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PLANNING AND URBAN

HISTORY OF SETTLEMENT
Ancient Times
Natural factors that affect the
development and growth of urban
areas:
Potential for natural calamities (fire,
flood, volcano eruptions, etc.)
presence of fertile soil, bodies of
water, and other natural resources
slope and terrain and other forms of
natural defenses
climate
Innovations that influenced the
development of the earliest cities
- The plow and rectilinear farming.
-Circular and radiocentric planning
-for herding and eventually for
defense
7000 9000 b.c.
NEOLITHIC CITIES
Jericho: early settlement in Israel 9000b.c.
-A well-organized community of about
3000 people
-Built around a reliable source of
freshwater
-Only 3 hectares and enclosed with a
circular stone wall
-Overrun in about 6500 b.c., rectangular
layouts followed
Khirokitia: early settlement in Cyprus 5500 b.c
-First documented settlement with
streets
-The main street heading uphill
was narrow but had a wider terminal,
which may have been a social spot
Catalhoyuk: early settlement in Turkey
(Asia Minor)
-Circa 7000 b.c.
-Largest neolithic city
13 hectares; 10,000 people
-An intricately assembled complex
without streets
-Included shrines and quarters for
specialized crafts, production of
paintings, textile, metal, etc.
-Rested on a new rationale for the city at
that time- trade

2000-4000 B.C.
- Cities in the Fertile Crescent were
formed by the Tigris and Euphrates
river valleys of Mesopotamia.
-Eridu: acknowledged as the oldest city.
-Damascus: oldest continually
inhabited city
-Babylon: the largest city with 80,000
inhabitants
3000 B.C.
-Cities of Thebes and Memphis along
the Nile Valley
- characterized by monumental
architecture
-cities had monumental avenues,
colossal temple plazas and tombs cut
from rock
-workers communities were built in
cells along narrow roads
Tel-el-Amarna
-An example of a typical Egyptian city
with the following:

Precursor of Linear City.


- Anyang- largest city of the Yellow
River Valley
800 B.C.
Beijing- founded in approximately
same location its in today -present
form originated in the Ming Dynasty
(1368-1644)
B.C-A.D.
- Elaborate network of cities in
Mesoamerica were built by the
Zapotecs, Mextecs, and Aztecs in
rough rugged land.
Teotijuacan and Dzibilchatun
were the largest cities.
700 B.C.
GREEK CLASSICAL CITIES:
- Greek cities spread through the
Aegean Region westward to France
and Spain
-polis : defined as a city-state.
Most famous is the Acropolis- a
religious and defensive structure up on
the hills, with no definite geometrical
plan
-Sparta and Athens : the largest cities
(100-150T)
-Neopolis and Paleopolis (new and old
cities)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Central Area
North Suburb
South City
Customs House
Workers Village

2500 B.C.
Indus Valley (present day Pakistan) Cities of Mohenjo Daro and Harrapa:
-administrative-religious centers with
40,000 inhabitants

400 B.C.
-Hippodamus- the first noted urban
planner. Introduced the grid system
and the Agora (public marketplace)
Miletus (ancient Greek city)
3 sections:
for artisans,farmers, and the military
ROMAN CLASSICAL CITIES:

-archeological evidence indicates an


advanced civilization lived here as there
were housing variations, sanitary and
sewage systems, etc.
1900 B.C.
Yellow River Valley of China
-land within the passes.

Roman Cities : adopted Greek forms but


with different scale- monumental, had a
social hierarchy
-Roman Forums
the Republican and Imperial Forum

-Romans as engineers- built aqueducts,


public baths, utility systems, fountains,
-Developed housing variations and other
spaces:
BASILICA- covered markets; later, law
courts
CURIA- the local meeting hall; later, the
capitol
DOMUS- traditional Roman house; with
a central atrium
INSULAE- 3 to 6- storey apartments
with storefronts
-Romans incorporated public works and
arts into city designs
-Romans as conquerors- built forum after
forum
MEDIEVAL AGES:
-Decline of Roman power left many
outposts all over Europe where growth
revolved around
-Feudalism affected the urban design of
most towns
- Sienna and Constantinople: signified
the rise of the Church
Towns were fine and intimate with
winding roads and sequenced views of
cathedrals or military fortifications
11th century towns in Europe:
Coastal port towns
many of these coastal towns grew
from military fortifications, but expansion
was limited to what the city could
support
-Mercantilist cities: continuous increase
in size
World trade and travel created major
population concentrations like Florence,
Paris, and Venice
Growth eventually led to congestion
and slums
THE RENAISSANCE AND BAROQUE
PERIODS:
15th Century France: display of
power
Arts and architecture became a
major element of town planning and
urban design
- Geometrical forms of cities were
proposed

VIENNA emerged as the city of


culture and the arts- the first university
town
Landscape architecture showcased
palaces and gardens

The Machine Age - change from


manpower to assembly lines

KARLSRUHE- (GERMANY)
VERSAILLES -(FRANCE)

The reform movements:


Robert Owens (New Lanark Mills,
Manchester, England)
Designed for 800 to 1200 persons With agricultural, light industrial,
educational, and recreational
facilities
The Owenite Communities:
New Harmony, Indiana, USA by
Owens, Jr.
Brook Farm, Massachusetts, by a
group of New England Planners
Icarus, Red River, Texas, by Cabet
(eventually, Cabet joined the Mormons
in laying out Salt-lake City, Utah)

SETTLEMENTS IN THE AMERICAS


1. Medieval Organic City - taken after the
boug (military town) and fauborg
(citizens town) of the medieval ages
2. Medieval Bastide - taken from the
French bastide (eventually referred to as
new towns)
- came in the form of grids or radial plans
reflecting flexibility
3. The Spanish Laws of the Indies town
- King Philip IIs city guidelines that
produced 3 types of towns- the pueblo
(civil), the presidio (military), and the
mission (religious)
4. The English Renaissance
- the European Planned City ex.
SAVANNAH (designed by JAMES
OGLETHORPE), Charleston, Annapolis,
and Williamsburg (Col. Francis Nicholson)
- Today, Savannah is the worlds largest
officially recognized historical district

- 2 schools of thought- the reform


movements and the specialists

Tony Garnier (Une Cite Industrielle )


Locational features may have been
a precursor to modern zoning
Ideas and theories adopted by
Dutch Architect JJP Oud in the
design of Rotterdam.
THEORIES AND PRACTICES
The Garden Cities
EBENEZER HOWARD author of
Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path To Social
Reform

-ANNAPOLIS
Government
bldgs. Were focal
points of the plan,
though a civic square was also provided
.
-WILLIAMSBURG
- plan was anchored
by the Governors
palace, the state
capitol, and the
College of William and Mary
5. The Speculators Town - developments
were driven by speculation
- Philadelphia designed by WILLIAM
PENN

THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION:

GARDEN CITY PLANS - cluster with a


mother town of 58,000 to 65,000 with
smaller garden cities of 30,000 to
32,000 each with permanent green
space separating the cities with the
towns
The Garden City Associationestablished by Howard in 1899
Letchworth: first Garden City designed
by Raymond Unwin and Barry Parker in
1902
-Consisted of 4,500 acres (3000 for
agriculture,1500 for city proper)
- Welwyn, 1920 (by Louis de Soisson)
brought formality and Georgian taste

-Hampstead Garden Suburbsmeant only for housing but with a


variety of housing types lined along
streets with terminating axes on
civic buildings in a large common
green.
THE CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT:
- Influenced by the world fairs of
the late 19th century, like the 1891
Columbian Exposition, Chicago
- Emphasis was on grand formal
designs, with wide boulevards, civic
spaces, arts, etc.
DANIEL BURNHAM spearheaded
the movement with his design
for Chicago and his famous words:
make no little plans
-Also credited for the designs of San
Francisco and Cleveland
- BARON HAUSMANN- worked on
the reconstruction of Paris- linear
connection between the place de
concord, arc de triomph, eiffel
tower and others
-CHAMPS D ELYSEE
NEW CAPITALS
BRASILIA
- capital of Brazil and a completely
new twentieth-century city
- DESIGNED BY LUCIO COSTA with
a lot of influence from Le Corbusier
- With two huge axes in the sign
of the cross, one for govt,
commerce, and entertainment, the
other for the residential component
- Oscar Niemeyer was among the
architects employed to design the
buildings
CHANDIGARH
- Capital of Punjab province of India,
and the only realized plan of Le
Corbusier
-Original Master Plan BY ALBERT
MYER
- A regular grid of major roads for
rapid transport surrounding

residential superblocks or sections


each based on the rectangle and
measuring 800x1200 meters
- The whole plan represents a
large scale application of the
Radburn principle regularized by Le
Corbusiers predilection for the
rectilinear and the monumental.

CANBERRA, AUSTRALIA IN 1901


- Canberras design taken from the
principles of the city beautiful
movement

-design reflected the principles of the


city beautiful movement with a
triangular formation of three important
buildings: the Court of Justice, the
Parliament House, and the Capitol
Building, with each apex pointing to
another important building or
monument.

residential buildings with a greenbelt for


a population of 3,000,000 people
- New York City present day city of
towers along with Houston, Chicago,
Toronto

FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT

BROADACRE-FLW proposed that every


family in the U.S.
-live in one acre of land. Problems with
lack of land lead to his design of the
-THE MILE HIGH TOWER- Proposed to
house a significant amount of Manhattan
residents to free up space for greenfield
10 or more of these could possibly
replace all Manhattan buildings
RADICAL IDEAS:

-A super building with 337 dwellings in


10 acres of land

THE LINEAR CITY- proposed by


Spanish Engineer Soria Y Mata
STALINGRAD -N.A Milyutin, 1930
THE ARCOLOGY ALTERNATIVE
the 3D city by Paolo Soleri
MOTOPIA - Proposed by Edgar
Chambless
Vehicular traffic will be along
rooftops of a continuous network of
buildings, while the streets will be for
pedestrian use only
SCIENCE CITIES- Proposed by the
metabolism group; visionary urban
designers that proposed underwater
cities, biological cities, cities in
pyramids, etc.
THE FLOATING CITY- Kiyonori
Kikutake
THE BARBICAN CITY a 63 acre area.
mixed used development that was
built in response to the pressures of
the automobile. An early type of
Planned Urban development that
had all amenities in one compound
with multi-level circulation patterns.

-He also conceptualized Le


Contemporaine, high rise offices and

THE NEIGHBORHOOD UNIT


by Clarence Perry and Clarence Stein

NEW DELHI, INDIA


-Designed by Sir Edward Lutyens

-based on the great east-west axis of


Kingsway, 1.5 miles long, with the
Government House on a hilltop in the
West end, and the eastern counterpoint
a large hexagonal space reserved for
palaces of the native princes.
-covers 2650 hectares, yet growth
beyond a population of 57,000 was not
contemplated as low garden-city type
density was envisioned

THE CITY OF TOWERS

Conceptualized by Le Corbusier in his


book -the Cities of Tomorrow
-His first plan for high density living was
Unite d Habitation,in Marseilles

- Defined as the Physical Environment


wherein social, cultural, educational,
and commercial are within easy reach
of each other concerns selfsustainability of smaller units
- The elementary school as the center
of development determines the size of
the neighborhood
CONTEMPORARY WORLD
URBANIZATION
-Millionaire cities- large cities were
the exception prior to the twentieth
century, but a few did exist in
antiquity.
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION- generated
jobs, increased productivity, and
opened up mass markets for goods.
Factors that contributed to urban
growth:
Transportation innovations,
specially farm to market roads
Improved infrastructure
Iron and steel construction
technology
the electric elevator
Improved medicine
MEGALOPOLIS concept coined by
Jean Gottmann for urban complexes in
the Northeastern United States.
- The term means Great City in Greek.
Today it is used to refer to massive urban
concentrations created from strong
physical linkages between three or more
large cities.
Boston New York Philadelphia
Washington (U.S.A.) San Diego Los
Angeles San Francisco (U.S.A.)
Dortmund Essen Duesseldorf
(Germany)
The Hague Rotterdam Amsterdam
(Netherlands) Tokyo Yokohama
Nagoya Osaka Kobe (Japan)

SETTLEMENT PLANNING IN THE


PHILIPPINES
PRE-COLONIAL TIMES

-Like other cities in the world the earliest


Filipino communities developed out of
the need for their inhabitants to band
together.
-They were formed for security, or to be
close to critical resources like food and
water. Most of the earliest towns were by
the coast for the fisher folk or were
where there was abundant agricultural
land for the farmers.
-The community unit was the barangay,
consisting of 30 to 100 families.
SPANISH COLONIAL TIMES
Laws of the Indies
- In 1573, King Philip II proclaimed the
Laws of the Indies that established
uniform standards and planning
procedures for colonial settlements.
These laws provided guidelines for
site selection, layout and dimensioning of
streets and squares, the location of civic
and religious buildings, open space,
cultivation and pasturing lands, and even
the main procedural phases of planning
and construction.
The Plaza Complex- a result of several
ordinances of the Laws of the Indies.
The plaza is surrounded by important
buildings such as the:
-

Catholic church
Municipal or town hall
Marketplace and merchants stores
Elementary school
The homes of the principalia
Other government buildings

INTRAMUROS
The walled city of Manila
-1.2 sq. KM in area; perimeter is 3.4 KM
-home of the Spanish (except for the
Friars & the high ranking officials)
- decentralization occurred and
settlements were built in Malate, San
Miguel, and Paco, among other areas
AMERICAN PERIOD
THE AMERICAN AGENDA
-guide urban growth and physical
development

-put more emphasis on other values such


as sanitation, housing, and aesthetic
improvements.
DANIEL BURNHAM- Architect / planner
who designed Chicago, San Francisco, and
parts of Washington D.C.
Burnhams Design for Manila:
Designed with grand avenues and a
strong central civic core
Included a civic mall to house
national buildings (only the Finance &
Agriculture buildings were built)
Fronted Manila Bay like most
Baroque plans fronted a large body of
water.
Manila as the first chartered city
On July 31, 1903, by virtue of Act No.
183, the city of Manila was incorporated
Manila encompassed Intramuros,
and the towns of Binondo, Tondo, Sta.
Cruz, Malate, Ermita, Paco, and
Pandacan.
The population then was 190,000
people
GROWTH OF MANILA
The Arrabales
QUIAPO - the illustrado territory; the
enclave of the rich and powerful. Also the
manifestation of folk religiosity.
BINONDO- the trading port developed by
the Chinese and Arabs
STA. CRUZ- the main commercial district
with swirls of shops, movie houses,
restaurants, etc.
SAN NICOLAS- also a commercial town
built by the Spanish with streets of
specialized categories (i.e. ceramics,
soap, etc.)
SAMPALOC- centered on two churches
(Our Lady of Loreto and Saint Anthony of
Padua). Also known as the first
University Town.
LATER SUBURBS:
SAN MIGUEL (Malacaang)-where resthouses were built for the Spanish
government
MALATE- the early summer resort of
wealthy and cultured Filipinos. Then
became the first fishing and salt-making
town

ERMITA- early tourist belt (red-light


district)
PACO- first town built around a train
station
PANDACAN- town built by the Americans
for Oil depots
QUEZON CITY AS THE NEW CAPITOL CITY
In 1939, Commonwealth Act No. 457,
authorized the transfer of the capitol to
an area of 1572 hectares
A master plan of Quezon City was
completed in 1941 by Architects Juan
Arellano, Harry T. Frost, Louis Croft, and
Eng. A.D. Williams
City beautiful plan reflected the
aspirations of an emerging nation and the
visions of a passionate leader
CONSTITUTION HILL
In 1946, a search committee was
formed to find a new site
a 158 ha area in the Novaliches
watershed was selected and called
Constitution Hill and National
Government Center
The three seats of government were
to form a triangle at the center of the
complex
It included a 20 hectare civic space
referred to as the Plaza of the Republic
PHILIPPINE HOMESITE AND HOUSING
CORPORATION
Precursor of the National Housing
Authority
Built homes for the masses (the
projects, i.e. proj.4, proj. 6, etc.)
PHILAMLIFE HOMES
icon of middle class suburbanization
Master Plan designed by Architect
and Planner, Carlos P. Arguelles, based on
suburban developments in California with
modifications
BLISS (bagong lipunan sites and
services)
-Walk-up developments for government
sector
METRO MANILA CENTRAL BUSINESS
DISTRICTS:
MANILA CBD- this traditional CBD is a
center of business and commerce, has

a population nucleus, and seats the


national government
MAKATI CBD- a business, financial,
commercial, convention, and
recreational center of theMetropolitan
Region covering an area of 979
hectares. Begun by the Ayala
conglomerate in 1948.
ORTIGAS CBD- another business,
financial, convention, shopping, and
recreational node. Developed by the
Ortigas conglomerate in the 1950s, its
present configuration fully developed
only in the late 80s. The area covers
600 hectares.
CUBAO CBD- developed in the 1960s by
the Araneta Family, Cubao was
intended as an alternative business
center in the Eastern side of the
metropolis. This 37 hectare property
now reflects more of a bazaar
economy, though plans are now being
developed to convert the area to a
more modern commercial and
recreational center.
EMERGING CBDS:
Fort Bonifacio Global City- 500 ha of
prime land
Boulevard 2000- 1167 ha of reclaimed
land to revive Manila as a city of
commerce and tourism
Filinvest Corporate City- joint venture
of government and private sector.
Accessible to industrial estates and
technological parks
KEVIN LYNCH
Kevin Lynchs Images of the City Physical
elements that create the image of the city
PATHS
-Channels along which the observer
moves
-Predominant element for many
persons image
Other elements are arranged and related
through paths
-Spatial extremes highlight paths
Strong paths are:
- easily identifiable
- have continuity and directional quality

- are aligned with a larger system


EDGES
-Linear elements not used or considered
as paths
-Lateral references, not coordinate axes
-May be barriers or seams
-Not as dominant as paths but are
important organizing features
Strong edges are:
- visually prominent
- continuous
- and impenetrable to cross movement
-Edges can be disruptive to city form.
DISTRICTS
-Medium to large sections of a city,
conceived of as two-dimensional
-Observer can mentally enter inside of
-Recognizable as having some common,
identifying character
-Dominance depends upon the individual
and the given district
NODES
-Points, strategic spots by which an
observer can enter
-Intensive foci from which observer is
traveling
-Junctions and Concentrations
-Directly related to the concept of paths
and the concept of districts
-May be thematic concentrations
LANDMARKS
-Point references considered to be
external to the observer
-Physical elements that may vary widely
in scale
-Unique and special in place of the
continuities used earlier
-Sequential series of landmarks as
traveling guides
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS HAVE A
VARIETY OF COMPONENTS
- activity and use
- building types and detail
- inhabitants (ethnic or class)
- physical characteristics (topography,
boundaries, age, etc.)
IAN BENTLEYS RESPONSIVE ENVTS
PERMEABILITY
- Places must be accessible to people to
offer them choice

- Public and private access must be


complementary
-Physical and visual permeability depends
on how the network of public space
divides the environment into blocks
There is a decline in public permeability
because of current design trends:
Scale of development
Hierarchical layout
Segregation
VARIETY
-Variety offers users a choice of
experiences
- Variety of experience implies places
with varied forms, uses, and meanings
- Developers and planners are more
concerned with economic performance
and easier management, than with
variety
Variety of uses depends on three main
factors:
range of activities
possibility of supply
extent to which design encourages
positive interactions
- Variety also depends on feasibility:
economic, political, and functional
LEGIBILITY
- Degree of choice depends on how
legible it is: how layout is understood
- Legibility is important at two levels:
physical form and activity patterns
-Legibility in the old days: important
buildings stood out
-Legibility of form and use is reduced in
the modern environment
-Separating pedestrians from vehicles
also reduces legibility
-Legibility is strengthened by Lynchs
physical elements of the city
ROBUSTNESS
- Environments which can be used for
many different purposes
- There must be a distinction between
large scale and small scale robustness
There are three key factors that support
long term robustness:
Building depth
Access
Building height

The design of small scale robustness


depends on extra factors
hard and soft spaces
active and passive spaces
VISUAL APPROPRIATENESS
-Visual Appropriateness focuses on
details
-A vocabulary of visual cues must be
found to communicate levels of choice
Interpretations can reinforce
responsiveness by :
supporting the places legibility
supporting the places variety
supporting the places robustness

Personalization comes in two levels:


Private
Public
Personalization is affected by three key
factors:
Tenure
building type
technology
PERMEABILITY: designing the overall
layout of routes and development
blocks
VARIETY: locating uses on the site

RICHNESS
-The variety of sense experiences
that users can enjoy
There are two ways for users to
choose from different sense
experiences:
focusing their attention on different
sources of sense experience
moving away from one source to
another

LEGIBILITY: designing the massing of


the buildings and the enclosure of
public space

- The basis of visual richness depends on


the presence of visual contrasts

RICHNESS: developing the design for


sensory choice

The sense of motion: gained through


movement
The sense of smell: cannot be directed
The sense of hearing: user has limited
control
The sense of touch: voluntary and
involuntary
The sense of sight: most dominant in
terms of information input and is the one
easiest to control

PERSONALIZATION: making the design


encourage people to put their own
mark on the places where they live and
work

ROBUSTNESS: designing the spatial and


constructional arrangement of
individual buildings and outdoor spaces
VISUAL APPROPRIATENESS: designing
the external image

PERSONALIZATION
-allows people to achieve Personalization
an environment that bears the stamp of
their own tastes and values
-makes a persons pattern of activities
more clear
Users personalize in two ways:
to improve practical facilities and
to change the image of a place
-Users personalize as an affirmation of
their own tastes and values and because
they perceive existing image as
inappropriate

URBAN FORM AND FUNCTION


LANDFORM
Topography

- Flat
- Hilly

CONSTELLATION - a
series of nearly equal
sized cities in close
proximity

SATELLITE
constellation of cities
around a main center

Relationship with Nature

SIZE & DENSITY


- cities within nature
- cities and nature
- nature within the cities
SHAPE

RADIOCENTRIC- a large circle with


radial corridors of
intense development
emanating from the
center

RECTILINEAR- usually with two


corridors of intense
development crossing the
center; usually found in
small cities rather than in large

STAR - radio centric form with open


spaces between the
outreach corridors of
development
RING- a city built
around a large
open space

LINEAR- usually the result of natural


topography which restricts
growth; may also be a
transportation spine

BRANCH - a linear
span with connecting
arms

SHEET - a vast urban


area with little no
articulation

ARTICULATED SHEET-a
sheet accented by
central clusters and sub
clusters

ARCHITECTURE
- SCALE
- CHARACTER/ THEME
- GRAIN/ TEXTURE

-Fine-grain and uniform texture

PHYSICAL EXTENT measured in


KMs across, or center to outskirts, or
square KM
DENSITY FORMULAS- number of
inhabitants with respect to physical
size; can be computed in several
ways:
number of people per sq. KM or
hectare
number of families per block
(residential density)
number of houses per sq. KM or
hectare
amount of building floor area per
section
automobile population, Floor Area
Ratio (FAR), etc.

ROUTES

- Coarse-grain and uniform texture

-Coarse-grain and uneven texture


DETAILS
traffic signs, billboards, store signs,
etc.
sidewalks, street furniture, urban
landscaping, pavers, etc.
street vendors, traffic enforcers,
entertainers, etc.
INHABITANTS
ethnic background, social Inhabitants
class, sex, etc.
activities
MOVEMENT
PEDESTRIAN
VEHICULAR

URBAN SPACES

CITY FUNCTIONS
1. ECONOMICS
-A basic and continuing function.
The city acts as producers and
marketplaces
-Locating cities at strategic points is
important for the exchange of goods
2. DEFENSE AND PROTECTION
-Historic urban functions of the city,
though quite obsolete at present
-Cities were once built to withstand
sieges from migrating tribes, or frequent
raids from enemies
3. WORSHIP AND GOVERNMENT
-The prime function of the city
throughout history
-Cities were built around temples,
shrines, and pyramids in ancient Egypt,
Greece, and Rome
The medieval cathedral was the center of
the city, as were renaissance palaces and
castles
4. TRANSPORTATION
-Greatly influences the location of cities
since they are dependent on geography
-New means of transportation have
enabled people to live in much larger
more spread out cities
EDUCATION AND CULTURE
-Cities have always been the seat of
academy and scholarship and is a
continuing function
-Due to the diversity of people, ideas,
jobs, etc., the city is seen as an educator.
-Ancient theaters, religious festivals, city
beautification, etc. is a reflection of
cultural pride.
HOUSING
-The largest and simplest function of a city
-Through the years, housing functions of
the inner city have shifted to outlying
areas

URBAN MODELS
1. CONCENTRIC ZONE THEORY
-the geographer E.W. BURGESS
-includes transition
zone for eventual CBD
expansion
-has some deficiencies
but simplicity has
stood the test of time

2. SECTOR MODEL
-the economist HOMER HOYT
-developed under
the premise that
other uses grow
with the CBD
-consistent with the
observation that
most cities grow in
the direction of the
higher income

3. MULTIPLE NUCLEI MODEL


-by CHAUNCY HARRIS & EDWARD
PULLMAN (geographers)
-uses do not evolve around a single core
but at several nodes and focal points

URBAN DESIGN CONTROLS


FLOOR AREA RATIO -the proportions
between the built area and the lot area
also referred to as Plot Ratio

FLOOR SPACE INDEX (FSI)

LAND USE PLANNING AND


ZONING
-Defined as the legal regulation of the
use of land
-Allocating types of uses based on
growth patterns
-An application of the police power for
the protection of the public health,
welfare, and safety
INCENTIVE ZONING
Allowing builders and developers more
space if they provide certain desirable
features and amenities such as plazas,
arcades, and other open spaces
CLUSTER ZONING
-Creating special zoning policies and
regulations for medium to large sized
controlled developments
URBAN DESIGN GUIDELINES
-Building heights, setbacks, building bulk,
-Architectural
character

4. URBAN REALMS
- by JAMES VANCE
-presents the
emergence of selfsufficient sectors
-independent
urban realms
brought by the
impact of the
automobile

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
STATEMENT
For large projects developers are required
to outline possible effects of the project
on the environment. The outline includes
the following:
1. Description of the project
2. Description of existing environments
(physical, social, economic, historical,
and aesthetic)
3. Impact on the environment (conditions
evaluated)

4. Adverse environmental effects


5. Alternatives to proposed action taken
Long range impacts
6. Irreversible and irretrievable
communities of resources likely to
result from implementation of
proposed project
ENVIRONMENTAL PRESERVATION
Protecting the environment from urban
growth by restricting development in
certain areas, especially in sensitive areas
such as wetlands, coastal areas, and
mountain environments
CONSERVATION, RESTORATION &
ADAPTIVE REUSE
-Conservation- a term used
interchangeably with preservation but
having the rather more positive
connotation of adaptation of parts of
buildings while retaining the essential
spirit of the original
Conservation areaan area containing a
group of buildings of special architectural
or historical significance, which a Local
Authority may designate.
URBAN RENEWAL
A general term to describe the idea of
consciously renewing the outworn areas
of towns and cities; covers most aspects
of renewal, including both
redevelopment and rehabilitation
The process of cleaning slum areas
which are economically & physically
beyond repair, rehabilitation areas where
houses & neighborhood facilities can be
restored to come up to health, safety, &
good living standards, & protective
measures in order to prevent enrichment
of undesirable influences
(exam question)
ADAPTIVE REUSE
Converting old, usually historic buildings,
sections of, or entire districts to new
uses other than their original purpose. In
many U.S. cities adaptive reuse is
encouraged by special tax incentives
REHABILITATION
term used to describe the idea of
repairing, redecorating and in some

cases converting, existing structurally


sound property to a standard compatible
with modern requirements of amenity
and health
INVASION
A type of urban ecological process
defined as the entrance of a new
population and / or facilities in an already
occupied area
BLOCK-BOOSTING
forcing the old population out of the
area because of social or racial
differences
CENTRALIZATION
An urban ecological process in city land
use patterning referring to an increase in
population at a certain geographic
center
GENTRIFICATION
Improving the physical set-up and
consequently affecting the market for
previously run-down areas
EMERGING THEORIES
PLANNED UNIT DEVELOPMENTS
- Sometimes referred to as CLUSTER
ZONING
- used in areas that are being intensively
developed for the first time
- Ordinary zoning regulations can be
suspended for this particular property
- usually consists of a variety of uses,
anchored by commercial establishments
and supported by office and residential
space
TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENTS
-A mixed use community with an average
670 METER distance of a transit stop and
commercial core area. TODs mix
residential, retail, office, open space, and
public uses in a walkable environment,
making it convenient for residents and
employees to travel by transit, bicycle,
foot, or car.

600 700M DIST. = 5 MINS WALK


Most TODs place residents within 600
to 700m of transit stations.
This is equivalent to an average walking
time of about 5 minutes.

With TOD, the city and the transit system


meet in the middle
Allows residents to have easy access to
transit stations, lessening dependence on the
automobile.
Boosts transit ridership and revenue

URBAN TOD - are located directly on the


trunk line transit network: at light rail,
heavy rail, or express bus stops.
They should be developed with high
commercial intensities, job clusters, and
moderate to high residential densities
NEIGHBORHOOD TOD- on a local or
feeder bus line within 10 minutes transit
travel time (no more than 3 miles) from
a trunk line transit stop. They should
place an emphasis on moderate density
residential, service, retail, entertainment,
civic, and recreational uses.
STREET AND CIRCULATION SYSTEM
The local street system should be
recognizable and interconnected,
converging to transit stops, core
commercial areas or open spaces
Streets must be pedestrian friendly
DISTRIBUTION OF TODS
-TODs should be located to maximize
access to core commercial areas without
relying solely on arterials. TODs with
major competing retail centers should be
spaced a minimum of 1 mile apart and
should be distributed to serve different
neighborhoods. When located on fixed
rail transit systems, they should be
located to allow efficient station spacing
-Developments
that take the
form of
traditional
neighborhoods,
while still
accommodating
the automobile
and
-These are finely amenities. integrated,
walkable communities with a strong local
identity and with convivial public places
-The ideas of TNDs are further illustrated
in New Urbanism

NEW ORBANISM
BACKGROUND OF NEW URBANISM
SPRAWL
Creates landscapes dominated by
parking lots and undefined edges,
aesthetically unpleasing characteristics
of the urban fabric

-Suburban Sprawl brought about by:


the automobile
development conspiracies
the American Dream

THE CONGRESS FOR NEW URBANISM


(CNU) - founders- Andres Duany,
Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Peter
Calthorpe, Peter Katz, Daniel Solomon,
among others

HIERARCHY OF SPACES
THE REGION
(Region, City, Neighborhood, District, Block, Street)

-urbanism, defined by its diversity,


pedestrian scale, public space &
structure of bounded neighborhoods,
should be applied throughout a
metropolitan region regardless of
location.
NEIGHBORHOOD, THE DISTRICT, &
THE CORRIDOR
These three are the fundamental
organizing elements of New Urbanism:
1. NEIGHBORHOODS - are urbanized
areas with a balanced mix of human
activity
2. DISTRICTS - are areas dominated by
a single activity
3. CORRIDORS - are connectors and
separators of Neighborhoods and
districts

THE STREET, THE BLOCK, AND THE


BUILDING
The form of New Urbanism is realized by
the deliberate assembly of streets,
blocks, and buildings
1. STREETS - are not the dividing lines
within a city, but are to be communal
rooms and passages
2. BLOCKS - are the field on which
unfolds both the building fabric and
the public realm of the city
3. BUILDINGS - are the smallest
increment of growth in the city. Their
proper configuration and placement
relative to each other determines the
character of each settlement
THE CONTEXT OF NEW URBANISM
The neighborhood has a discernible
center or a focal point
Most of the dwellings are within a
five-minute walk of the center, an
average of roughly 600 to 700
meters (2,000 feet)
There is a variety of dwelling types
There are mixed uses
Streets within the neighborhood
are a connected network,
preferably a grid pattern, which
disperses traffic by providing a
variety of pedestrian and vehicular
routes to any destination
There are small playgrounds near
every dwelling not more than 200
meters away.
An elementary school is close
enough so that most children can
walk from their home.
The streets and sidewalks are
covered with rows of trees and
other landscaping elements that
provide shade to pedestrians and
an overall pleasant environment
Parallel parking will also be allowed
along the streets, with trees in
between each designated space
Sidewalks are wide, at least 3.0
meters, and will be free from
dangerous obstructions except for

landscaping elements and street


furniture that will invite pedestrians
to sit.
Storefronts are also built close to the
sidewalk, with wide window openings
and visible entrances that are inviting
to the pedestrian
Buildings in the neighborhood center
are placed close to the street, creating
a well-defined outdoor room.
Prominent sites at the termination of
street vistas or in the neighborhood
center are reserved for civic buildings.
Parking lots and garage doors rarely
front the street. Parking is relegated
to underground, to multi-level
structures, or to the rear of buildings,
usually accessed by alleys.
In areas with bodies of water of
significant size, buildings will be built
facing the water, rather than having
the water in its backyard
The neighborhood is organized to be
self-governing. A formal association
debates and decides matters of
maintenance, security and physical
change
NEW URBANISM STRATEGIES:

REDEVELOPMENT
INFILL
NEW TOWNS
SEASIDE
- Famous Case Studies:
1. Walton County, Florida, 1981
- proj area. 80 acres
- Fosters a strong sense of community
with of community with a variety of
dwelling units built close to each
other, complete neighborhood
amenities, open spaces, terminating
vistas, etc.

2.

Laguna West
- Sacramento County, California,
1990
- proj area. 1,045 acres
- Peter Calthorpe and Associates
-The system of public spaces is the
organizing structure of the
community of the community
-The town center is located at the
terminus of radial boulevards which
originate in neighborhood parks

3.

Kentlands,Gaithersburg, Maryland
- proj area: 355 acres
- Andres Duany & Elizabeth Plater- Zyberk
(DPZ)
- High-end residential units built up to the
sidewalk and close to one another

4.

Jackson Taylor
- San Jose, California, 1991
- proj area. 75 acres
- Peter Calthorpe and Associates
- Presents three different block types:
BLOCK 1: mixed use commercial-officeresidential
BLOCK 2: high density residential
BLOCK 3: lower density residential

FAMOUS PLANNERS:
ABERCROMBIE, SIR LESLIE PATRICK
(1874- 1957)
-In 1913 he won a competition for the replanning of Dublin
-In 1944 he published his Greater London Plan
and founder of the Town Planning Review

BACON, EDMUND NORWOOD


(1910-Bacons Design of Cities (1967)
-Architect designer in Shanghai

GARNIER, TONY (1869-1948)


-Cit Industrielle, designed between 1898 and
1904 -Distinct functional zoning throughout

GEDDES, SIR PATRICK (1854-1932)


-In planning circles, his indelible mark is made
by his extensive contribution to fresh thought
on the shape and location of contemporary
human communities
-The author of Cities in Evolution (1915)

GROPIUS, WALTER (1883-1969)


-owes his place in any account of the history of
planning to his invention of the residential
layout in which slab blocks of flats are placed
laterally or obliquely to a street rather than
parallel with it.

GRUEN, VICTOR (1903-)


planner and author who has pioneered the
development in America of both regional and
city centre pedestrian shopping areas

JACOBS, JANE (1916-)-American author


and former associate editor of Architectural
Forum whose book the Death and Life of
Great American Cities was published in 1962.

KAHN, LOUIS (1901)


American architect noted for his
imaginative sequence of plans for the
redevelopment of Philadelphia, designed
intermittently between 1952 and 1961.

MAYER, ALBERT
- Believed that housing developments should blend
in with the neighboring city to produce a change of
character, but not a shock
-Thus proposed the planning concept of
differentiation without division
-Conceptualized the original plan for Chandigarh

MUMFORD, LEWIS (1895-)-An influential


American writer on planning and sociology.
-His first book on planning, The Story of Utopias,
was published in 1922.

NASH, JOHN
-Believed in curving forms, rather than formal
grid patterns
- Designer of Londons Park Crescent and
Regents Park

OSBORN, SIR FREDERIC JAMES (1885-)


-Author, planner and propagandist, Sir Frederic
Osborn has acquired an international reputation
for his sustained and tireless espousal of the
principles behind Howards Garden Cities

SILKIN. LEWIS
-Earned his place in the history of planning by the
legislation which he introduced into Parliament
while minister of Town and Country Planning
from 1945 to 1950
-New Towns Act of 1946 and the Town and
Country Planning Act of 1947

SITTE, CAMILLO (1843-1903)


-Austrian art historian and writer of the book Der
Stdtebau nach seinen knstlerischen
Grundstzen (City Planning According to Artistic
Principles)

TANGE, KENZO
-Architect and planner who analyzed major cities
of the worlds industrialized countries, finding
that characteristically they comprise only about
15% of a countrys population

VITRUVIUS (1ST CENTURY B.C.)


-the 4th to 7th chapters of his first book are
concerned generally with town planning and
embody fundamental principles for the layout
and form of whole towns

WOOD, JOHN
-An early advocate of formalism in town planning
highlighted by simple curved buildings
-Designer of the Royal Circus and the Royal
Crescent in Bath, England

WREN, CHRISTOPHER
-Credited for rebuilding London after the fire of
1966
-The stock exchange building was the symbolic
focal point of his plan, instead of the traditional
palace or cathedral