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Mix Design For Concrete Roads As Per IRC:15-2011

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By
Kaushal Kishore, Materials Engineer, Roorkee
ABSTRACT:
The stresses induced in concrete pavements are mainly flexural. Therefore flexural strength is more
often specified than compressive strength in the design of concrete mixes for pavement
construction. A simple method of concrete mix design based on flexural strength for normal weight
concrete mixes is described in the paper.
INTRODUCTION:
Usual criterion for the strength of concrete in the building industry is the compressive strength, which
is considered as a measure of quality concrete. However, in pavement constructions, such as
highway and airport runway, the flexural strength of concrete is considered more important, as the
stresses induced in concrete pavements are mainly flexural. Therefore, flexural strength is more
often specified than compressive strength in the design of concrete mixes for pavement
construction. It is not perfectly reliable to predict flexural strength from compressive strength.
Further, various codes of the world specified that the paving concrete mixes should preferably be
designed in the laboratory and controlled in the field on the basis of its flexural strength. Therefore,
there is a need to design concrete mixes based on flexural strength.
The type of aggregate can have a predominant effect, crushed rock aggregate resulting in concrete
with higher flexural strength than uncrushed (gravel) aggregates for comparable mixes, assuming
that sound materials are used. The strength of cement influences the compressive and flexural
strength of concrete i.e. with the same water-cement ratio, higher strength cement will produce
concrete of higher compressive and flexural strength.
MIX DESIGN DETAILS
IRC: 15-2011 specified that for concrete roads OPC should be used. This code also allowed PPC as
per IS: 1489 (Part-1) with flyash content not more than 20 percent by weight of PPC. Accordingly
OPC + fly ash may be used in concrete roads. Flyash shall be not more than 20 percent by weight of
cementitious material. However, IS: 456-2000 specified that fly ash conforming to grade-1 of IS
3812 may be used as part replacement of OPC provided uniform blended with cement is essential.
The construction sites where batching plants are used this may be practicable. In ordinary sites
where mixer or hand mixing are done uniform blending of fly ash with cement is not practicable. At
such construction sites, PPC may be used. PPC should be used with caution where rapid
construction methods like slip form is being used. Joints cutting also need early strength.

Characteristic Flexural Strength at 28 days

Cement

Fly ash replacement

Maximum nominal size of aggregates

Fine aggregate and coarse aggregate grading

Minimum cement content for 4.5 N/mm2 characteristic flexu

Maximum free W/C Ratio

Workability

Exposure condition

10

Method of placing

11

Degree of supervision

12

Maximum of cement content

13

Chemical admixture

14

Values of Z x (for National Highway)

TEST DATA FOR MATERIALS AND OTHER DETAILS


1. The grading of fine aggregate, 1 & 2 aggregates are as given in Table. 1.
2. Properties of aggregates

Tests

Specific Gravity

Water Absorption %

3. Target average flexural strength for all A, B and C mixes


S = S+ Zq
=4.5 + 1.96 x 0.40
= 5.3 N/mm2 at 28 days age
4. For Mix A, B and C free W/C ratio with crushed aggregate and required average flexural target
strength of 5.3 N/mm2 at 28 days from Fig. 1 Curve D found to be 0.42. This is lower than specified
maximum W/C ratio value of 0.45 for OPC and 0.50 for PPC.
Note:
In absence of cement strength, but cement conforming to IS Codes, assume from Fig. 1
Curve C and D for OPC 43 Grade
Take curves C and D for PPC, as PPC is being manufactured in minimum of 43 Grade of strength.
5. Other datas: The Mixes are to be designed on the basis of saturated and surface dry aggregates.
At the time of concreting, moisture content of site aggregates are to be determine. If it carries
surface moisture this is to be deducted from the mixing water and if it is dry add in mixing water the
quantity of water required for absorption. The weight of aggregates are also adjusted accordingly.
DESIGN OF MIX-A WITH PPC
a) Free W/C ratio for the target flexural strength of 5.3 N/mm2 as worked out is 0.42 for first trial.
b) Free water for 40 mm slump from Table 2 for 31.5 mm maximum size of aggregate.
2/3170 + 1/3200= 180 kg/m3
From trials it is found that Retarder Super plasticizer at a dosages of 1.3% bw of PPC may reduce
15% water without loss of workability
Then water = 180 (180 x 0.15) = 153 kg/m3
c) PPC = 153/0.42 = 364 kg/m3 (Required minimum PPC is 425 kg/m3)
d) Formula for calculation of fresh concrete weight in kg/m3
Um = 10 x Ga (100 A) + Cm(1 Ga/Gc) Wm (Ga 1)
Where,
Um=Weight of fresh concrete kg/m3
Ga=Weighted average specific gravity of combined fine and coarse aggregate bulk, SSD
Gc=Specific gravity of cement. Determine actual value, in absence assume 3.15 for OPC and 3.00
for PPC (Fly ash based)
A=Air content, percent. Assume for trial entrapped air 1.5%
For 31.5 mm maximum size of aggregate
There is always entrapped air in concrete. Therefore ignoring entrapped air value as NIL will lead the
calculation of higher value of density. Take exact value of air as obtained in the test
Wm=Mixing water required in kg/m3
Cm=Cement required, kg/m3

Note:- The exact density may be obtained by filling and fully compacting constant volume suitable
metal container from the trial batches of calculated design mixes. The mix be altered with the actual
obtained density of the mix.
Um =10 x Ga (100 A) + Cm (1 Ga/Gc) Wm (Ga 1)
=10 x 2.65 (100 1.5) + 425(1- 2.65/3.00) 153 (2.65 -1)
=2409 kg/m3
e) Aggregates = 2409 425 153 = 1831 kg/m3
f) Fine aggregate = 1831 x 0.45 = 824 kg/m3
Aggregate 1 = 1831 x 0.29 = 531 kg/m3
Aggregate 2 = 1831 x 0.26 = 476 kg/m3
g) Thus for 4.5 N/mm2 flexural strength quantity of materials per cu.m. of concrete on the basis of
saturated and surface dry aggregates:
Water = 153 kg/m3
PPC = 425 kg/m3
Fine Aggregate (sand) = 824 kg/m3
Aggregate (1) = 531 kg/m3
Aggregate (2) = 476 kg/m3
Retarder Super Plasticizer 1.3% bw of PPC = 5.525 kg/m3
MIX- B WITH OPC
a) Water = 180 (180 x 0.15) = 153 kg/m3
b) OPC = 153/0.42 = 364 kg/m3
c) Density: 10 x 2.65 (100 1.5) + 364 (1 2.65/3.15) 153 (2.65 1)= 2416 kg/m 3
d) Total Aggregates = 2416 364 153 = 1899 kg/m3
Aggregate 1 = 1899 x 0.29 = 551 kg/m3
Aggregate 2 = 1899 x 0.26 = 494 kg/m3
Fine Aggregate = 1899 x 0.45 = 854 kg/m3
e) Thus for 4.5 N/mm2 flexural strength quantity of materials per cu.m of concrete on the basis of
SSD aggregates are given below:
Water = 153 kg/m3
OPC = 364 kg/m3
Fine Aggregate (sand) = 854 kg/m3
Aggregate (1) = 551 kg/m3
Aggregate (2) = 494 kg/m3
Retarder Super Plasticizer 1% bw OPC = 3.640 kg/m3
MIX-C WITH OPC + FLY ASH
With a total cementitious material of 430 kg/m3,
OPC = 430 x 0.80 = 344 kg/m3
Fly ash = 430 x 0.20 = 86 kg/m3

Mix on the basis of SSD Aggregates,


(1) Water as worked out earlier = 153 kg/m3
(2) OPC = 344 kg/m3
(3) Fly ash = 86 kg/m3
Density = 10 x 2.65 (100 1.5) + 430 (1 2.65/3.00) 153 (2.65 1) = 2410 kg/m 3
Total Aggregates = 2410 153 344 86 = 1827 kg/m3
(4) Fine aggregate 0.45 x 1827 = 822 kg/m3
(5) Aggregate (1) 0.29 x 1827 = 530 kg/m3
(6) Aggregate (2) 0.26 x 1827 = 475 kg/m3
(7) Retarder super plasticizer 1.5% bw of cementitious material = 6.450 kg/m3
Note:
(1) Cementitious material worked out as per IRC : 15-2011, which specified: In case fly ash (as per
IS: 3912 Part 1) is blended at site, the quantity of fly ash shall be restricted to 20 percent by weight
of cementitious material and the quantity of OPC in such a blend shall not be less than 340 kg/m 3 .
(2) After the first trial mix, its actual density is to be determined, as specified elase where in this
paper. The mix proportions shall then be worked out accordingly including the water content, the
dosages of Retarder SP for required workability keeping the free w/c ratio with in the permissible
limits and adjusting it according to the required flexural strength.
(3) The mix proportions given in this paper are for first trial and to be adjusted as per actual site
materials, conditions and requirements.
For 4.5 N/mm2 flexural strength quantity of material per cu.m of concrete on the basis of
saturated and surface dry aggregates of Mix A, B and c are given below:

Materials

Water kg/m3

PPC kg/m3

OPC kg/m3

Flyash kg/m3

Fine Agg. kg/m3

Agg. (1) kg/m3

Agg. (2) kg/m3

Retarder Super- plasticizer kg/m3

W/ Cementitious ratio

Note:1. For exact W/C ratio the water in admixture should also be taken into account.
2. PPC reduces 5% water demand. If this is found by trial then take reduce water for calculation.
3. If the trial mixes does not gives the required properties of the mix, it is then required to be altered
accordingly. However, when the experiences grows with the particular set of materials and site
conditions very few trials will be required, and a expert of such site very rarely will be required a 2nd
trial.
CONCLUSION
1. For 4.5 N/mm2 flexural strength concrete having same material and requirement, but without water
reducer, the OPC required will be 180/0.42 = 429 kg/m3
2. With the use of superplasticizer the saving in OPC is 65 kg/m 3 and water 27 lit/m3.

3. In the financial year 2009-2010 India has produces 200 million tonnes of cement. In India one kg
of cement produce emitted 0.93 kg of CO2. Thus the production of 200 million tonnes of cement had
emitted 200 x 0.93 = 186 million tonnes of CO2 to the atmosphere.
4. If 50 million tonnes cement in making concrete uses Water Reducers 7500000 tonnes of cement
can be saved. 3750000 KL of potable water will be saved and the saving of Rs. 3300 crores per year
to the construction Industry. 6975000 tonnes of CO2 will be prevented to be emitted to the
atmosphere. The benefits in the uses of water reducers not limited to this. When water reduces
shrinkage and porosity of concrete are reduces which provides the durability to concrete structures.
5. India is facing serious air, water, soil, food and noise pollution problems. Every efforts therefore
are necessary to prevent pollution on top priority basis.
6. As the stress induced in concrete pavements are mainly flexural, it is desirable that their design is
based on the flexural strength of concrete. The quality of concrete is normally assessed by
measuring its compressive strength. For pavings, however, it is the flexural strength rather than the
compression strength of concrete which determine the degree of cracking and thus the performance
of road, and it is imperative to control the quality on the basis of flexural strength.
7. As per IRC: 15-2011, in case of small size projects, where facilities for testing beams with three
print loading are not available, in such cases, the mix design may be carried out by using
compressive strength values and there after flexural strength will be determined as per correlation
between flexural strength with compressive strength given the following equation.
Where fcr is the flexural strength in MPa or N/mm2 and fck is the characteristic compressive strength
in MPa or N/mm2 as per IS: 456-2000.
REFERENCES:

IS : 383-1970

IS: 456-2000

IS: 9103-1999

IS: 8112-1989

IS: 2386 (Part-III) 1963

IS: 3812 (Part-I) 2003

IS: 1489-Part-I 1991

IRC: 15-2011 Standard specifica

Kishore Kaushal, Concrete Mix D

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Kishore Kaushal, Method of Con

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Kishore Kaushal, Mix Design Ba

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Kishore Kaushal, Concrete Mix D

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Kishore Kaushal, Concrete Mix D

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Kishore Kaushal, Mix Design fo

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Kishore Kaushal, Concrete Mix D

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Kishore Kaushal, High-Strength

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Kishore Kaushal, Concrete Mix D

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Kishore Kaushal, Concrete Mix D

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Kishore Kaushal. Mix Design for

Table. 1: Grading of Aggregates

IS Sieve Designation

31.50 mm

26.50 mm

19.0 mm

9.50 mm

4.75 mm

600 micron

150 micron

75 micron

Table. 2: Approximate free-water content (kg/m3) required to give various levels of workability
for non-air-entrained (with normal entrapped air) concrete.

Maximum size of aggregate (mm)

Note:- When coarse and fine aggregate of different types are used, the free water content is
estimated by the expression.
2/3Wf+1/3Wc
Where,
Wfsub>= Free water content appropriate to type of fine Aggregate
And Wc= Free water content appropriate to type of coarse aggregate.

We at engineeringcivil.com are thankful to Er. Kaushal Kishore for submitting the revised mix
design as per IRC:15-2011. This will be of great help to all civil engineering students and faculty who
are seeking information on mix design based on revised IRC.