows that there are 186 villages
having very low education facility. Moreover, 193 villages does not have even a primary
school. These areas required more attentions towards development of educational
facilities. This area is mainly distributed in north east and south in Bhopal region.
Different classes under educational facilities are given Table.

Medical Facilities
The medical facilities index is based upon the data received from secondary census
abstracts from Census of India, 2001. Based on medical facilities in the villages like
PHC, Dispensary etc., MFI (Medical Facility Index) has been derived and classified in to four
categories Classes under medical facility are shown in Table. It is observed that most of
the villages (1148) doesnt have any medical facilities. However these villages may be
located near to the village, which has the facility. But still some villages in North of the region
are lacking the facility

Communication Facility
Communication Facility Index (CFI) has been derived based on communication facilities like
phone, post and telegram office etc. Various classes under CFI is given in Table.

Demographic Features
Bhopal Municipal Corporation is the second largest Municipal Corporation of Madhya
Pradesh state with a population of 14, 37,354 as per Census of India 2001. It is
however the fastest growing city in Madhya Pradesh with the decadal growth rate of
35.25%. The following section studies spatial distribution of demographic indicators of
Bhopal Municipal Corporation.
Sex Ratio
The overall sex ratio in the city is 898, whereas the child sex ratio is 928. It is observed that
the juvenile sex ratio in Bhopal is much better than other major urban centres in Madhya
Pradesh, namely Indore, Jabalpur and Gwalior. Bhopal being the capital city is recording
high level of variation between over-all sex ratio and juvenile sex ratio. It is also observed
that the family size in Bhopal is 5.16, which is less as compared to other urban centres.
This further confirms the that city has high rate of migration. Spatial distribution of sex
ratio indicates that sex ratio is low in areas with nonresidential land use.
The Municipal Corporation has 19 W ards with child sex ratio lower than overall sex
ratio. Amongst these wards Indrapuri ward located at North -East of BHEL Campus, Koh-eFiza near Old City, and T.T. Nagar Stadium, Shivaji Nagar and Panchasheel wards in
T.T. Nagar area are predominantly residential areas, with juvenile sex ratio less than 900
females per 1000 males.
SC / ST Population
The population of Schedule Caste and Schedule Tribes form 12.38% and 2.97% of the total
population respectively. These are mor e-or-less uniformly distributed over entire city;
however few wards namely, Panchsheel, Barkhera BHEL, Dr. Rajendra Prasad and Baboo
Jagjiwan wards, are having comparatively higher proportion of SC/ST population (20-30%).
Literacy Rate
The literacy rate in Bhopal Municipal Corporation area is 68.14% which is slightly lower as
compared to the corresponding figures for Indore and Jabalpur. It is evident from the
attached map, that wards in Old City have literacy rate lower than the average. Most of
these wards have residential and commercial land uses.
Work Participation Ratio
The percentage of main workers, marginal workers and non-workers in Bhopal as per
Census 2001 is 26.67%, 2.92% and 70.41% respectively.
The proportion of main workers has declined in the city from 28.76% in 1991 to
26.67% in year 2001. The proportion of marginal workers has increased during the
same time period, which could be because of lack of employment opportunities and
declining economy of the city. The work participation ratio m ore than 34% is observed
around South T.T. Nagar, Char Imli and Habibganj areas. The proportion of workers
engaged in household industries has increased from 0.56% in 1991 to 0.92% in year
2001. This is though a positive sign, fiscal policy measures are required to encourage more
household industries in the city to create employment opportunities.
The distribution of economic activities in primary, secondary and tertiary sectors
based upon 1991 census data indicate that 30% of population is engaged in secon dary

sector (manufacturing and processing in household and other than household industries and
workers engaged in construction activities), while 65% of work force in engaged in tertiary
sector activities (including trade and commerce workers, transport,
storage and
communication workers, and workers engaged in other services). It is observed that
1,07,936 population (35.32% of Main Workers) are engaged in other services alone
accounting for 10.26% of total population of Bhopal.
The inferences derived from Census of India data regarding socioeconomic
profile of Bhopal Municipal Corporation, requires detailed studies and supporting
evidences for confirmation. However following points may be noted from the
demographic study of Bhopal:
Being the capital city and a major centre of economic activities in this region, the city
is witnessing high level of in-migration of both skilled and unskilled workers. The male
migration is predominant, which further indicates that due to difficult housing situation
prevailing in the city, migrant workers have tendency to leave their family in the place of their
origin. It is also observed that there is a need to augment economy of the city and create
employment opportunities to reduce the unemployment.

Urbanization in Bhopal District


The Bhopal district is bounded in North by Guna district, in North East by Vidisha, in W est
and South W est by district of Sehore, and in East and South East by Raisen district.
The district comprises of Berasia and Huzur Tehsil. District of Bhopal is the most
urbanized districts of Madhya Pradesh. The total population of the district in 2001 was
18,43,510, out of which 80.42% of population resides in urban areas. The Bhopal Planning
Area that comprises of 120 villages and the Bhopal Municipal Corporation, has total
population of 15,59,328 (Census of India, 2001). Population of Bhopal Municipal
Corporation as per Census 2001 is 14,37,354. The municipal corporation has five
outgrowths, Damkheda, Banjari, Akbarpur, Nayapura (Kolar) and Bairagarh Chichli,
together with Bhopal Municipal Corporation they have population of 14,58,416 forming
93% of Total Population of Planning Area.
Growth of Population
Bhopal was made the capital of Madhya Pradesh in year 1956. During the same period
Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. (BHEL) was established thereby augmenting the
employment opportunities in the city. The city, which was thus limited to old walled city until
1956, expanded in all directions to accommodate increasing activities and the
functions that it served. These events prompted rapid population growth in the city,
resulting into nearly 120% decadal population growth during the period 1951-61, and this
momentum continued in the following decades as well. In the decade of 1971-1981 the city
boundary was increased to bring BHEL Township and Bairagarh within the Bhopal
Municipal Corporation limits. During the same decade, Mandideep industrial area was
established. W ith the heavy growth in industrial and commercial activities together with
the expansion of Government services, the decade of 1971-81 witnessed phenomenal 75%
decadal population growth.
In 1984, Bhopal witnessed one of the worst industrial disasters of the W orld, the
Bhopal Gas Tragedy, which resulted into decline in industrial activities in the city,
thereby resulting into decline in population growth rate during the decade of 1981-91. This
event severely impacted the preferred destination status of Bhopal as an industrial centre,

and could be one predominant reason for comparatively lower decadal growth

rate of 58%. In year 2000, the state of Chhatisgarh was separated from Madhya
Pradesh, prompting migration of many Government employees to the newly formed
state. It is interesting to note that nearly 10.16 % of total population of Bhopal was
engaged in Category 9 (Other Service, both Private sector and Government services) as
per census of India, 1991, and nearly 28% of the Government Servants migrated to Raipur
after bifurcation of state. The decade therefore, reported decline in population growth rate
to 35.25%. The decadal growth rate of 35.25% is however still very high as compared to
many other urban centres in India (Table).
Population Density
The gross population density of the Bhopal Municipal Corporation as per 2001 census is
merely 51.2 persons per sq ha. This extremely low gross population density is mainly
because of the natural constraints such as undulating terrain with large hills, forest
areas and water bodies occupying large area of land, thus reducing the effective land area
available for habitation.

The comparison of density across the wards indicates wide differences between inner
city area and the peripheral areas. Moti Masjid ward has highest population density
of 1271.32 persons per ha while the Congress Nagar ward is second most dense
ward with population density of 1038.33 persons per ha. The heart of Bhopal, which
comprises of old city area, extending to Lower lake in south and up to railway line in North,
has population density in range of 400 800 persons per ha. These areas have
predominantly high density residential land use mixed with commercial land use at few
places. However, in recent past, these areas have witnessed negative decadal growth
rate indicating out-migration to other parts of the city.
The population density in peripheral area is less than 100 persons per ha. These
are the newly developing areas with mainly agricultural land, cropped or fallow. Apart from
being away from the core city, many of these areas also have large water bodies, forest and
wastelands, resulting into lesser population density. It should however be noted that
effective density in these areas could be much higher than the gross density.
In between the old city area and the peripheral areas, there are areas with
moderate population density in range 100 400 persons per ha. These are the areas with
either low to medium density residential or with institutional or industrial campuses. Such

areas are mainly located in the south of Bhopal and few are also located in the North-W est
of the old city. It is therefore evident, that the city with widely varying population
density requires sound and effective planning to decongest the densely populated central
city areas, and to provide adequate services and infrastructure to make less densely
populated areas available for future development.

Distribution of Population
As noticed in the previous section, the population in the city is spread in unequal
manner. The population growth in the city is also highly irregular. The Figure indicates that
there is negative growth rate in the central city areas, which are densely populated as
observed in previous section. It can also be seen that many of the peripheral wards, mainly
those located in south, south-east and north-west of Bhopal have recorded very high
population growth rates in past decade. In the absence of proper planning
interventions, the city has sprawled uncontrollably, thus imposing tremendous pressure on
the adjoining productive agriculture land and on the other natural resources such as surface
water bodies, groundwater prospective zones, forests, etc.
Population projections for 2021
The population projections for the Bhopal Planning Area up to the year 2021
were made using different standard statistical procedures viz. Arithmetic increase
method, geometric increase method, incremental increase method, exponential method,
forecast function method (ratio method) and trend (least square method). It was
observed that arithmetic increase method, forecast function method and trend method
underestimated the population, whereas the geometric increase method and
exponential methods over estimated the population. Moreover as the arithmetic increase
method is suitable for newly developing cities and the geometric increase method is
more reliable for old and developed cities, these two methods, which are very commonly
used for population projection in practice, cannot be used in case of Bhopal, which is neither
new nor a very old developed city. The incremental increase method is
thus
found to be the most suitable method for population projection of the city.
The
population of Bhopal Municipal Corporation as per incremental growth method
is
estimated to be approximately 22,00,000 by year 2021 and for the Bhopal
Planning Area
it projected to 25,00,000.
The above analysis however fails to accommodate the local events that have in
past resulted into erratic population growth and have significantly affected citys
demographics. The population growth from 1991 to 2001 for Bhopal Municipal
Corporation area is recorded to be 36.9% as per census of India while the overall
growth in urban population in Huzur Tehsil was 37.23% during same period. It is
assumed that this 37.23% population growth rate will be continued in the coming years. The
population for year 2005 has thus been projected to be 18.02 lakh on the basis of population
of 1991 and 2001 by
geometric increase method and applying the growth rate of
3.7% per annum.
At the same growth rate the population for year 2021 is
projected to 32.19 lakh.
Therefore recommended population of 32,00,000 for the year 2021 and land
allocations will thus be made for additional 14.16 lakh population.

Requirements to be fulfilled by Bhopal Development Plan 2021


As per the above descriptions the reservation of 5000 hectare land shall be

required in development plan.


In view of planning in the growth area for sustainable development reservation of
land use will be essential.

Commercial development could be about 4 to 5 percent. To give boost to the


commercial development on many places commercial development have to be
proposed so that planned development could be achieved
The alignment of roads in development plan is disrupted at many places due to
which the construction of road is not possible. W herever the change in alignment in
development plan roads is required, same shall be negotiated.
The proposal of City Development Plan prepared by Bhopal Municipal
Corporation under the Jawarlal Nehru National Ur ban Renewal Mission shall be
included in Development plan.
Inclusion of proposals in Development Plan indicated by Madhya Pradesh State
Tourism Development Corporation Ltd. to make Bhopal as tourist spot.
Inclusion of the recommendations of Forest Department on Eco Tourism in Kerva
area and protection of forest areas.
Selections of places as per proposals submitted by DIC on the basis of wind
direction, water and availability of transport.

COMPONENTS OF THE PLAN


Land Utilization/ Land Use
Bhopal Development Plan 2005 envis aged Planning area 607 sq. Kms. Out of which area
under different land use was 27103.20 ha for 25 lakhs population. Study reveals that
12831.29 ha of land has been developed in the corresponding planning area of
Development Plan 2005 under different uses as against the expected land area of
27103.20 ha. The level of implementation of the development Plan 2005 is observed. The
details of implementation of different land use categories may be seen in Table.

Area required for urban development


As described earlier, the projected population of Bhopal Planning Area will be around 32
lakh by 2021. Therefore Population increased by 2021 will be around 14.16 lakh.
Requirement for additional area by 2021 has been worked out on the basis of population
density of 100 persons per hectare.

The UDPFI norm for large cities is 150-185 persons/ha, however due to topographical
\ constraints and preference for low and medium rise buildings in the city,
100 persons per hectare has been recommended as suitable population density. Accordingly
additional area required for urban development in the entire Bhopal Planning area by
year 2021 has been computed. As per this, an area of about 14167.52 ha will be required to
meet the demand of the additional population of about 14 lakh by
2021. To identify this land in the Bhopal Planning Area, an integrated urban land use
suitability analysis has been carried out on the basis of various physical characteristics of
the terrain as well as environmental parameters adopting a multivariate index
approach.
It may also be observed in the table that Bhopal Development Plan 2005 had
proposed 27103.20 ha for urban development. However due to various reasons
discussed in chapter 3 of report, it is observed that merely 14010 ha of land could
develop. Thus an area of 13093.20 ha proposed in Bhopal Development Plan 2005 is yet
not developed. Therefore the development plan for 2021 will require an additional
1074.32 ha land for the projected population.
The existing developed area within the planning area is 14 010.0 ha. W hich is
serving the existing population of 18.02 lakh? It means that the present land utilization rate is
to the tune of 7.0 ha per 1000 persons. If the overall land utilization rate for the entire
population is to be achieved at the rate of 10. 0 ha per 1000 persons,(100 Person per
hector) then the total developed area should be around 32000 ha resulting in
additional area requirement of 14167 ha. Keeping this additional area requirement into
consideration the proposed land use plan has been prep ared. It may be noted that
Bhopal Development Plan 2005 envisaged gross population distribution at the rate of
7.0 ha per 1000 persons.

Infrastructure
Physical Infrastructure
Water Supply
The water is being supplied to Bhopal city from Upper Lake, Kolar Dam and tubewells. The
water through pipe is supplied to only 67 % of the population in Bhopal and in addition to
this for 66 wards the water supply is made from 5808 Community Stand. During 2021 the
need of water supply is 432 M.L.D. for the population of 32 Lakhs at the rate of 135 liter per
persons per day. To fulfill the water supply within Bhopal Municipal Corporation about Rs
614.63 crore are required in which The Asian Development Bank will give Rs 64.23 crore
and Jawahar Lal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission will give 550.32 cores. W ater
supply in new areas should incorporate separate lines - one for washing, water coolers and
garden taps the second for supplying portable water. All non-residential buildings having
a discharge of over 10,000 liters a day should incorporate a wastewater recycling.
The capacity of the sewage treatment plant recycling plants would be equal to or more
than the water inflow requirements. So that it may be possible to treat major part of the
discharge expecting in view the use of recycled water, a policy shall be formulated
for determining the optimum water requirement for various uses.
Sewage System
At present only 30 % area is covered under s ewerage system. The huge amount of
wastewater from many big colonies situated in the city is f lowing through public nallas,
which goes into Patra, Halali and Betava River. Due to this water sources and ground water
are becoming polluted. The Sewerage System capacity has to be increased to
275 MLD. The sewage network will be 500 KM long. The target of 100 % sewage
system is fixed to year 2021. To complete this scheme EW SEIP and Jawahar Lal Nehru
National Urban Renewal Scheme will provide the fund.
Storm Water Drainage
The topography of Bhopal is unique hence drainage will not be a problem. The main drain in
Bhopal is Patra drain to which many small nallas join. In new Bhopal Katasi Drainage is
main drainage, which joins Shahapur Lake. In spite of this roadside nalis are required to be
constructed so that there will not be the flood affected areas. By the year
2021 the proposed target for construction of nalis is 90 % for which Jawahar Lal Nehru
National Urban Renewal Mission will grant the fund.
Solid Waste Management
The Bhopal city has been divided in to 14 zones for solid waste management. In Bhopal
77 vehicle trips are being used for solid waste management. Government and Private
Hospitals produces about 4 to 5 ton Biomedical W aste, which is carried out to
incinerator of Govindpur, Hamidiya Hospital and Gas relief Hospital. It is estimated that until
the year 2021 the solid waste will be about 1550 M. tons. In the year 2021 the above solid
waste material has to be deposited and transported by a scientific method. The present
landfill areas will be lifted up and the disposal of Biomedical waste will be assured. The
funds will be given by Asian Development Bank and Jawahar Lal Nehru National Urban

Renewal Mission.

Built Heritage
Urban image of the city is a collective visual appearance contributed by natural and man
made elements. Man-made heritage is the built form which got developed historically
over many centuries. The unique urban heritage contributing to the city identity and its
image ought to be preserved. Bhopal is gifted with rare monuments and splendid areas of
vulnerable architecture. The built heritage, comprising areas such as Jumerati Gate, Kamala
Park, Raj Bhawan, Chowk area, Jama Masjid, Moti Masjid, and Gauhar Mahal etc., ought to
be dealt with utmost care and pride.
An inventory of the heritage buildings of cultural, hist orical, socioeconomical and
architectural values was prepared by INTACH (Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural
Heritage) in 1984 resulting in a document of more than 281 buildings divided in four
grades based on the respective values of each building. Second exercise in updating of the
listing was conducted by INTACH in 2004 and several monuments were found
missing although several others found place in the list. Based on the list, the important
features, areas, zones, precincts and buildings of heritage and historical importance can be
divided into the six distinct geographical regions:
The unique feature of Bhopal is its large lake (30.72 sq km) called Bara Talab.
Legendary Bhoja Deva (1010-1053 CR) who finds mentioned for his hydraulic
engineering in the ancient treatises constructed the lake, making it on of the rare
monuments of ancient India (not protected) in use today. The fort encompasses the
Gond Queen Kamalapati's palace (protected by the Archaeological Survey of India
ASI), Kamla park, Hammam, Sheetal Das Bagiya, Faiz Bahadur's Dargah etc. within
its defense walls. A large gate announced entry into the old fort. The fort that
stretched northeast southwest. The two bastions mark the southern end of the fort
near Hammam and the northern end near Retghat.
Fatehgarh Fort or citadel, was added by the 18th century CE Afghan ruler Dost
Mohammad Khan on the west bank of Bara Talab in 1722 and named it after his
beloved wife Fateh Bibi. Fatehgarh Fort's first stone was laid by Qazi Mohammad
Moazzam of Raisen, who was a revered scholar. The unconquered fort was the
scene of a siege in 1812-13 laid by the Maratha armies of Nagpur and Gwalior and
the Pindarics. Tombs (protected by the State Archaeology) with 'Bangladar roofs' of
indigenous technology of 18th century, unmatched massive square bastions,
early 19lh century fresco painted palaces, late 19t century Alabaster mosque,
Jama mosque by the Hindu wife of the 2nd Nawab in sandstone trabeated
technology, palaces and gates as some of the fine examples of French influence on
Indian architecture, gold painted palaces, char-baghs with flowing water and
fountains and scented plants and uniquely Indian open maidans all fall within this
geographical area.
The Shehr-e-Khas was a square fortified city of gridiron pattern with Jama
Mosque of early I9lh century at its center. Recommended by Bhoja Deva as one of
the ideal city plans in India's ancient Shastras on town planning by him called
Samrangcimmitmtlhara. This 18th century town was entered by seven gates

named after seven days of the week. The processional gates have all been
demolished as also most of the heritage houses within. W hat however remains is

the morphology of the town, its street lines, open spaces, some havelies (which are
of immense heritage value), individual houses, chowks, temples, mosques, wells,
some old trees, health centers,
occupationally specific streets, the
commercial hubbub, some tongas, food tradition, jewellery market, and several
non-tangible traditions.
Shahjahanabad by Shah Jahan Begum (1870-1901) was a well planned, well laid
out fortified extension to the existing fortified town of Bhopal. This well- defined
heritage area has all the features of the feminine ruler associated with it. Built around
cascading waters of three descending tanks, the area is an aesthetic delight with
palaces, grounds, mosques, markets, gates, Bara Bagh with all its cenotaphs etc.
all built with materials of most delicate intricacy and designs. This is one of the rare
examples in India where expansion was being planned at such a large scale by
indigenous engineers and architects. The area is still not encroached upon in a
major way although the building stock is in a decadent and damaged state.
Jehangirabad, was extension by Nawab Jehangir Mohammad Khan (18371844) for the unruly Afghan troupes and contained palaces, gardens, grounds,
barracks, alabaster cenotaphs, aqueduct, Minto Hall, Lal Kothi (present day
Government house), several gardens such as Ash Bagh, Bagh Umrao Dulha with a
5th century pillar, Farhat Bagh, bodies etc.
In conformation with the tradition of the Nawabs of Bhopal the last Begum Sultan
Jehan (1901-1921) built her own palace complex in Ahmedabad area named
after her late husband. Designed by Austrian architect Heinz in Art Dec o style the
area had esplanade, venues, botanical gardens, Kothies. Cottages, out houses,
palaces yacht clubs etc. in atypical of the style that was so much in vogue at that time
in Europe. Circular grills, railings, terr aced gardens with - circular ends, porches
with circular roofs with diamond windows of non-standard dimensions were all part
of the vocabulary of the early modern Art- Deco style that still has fan-clubs across
the world and who hold world congresses in appreciation of the style. The area can
be defined as Heritage Zone.
Natural Resources
Natural Drainage
The topography of the area favours efficient and rapid drainage of the planning area.
The drainage on the north-eastern part of planning area is provided by river Halali, while on
the south-eastern side, it is provided by Kaliyasote River. On the south-western side, the
drainage is provided by various small nallahs, which drain out in Kolar River that ultimately
drains into river Narmada.
The drainage water of old city including wastewater of industries located in
Govindapura industrial estate is carried away by Patra Nallah, which meets Halali River near
Islampura. The water quality indicates very high concentration of dissolved solids and very

high BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) confirming water pollution. The water of this river is
being used for irrigation purposes and thus very little discharge reaches

Betwa. Moreover, the confluence point of River Halali with River Betwa is situated on the
downstream side of water works for Vidisha t own, thereby omitting immediate public health
concerns, but requires corrective actions for long term sustainable development. Kaliyasote
River, which provides drainage to the south-eastern part of city, joins Betwa near Bhojpur in
Raisen District. There is hardly any possibility of utilization of this water on the way for
irrigation purposes as it passes through a hilly terrain. The Development of Mandideep
Industrial growth Centre and its extensions need to be strictly controlled in respect of
industries to be permitted in this area to avoid water pollution which may create problems
to Vidisha. Industries proposed to be located on this side should be non-polluting type or it
will have to be ensured that industrial water is fully treated before discharging the same in
Kaliyasote, to prevent pollution of Betwa River, the principal source of water supply to the
city of Vidisha. There are about 14 water bodies within Planning Area of Bhopal covering
nearly 3825 ha land area accounting for 4.74% of total land area. This includes the Upper
Lake, Lower Lake and Shahapura Lake, apart from three large reservoirs namely Kerwa
Dam, Kalia Sot Dam, and Hathai Kheda Dam. Large number of small streams drain into
these lakes.

Urban Environment Quality


Environmental Sensitivity
Environmental sensitivity analysis in the Bhopal Development Planning Area has
been carried out based upon the data on air quality (SO2, NOx, SPM, RSPM), ground water
quality (pH, Nitrate, Phosphate etc.) and surface water quality (pH, chloride, Nitrate etc.).
Air Quality
The ambient air quality is monitored at three locations regularly, for suspended
particulate matter (SPM & RSPM)), Sulphur di-oxide (SO2) and oxides of Nitrogen
(NOx). The locations are South T.T. Nagar, Hamidia Road and Govindpura Industrial
Area.
Ambient air quality in Bhopal city between year 2002 to 2005 is depicted in the
Table. For Industrial and residential area (Subhash H.S. School) all the four parameters are
within the limits for all the years as can be seen from Table but the SPM parameter exceeds
the limit as far as Hamidia Road area is considered. Also, RSPM for this area is greater than
the limit for the year 2002-03.

Hence, from the Ambient Air quality Table for the Bhopal city, it is clear that the
contribution of Industries to air pollution is not significant The major cause of air pollution in
Bhopal city may be due to the vehicular pollution and exhaust gases from the automobiles.

Surface Water Quality


The state of surface water quality in the Bhopal city has been shown in the Table. for
the year 1998-99. It is seen from the table that pH of Upper Lake water varies from
7.41 to 7.93 while that of Lower Lake ranges between 7.44 and 8.57 .These values are well
within the specified safe limits. Also, Patra Nalla area has the pH value ranging from 6.38
to 7.68 except for the lowest value of 4.44 in October, 1998.
Nitrogen and Phosphorous are considered to be the most important among
nutrients responsible for eutrophication. It is seen from the table that concentration of NO 3
and PO4 in Upper lake varied from 1 to 3 mg/l and 0.09 to 0.21 mg/l respectively. Also, in the
lower lake from 11 to 21 mg/l and 0.50 to 3.80 mg/l respectively. These values indicate that
the concentrations of NO3 and PO4 are higher in both the cases than the critical limits of 1.34
mg/l (NO3) and 0.06 to 0.08 mg/l (PO4). These higher values have led to growth of aquatic
plants in the lakes thereby making it polluted. Patra Nala, a major drain initiating from
Lower Lake passes through the city area and receives waste waters and filthy
material upto Semra kalan village and thereafter it receives agricultural waste upto
Bhanpura village. The values indicate that the salinity and NO3 concentration goes on
increasing till it runs through human settlement area and beyond that it decreases. The
causes of pollution in the Upper lake may be due to the regular inflow of untreated sewage,
domestic / solid wastes, agricultural residues along with pesticides / insecticides from
catchment area, washing of clothes and vehicles, immersion of idols tazias etc. A bulk
of this sewage and sullage comes to the lake from areas around the Medical College
Hostels, Koh-e-Fiza and area of Van Vihar. The major cause of pollution in Lower Lake,
which is surrounded by the congested built up area on all sides, may be due to the intake of
untreated sewage through eight unlined drains. Other causes of pollution are due to
Dhobighats existing in the periphery of this lake using detergents for washing of clothes,
washing of vehicles and inflow of domestic wastes and wastewater coming from the

nearby hutments builtup at Dhobighats.

Ground Water Quality


The chemical quality of ground water is an important parameter and its suitability for
public water supply must be checked. In order to know the impact of faster growth of
urbanization and industrialization and environment degradation of Upper and Lower
Lakes, checking of the ground water quality is essentially required. The analytical result of
chemical and trace elements analyses is shown in the Table.

The pH values in groundwater varies from 7.34 to 8.03. It is found from the table that
the Nitrate concentration beyond 45mg/l is found only in three places Nayapura
(100mg/l), Patel Nagar (72mg/l) and in Rasla Kheri (46mg/l) in the hand pump and
tubewells respectively. Nitrate pollution in ground water may be due to disposal of
untreated sewage through open and unlined drains and wrong siting of land fill sites on
permeable formations thereby polluting to ground water gradually.
Table clearly shows that the concentration of chloride in the ground water
samples is well within the permissible limit of 250 mg/l.

Environmental Infrastructure
The population for Bhopal Planning Area has been forecasted to reach 32 lakh by year
2021. Infrastructure components for the city namely water supply, sewerage, drainage, and
solid waste management will is sized to provide healthy environment to the city dwellers,
commensurate with the vision of Global Environment City Project for Bhopal. In addition to
that various recommendations and proposals from City Development Plan, Comprehensive
Environmental Management Plan and Urban W ater
Supply
and Environmental
Improvement Project have been incorporated with appropriate
modifications wherever necessary.
Environment management and protection strategy
Issues
Environment management and protection str ategy addresses to the critical
environmental problems which mainly concern preservation of lakes, its catchment area and

its water quality and land use management in catchment areas. The other environmental
issues relate to the disposal and treatement of urban waste and its recycling and the
socio-economic problems caused by the displacement of population, in context to future
city spread.
Environmental management of upper lake and other water bodies are vulnerable to
urban pressure in its close vicinity. At the state level measures need to be initiated to
mitigate pollution which has already taken place engulfing water bodies and other
natural areas. Likewise it is als o essential to enforce land use control measures in the

catchment areas to prevent further environmental degradation and there by achieve


desired level of sustainability. The efforts of promoting a programme under Bhoj wetland with
central assistance followed by another programme of financial assistance with the Japanese
aid are were the steps in right direction. These measures and programmes to preserve and
conserve upper and lower lakes and other natural areas in its vicinity have been
implemented through co-ordinated approach among Public Health Engineering, Forest,
Agriculture, Mining, Tourism and other utility departments.
Key Elements of Environment Management and Protection Strategy
In the light of critical issues outlined above, the key elements of the strategy are
identified as under: Arresting the remaining flow of effluent into the lake and other water bodies
envisaged under the JNNURM Scheme by BMC.
Enforcement of land use management measure in the catchment areas so as to
prevent further pollution load in the lake.
Arresting the soil errosion through silt check dams in the catchment area
including prohibiting the use of chemical fertilizers in agriculture operation in
the catchment areas.
Enforce control guidelines in lake fringe areas.
Conduct independent check monitoring on effluent and water quality.
Set up an institutional arrangement to enforce co-ordinated efforts to prevent
pollution and other environmental degradation arising as a result of human
interventions, in the catchment areas of all the water bodies.
Disaster Management
Natural and man made disasters neither can be prevented nor predicted.
However, with the technological advancement to some extent mechanism can be
developed to mitigate the after effects of the disaster. Areas of vulnerability can be
identified and necessary measures can be proposed by the concerned agencies. The
concerned local bodies should keep updating the building bye laws to safeguard against
disasters and ensure effective and impartial enforcement. Following policies and
strategies for disaster management are proposed :
1. Pre-Disaster preparedness
i) a) Micro-zonation surveys should be referred for land use planning and be
considered while preparing the Zonal Plans and Layout Plans.
Seismic micro-zonation for selected areas having high growth rates
should be taken up on priority.
On the basis of vulnerability studies and hazard identification, which
includes soil conditions, probable intensity of earthquake, physiographic
conditions of the area, fault traces, etc., local level and use zoning and
planning should be undertaken.
b) Building bye-laws should incorporate the aspects of Multi Hazard
Safety,and Retrofitting.
Priority should be given to public buildings (such as hospitals,

educational, institutional,
power stations, infrastructure,
heritage
monuments, lifeline structures and those which are likely to attract large

congregation) for their


intensity.

ability to withstand earthquake of the defined

Suitable action should be taken for retrofitting and strengthening of


structures identified as vulnerable as per earthquake manuals and
National Building Code. A techno-legal regime has to be adopted for
provisions on Multi Hazard Safety aspects.
ii) Bhopal Fire Services and local administration being the nodal agency for
disaster management should identify vulnerable areas such as areas with high
density and poor accessibility in the city and propose suitable measures.
Proposed Disaster Management Centres should be established in every zone to deal
with the disasters, including bio-chemical and nuclear disasters.
iii) Sensitize people, particularly school children, about after effects of disaster.
iv) Make people aware through media campaigns and advertisements about
emergency procedures and location of emergency shelters etc.
2. Post-Disaster preparedness
i) It has been observed that any disaster is generally followed by break down of
communication lines and disruption of essential services. Therefore, the key
communication centres should be protected from natural disasters i.e. floor, fire and
earthquake etc. and services restoration should be taken up on top most priority.
Necessary setup should be created in each of the concerned department for such
eventualities.
ii) Standard type designs and layout should be prepared by the local bodies and
made available to the people so that crudical time is not lost in approval of layout
plans and building plans after disaster.

GOVERNANCE
Phasing
The plan envisages to activise the plant implementation process in critical areas to be
development in two broad phases. The first phase will address the requirement of up to year
2014 and second phase shall address to the requirement of 2014 to 2021.
In order to implement the plan propos als, intense programme resource
mobilisation and yearly development budgeting will have to be engineered through
partnership approach among landowners, developers, community groups, private
developers and public agencies.
The role of the State Government envisaged is that of a "enabling agency" which
would promote policies to facilitate development to take place as stipulated in the plan
proposals. In order to achieve these objec tives, the State Government and City
Development Authority along with online agencies, will have to engineer actions for
development of city level infrastructure in the following critical areas.
The formulation of package of policy for easy flow of land will have to be
finalised to be enforced particularly in two new sub-city areas.
The development of critical road grids, which would activise all other activities in
the two new sub-cities as a package programme.
Formulating policies for activising implementation of land development
programme in new sub-city areas, using partnership approach with land
owners, developers, community groups, and private builders.
Activising land development programme through public agency with a view to
generate chunks of partially developed sites, of size around 4/10 hectare with
provisions of peripheral infrastructure.
Development of utility infrastructure, power girds, trunk sewerage, to cover
the phase 1 programme of the urban development in the two new-sub-city
areas.
A special package of planning and development permission procedure
should be conceived and enforced for undertaking land development
programme, urban development schemes as well as development of housing for
the target groups in proposed new sub-city areas.
A more pragarmatic package of land disposal policy need to be instituted to
motivate speedier development of sub-cities including faster pace of resource
mobilisation from all the participants.
Extension of main water grid, and setting up of power distribution centre in
the two new sub-city areas.
Development of core housing for the target group, special residential zones
for the affluent population and development of market centre and other social
facilities mainly in the new sub-city areas.
Expansion of mass transport system to all the habitated areas including
partially developed areas.
Creation of routes for BRTS System.

Implementation And Enforcement


The Municipal Corporation of Bhopal is a nodal agency for implementation of Jawaharlal
Nehru National Urban Renewal Scheme.
Strategy for Plan Implementation
The sustained efforts are needed for plan implementation to improve the quality of city life.
The evaluation of implementation status of Bhopal Development Plan, 2005 reflects that
several critical areas which were needed to be addressed were left unattended, with the
result that basic proposal envisaged in the plan could not get fully transformed into
envisaged, physical frame. The critical management areas where the implementation
process have suffered as already identified and need
reconsideration. It is thus, imperative that an effective plan implementati on strategy
needs to be evolved to achieve the following objectives: Protect Natural Environment.
Conservation of areas of cultural heritage.
Optimise Land use and land Utilization.
Provide services and infrastructure.
Participatory approach for supply of land and infrastructure development
These objectives are proposed to be served by implementing strategies in the
following areas: Environmental management and protection strategy.
City infrastructure and service strategy.
Monitoring and Review
Plan Monitoring
The success of Development Plan shall depend on implementation of the proposals of the
Development Plan within the stipulated time frame and the resource mobilisation capacity
of the first phase programme set out. This entails the need t o setup a well defined
monitoring mechanism for plan implementation and review, including follow-up action after
Development Plan stands sanctioned by the Government.
It is proposed to frame plant monitoring mechanism which shall be evolved on
the following basis: Setting up a system of rolling five yearly integrated urban development
programme.
Setting up a Priority Action Annual Development Programme in critical areas.
Monitoring of budgetary and other investment available with different public
agencies flowing into the city development towards identified programmes
under the first phase implementation plan.
Setting out yearly physical targets and corresponding investment under critical
infrastructure areas.
Identifying developmental roles of public agency and others particularly in
critical areas.
Setting up a Co-ordinating Institutional Mechanism.
Translating integrated urban development programme on annual basis.

Transforming the integrated urban development programme in terms of project


and sub-projects defining the role of public agencies and others.

Plan Monitoring Mechanism


The Plan monitoring is proposed to be achieved through following levels: Plan monitoring committee at local level.
Preparation of an annual development report by the city development authority.
Evaluation of the development report (ADP) by the plan monitoring committee.
Submission of report to the committee.
Implementation of the directions issued by the Govt. on annual development
report.
Responsibility Accountability
The state Government may approve the constitution of monitoring committee on the
local level headed by the Divisional Commissioner. The committee shall have representation
from all concerned department whose budget and investment are involved in the city
development process. The Member Secretary of the Committee Shall be the Chtef
executive Officer of the Development Authority. The local plan monitoring committee
shall closely monitor the implementation status in the following:
Land flow towards
- City infrastructure - Housing
- Shelter programme for - Public open spaces
target group
- W ork Centres - Public open spaces
Land Development Proposals
- Land development with peripheral infrastructure with focus on two new sub-city
areas.
- Housing and Shelter Projects.
- Other social facilities, in sub-city areas.
Development of sector level and sub-section level facilities.
- Development of recreational areas and organised open spaces
- Development of city infrastructure
The committee shall meet quarterly to review the progress of: - Programme identification.
Plan Interpretation
Bhopal Development Plan is basically a policy plan. The proposals contained in the
Development plan are generally broad and indicative in nature. The following guidelines are
therefore laid down for Plan Interpretation.
Proposed Development Plan contents should be read with the relevant Portion
of the report text along with the applicable development regulations while
Interpreting the proposals on the map or while taking any decisions/granting
permission.

Activities permitted within each use zones shall be governed by the frame work
stipulated as on Development Regulations, and other relevant provisions.
The Existing location and area spread of neighbourhood, sub-sector, sector,
level activities form a part of sector level residential zone and as such not shown.