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Venkat Narayan* Alexis Martínez del Sol** Jorge Javier Mier García** Gabriel Becerril**

Dünnistrasse 10 CH-8962 Bergdietikon Derio Bidea 28 48100 Mungia,Tel:+3494 60112001

Tel.: +41 44 741 76 58 amds@arteche.es jmier@arteche.com.mx

hvncons@switzerland.net gbecerril@arteche.com.mx

This paper presents four (4) practical rules for the prelim-

Abstract: The paper presents several practical criteria for select- inary determination of the type and the number as well as the

ing the types, number, and optimal location of measuring location of the measuring units; new algorithms are then

equipment for collecting real time data with required accuracy

for the state estimation as demanded by the SCADA systems

presented, which enable optimization of the data to obtain

used in the automation of distribution systems. It also suggests a results within acceptable limits.

method for detection and elimination of possible errors in the

telemetric data. The algorithms presented are easy to imple- At this stage it is well to recall that for this type of studies,

ment computationally and guarantee the correct operation of there are no known and recognized standards available re-

state estimators within acceptable economic constraints. The commending the applicable level of accuracies. For this

application of the proposed algorithms is also illustrated by an reason, the recommendations of [2] for the different automa-

example chosen from a real network. tion functions implemented in the distribution systems (in %

of respective magnitudes of interest) are applied.

Index Terms: Algorithms, Automation, Indexes, Measurement

units, Measurement errors, Optimization methods, Power Dis-

tribution Control, State Estimation • 5-8 % deviations for the reconfiguration of the network,

and for service restoration.

I. INTRODUCTION • 10-12 % deviations for Voltage and Var control, Power

factor control

The real time data sent by the measuring equipment at • 11-18 % for load balance, load management, etc.

remote locations, as coordinated by the SCADA systems

constitute the starting point for any of the functions of distri- The results obtained are similar to those obtained by [3] in

bution systems and in particular, for the state estimator. Al- an analysis of a similar network and allows the following

though technically an ideal solution, it is not economically conclusions:

justified to equip every distribution transformer with measur-

ing instruments; however, greater the number of measure- • Generally, greater the number of measurements in real

ments available more accurate will be the results as calcu- time, more precise is the result, as evidenced by a re-

lated by the state estimator. duction in the deviations; this is as to be expected.

• The results for the voltages are a little better than in the

Specifically, the problem to be solved is: Given a net- case of load flow.

work, the type and the minimum number as well as the op- • The substitution of the load flows (active power) by the

timal location of the measuring units are to be determined so voltages at the nodes leads only to small variations of

as to guarantee the accuracy of the state estimators. The the results (degraded); this suggests that whenever poss-

complexity of the problem is the result of the enormous ible, voltage measurements can be used instead of load

number of possible combinations of the location of the mea- flow calculations to obtain more economical results.

suring equipment as well as the contradictory requirements

between the possible accuracy and the total cost of the mea- II. METHODS FOR PRELIMINARY DE-

suring system. For this reason, majority of the investigations

TERMINATION OF TYPE, NUMBER AND

presented until now have been based on empirical rules

based on observations or experimental studies [1,2]. LOCATION OF MEASURING EQUIPMENT

tion of this paper to present a rigorous solution as developed

for the transmission networks [4], but to apply a heuristic

approach based on the following observations [1]:

1. Since the precision required depends upon the automa- D. Rule 4

tion functions implemented, it is not essential to deter-

mine all the values at all points with the same accuracy. When economic restrictions impose a fixed number of

For example, the power flows at points of sectionaliza- measurement equipment and you wish to install them at

tions should be determined more precisely than those at those critical nodes with a given precision for one of the

other points or individual loads. However, for the im- magnitudes of interest the algorithm defined in the Fig. 1 can

portant automation functions such as optimal network be used. In the following a first algorithm is shown for the

reconfiguration, it is necessary to obtain more precise case where a fixed number of measuring equipment is given

values at the points, where the circuit breakers or rec- to be located. We start with an initial tolerance value, the

losers are installed than those at the locations of capaci- number of measuring equipment available as well as the

tor banks, installed for voltage and var control and even number of nodes in the circuit.

less at other points. Hence, locating the measuring

equipment at the points where circuit breakers, reclos- At the end, we will have the available equipment installed

ers and sectionalizing switches are installed is always a at the critical nodes (of less precision or higher σi ) and de-

good recommendation. pending upon the number of measuring equipment the total

2. The state estimator uses the measurements for “correct- precision will be better or worse with respect to the initial

ing” the errors in load values at specific zones. There- value; in exceptional cases, the final value will be the same

fore, locating the measuring equipment in such a way as initial value.

that the power supply region is divided into zones

(called measurement zones) with similar total loads, Start

will ensure that the load model will be more uniform as

regards precision. It is obvious that for a particular

CTol : Total permissible deviations in the

measurement zone there will be less load, but with a magnitudes of interest.

more precise estimation. M : No. of measurements to be located

3. Because of economic considerations, the majority of N : Total number of nodes

real time measurements will be voltages at the nodes or

line currents instead of power flows except at the power

supply substation.

k=0

Based on the above observations, we have developed a set

of rules which can be used for selecting the preliminary loca-

tions of measuring equipment. Calculate for the magnitudes

of interest the deviations σi

and sort them in descending

A. Rule 1: k=k+1

order

At locations where main circuit breakers and / or fuses are Locate Meas. at

installed voltages are measured. At the head substation the node i i =1

measurement should be power flows, in other cases mea-

Yes

surement of currents will be sufficient. This will enhance the

accuracy of reconfiguration and restoration of power supply k≤M

Yes

σi > CTol

functions.

No

B. Rule 2: No

CTol=CTol+

i = i+1

Along the power supply sections defined by the measur- ΔCTol

ing equipment into zones of similar total loads and of similar No

magnitude: These measurements could be of the type “cur- i=N

rent”; they will enhance the accuracy of the load model.

yes

C. Rule 3: yea

k<M CTol=CTol-

ΔCTol

At the locations with normally open circuit breakers the

measurement can be voltages. It is recommended to take No

these measurements at both sides of the circuit breakers (op- End

posite line ends) since this will enhance the precision of

monitoring and voltage / var control functions from the subs- FIG.1. Algorithm for the location of a fixed number of mea-

tation or from the load dispatch center. In addition, this will suring equipment.

improve the accuracy of the state estimator, once the circuit

breakers or reclosers are closed following a reconfiguration

or restoration.

III. SORTING OF MEASUREMENTS AND

DERIVATION OF MINIMUM NUMBER

schemes) is a good compromise between precision and com-

putational simplicity. The method selects the number, the

type and the location of measuring equipment for a good

precision, however, without optimizing the process from the

points of view of precision vs. cost.

imply that only at those points where circuit breakers or

sectionalizing switches are installed, high precision is neces-

sary; hence, it would be difficult to justify installing all the

measuring equipment as suggested by the basic algorithm.

For elimination of some of the measuring equipment of the

basic algorithm to minimize the number of equipment the

method of Koglin [2] is applied: It consists of eliminating

these in an orderly way. Its high efficiency results from eli-

minating the equipment one by one, based on their “contribu-

tion” to the precision of the magnitudes estimated and taking

into account other variables of interest.

deviations σi, where i = 1…k, a scheme z with a set Zo with

m measuring equipment is considered and the rules method

applied. Then the precision index of the system is defined as:

k

I ( z ) = ∑ σ i2 ( z ) (1)

i =1

used for eliminating the measuring equipment one by one

as explained below:

magnitudes of interest and their variance are esti-

mated and the resulting index I(z) is calculated; the

procedure is repeated eliminating the measurands one FIG. 2 Algorithm for elimination of measuring equipment

by one and calculating the resultant I(z). At each itera-

tion only one measurand is eliminated at a time. From The basic method offers the best precision, but leads some

the calculated I1 …Im the measurement whose remov- times to unacceptable high costs. Elimination of one measu-

al leads to an index Ix nearest to Io is then eliminated. rand leads to a cost reduction, but at the same time the preci-

• With the new set of measuring equipment the process sion is sacrificed, since the deviations will increase. The

is repeated for removing a second measurement of the procedure is continued to arrive at an acceptable compromise

scheme z, then a third and thus until all the m mea- between cost and precision, which is the objective of this

surements are eliminated, leaving only very vital study. This process of elimination is illustrated by a practical

measurands such as those at the supply station.. example of a real network.

• A plot of precision index vs. number of measurements

is then constructed. IV. DETECTION AND ELIMINATION OF

• The measurements at or near the asymptote part of the ERRORS IN MEASUREMENT

curve are eliminated as well as others with minor ef-

fect on the index to respect the imposed economic The real time telemetering equipment used in the SCADA

considerations. This results in the minimum number systems for the automation of electrical networks are gener-

of measuring equipment necessary for a technical and ally reliable, but not all are free from errors. These errors can

economic solution of the problem. result from several sources, as high lighted by Merrit [5],

such as the errors associated with the measuring equipment,

The algorithm for this method is illustrated in Fig. 2. the different IEDs (Intelligent Electronic Devices) used as

well as those arising from the data transmission channels.

For transmission system sufficiently adequate methods TABLE 1

PRECISION INDEX OF MEASURING EQUIPMENT

exist for detecting and eliminating the measurement errors

[6], all employing redundant measurements for checks, veri- Precision index and the order of elimination of measuring equipment

fication and comparison as well as initial data filtering.

Index 1.05 1.1 1.12 2.44 5.67 11.4 20.5 33.5

In the case of distribution systems, there are very little Equip.mz 7 1 5 3 6 4 2 0

studies on this subject. The difficulty remains in the absence

of the above mentioned redundancy and any proposal of

duplicating the measuring equipment will lead to unaccepta-

ble additional costs.

possible errors of measurement heuristically, are suggested

below:

and low voltage sides should be foreseen; thus the

measurements on the load side can be estimated bet-

ter. This is justified by the vital importance of the

required precision of these data for all the algo-

rithms described in this paper.

2. For possible measurements at particular points in

the network, historical data under similar conditions

can be used to reach our objective.

V. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS

FIG. 4 Influence of measurands on Precision index

Taking the network shown in Fig. 3, the number, type and

location of measurements are determined and then the graph As can be seen from Fig. 4 the measurands m7 m1 and m5

of precision index vs. number of measurement equipment is are practically unnecessary since their contribution to the

plotted. overall precision index is negligible. We can continue to

eliminate m3, m6, etc. in the same order as in the above Fig. 4

sacrificing the precision until permissible cost level is

reached.

scenarios of operation of the network. The results calculated

by the state estimator in each case confirm the accuracy of

the proposed algorithm for elimination of measuring equip-

ment.

FIG. 5 Estimated node voltages only with measurement m0

Here, m0, m1, m4, m5, m6, and m7 are located according to

rule 1; m2 and m3 as per rule 2.

2. The results of the voltages are generally more precise

than those of power flows.

3. The substitution of power flows by node voltages lead to

only small variations (degraded); this suggests that vol-

tage measurements can be used, which are more eco-

nomical, instead of power flows, whenever possible.

4. Tests made with these algorithms on real actual net-

works convincingly confirm their simplicity in computa-

tion, their effectiveness as well as the potential for their

future applications.

VII. REFERENCES

[1] Baran, M.E., and Kelley, A.W., “State Estimation Method For

Distribution Systems”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol.9,

Fig.#6. Estimated node voltages with all the measuring No. 3, Aug. 1994,pp.1601-1609.

equipment present [2] Brian Mc.D., “General Method for Optimal Measuring System for

Distribution Automation”, Procedings PSCC Conference, Paper No:

03-11, Oct. 1999

[3] Li, K., “State Estimation For Power Distribution System and

Measurement Impacts”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol.

11, No. 2, May. 1996, pp. 911-916

[4] Baran E.M., Zhu, H, y ICE. Garren, A “Meter Placement Method for

State Estimation” paper presented at the” IEEE PES Winter Meeting,

Feb. 1995, paper no 218-8 PWRS.

[5] Merrit, H.M. and Schweppe, F.C., “Bad data suppression in power

system static state estimation”, IEEE Transactions on Power Appara-

tus and Systems, Vol. 90, No. 2, 1981, pp. 2718-2725

[6] Larson, R.E., W.F., and Peschon, J., “State Estimation in Power

Systems Part I: Theory and Feasibility,” IEEE Transactions on

Power apparatus and Systems, Vol. 89, N0. 3, Mar. 1970, pp. 345-352.

VIII. BIOGRAPHIES

Cuba in 1964. He received his degree Doctor es

science from the Central Technical University of

Fig. # 7. Estimated node voltages with measuring equipment Las Villas, Cuba in 1997. During 1987 – 1997 he

m7, m1 and m5 eliminated worked as an Assistant professor at the Faculty of

Electrical Engineering of the Central University of

Legend: Las Villas. There he was the chief of the depart-

ment and a member of Scientific Council.

Estimated values

From 1999 he acted as titular C professor (research) at the Departemento de

± Standard deviations Ingeneniera Mecánica Eléctrica of the University of Guadalajara, Mexico.

Since 2005 he works as Chief Project Manager at the company Arteche,

The very little influence of m7, m1 and m3 on the preci- Measurements and Technology S.A. The areas of his research interests

sion index is evident from the above graphs. It is to be noted include analysis of operation, control and protection of electrical power

systems as well as soft ware development for applications. He is a member

that this method involves rather a large number of calcula- of National Council of Researchers (Level 1).

tions. For example, in a system where m measuring equip-

ment are foreseen by the rules, m*(m+1)/2 repetitions of Jorge Javier Mier García was born in Báaez,

state estimation and auxiliary calculations of the indices are Placetas, Cuba. He received his degree Doctor es

Sciences in 2005 from the Central University of

necessary before arriving at end results. However, this effort Las Villas, Cuba. During 1988 – 2005 he was

is justified, since all these calculations have to be done only Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Electrical

once during the engineering phase of the project. This me- Engineering of the Central University of Las

thod is not only valid for a system of real time measurements Villas. He was also a member of the National

Scientific Tribunal.

for the state estimator, but can also be used for the whole

Since 2006 he is working as Design Engineer with Arteche, Measurements

distribution automation systems. and technology S.A. His areas of research interests include analysis of

operation, control and protection of electrical power systems as well as

VI. CONCLUSIONS development of soft ware for applications.

able, the precision of results will be higher, as can be

seen from a reduction of the deviations.

Venkat Narayan (SM 04588000) was born in

India. He graduated from Indian Institute of

Science Bangalore with a Masters degree in

Electrical Power Engineering. After a few years

of training at EdF and French industries, he

worked for several years with BBC Brown Boveri

& Cie, AG, (ABB) Switzerland in the fields of

power system protection, control & automation in

various positions

Swiss Engineering. Since 1995 he is president of NetzConsult Ingenieure,

consulting Industries and Power Utilities. His interests include power system

protection, control & automation as well as marketing and management.

graduated from Instituto Politecnico Nacional as

Control Engineer and received his Master Degree

on Project Management on 2009. During 1995 –

2002 he was working for CFE CPTT as Designer

Engineer of substations with voltage up to 400 kV.

He was also a member of the ISA and IEEE.

Automation at Arteche. His areas of interests include distribution

automation, power system protection, control & automation as well as

marketing and management.

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