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Ch7. Hypothesis Testing

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7.1 Introduction to Hypothesis Testing

7.2 Hypothesis Testing for the Mean (Large Samples)

7.3 Hypothesis Testing for the Mean (Small Samples)

7.4. Hypothesis Testing for two means (independent sample)

7.5. Hypothesis Testing for Proportions

7.6 Hypothesis Testing for Variance and Standard Deviation

7.1

Introduction to

Hypothesis Testing

1. The null hypothesis

2. The alternative hypothesis

3. The test statistic and its P-value

4. The reject region

5. The conclusion

Hypothesis Tests

A hypothesis test is a process that uses sample statistics to

test a claim about the value of a population parameter.

Eg. 1. If a manufacturer of rechargeable batteries claims that the

batteries they produce are good for an average of at least 1,000

charges, a sample would be taken to test this claim.

Null hypothesis (Ho): assumed to be true (no difference; innocent)

Alternative hypothesis (Ha): Alternative Possibility Reject Ho.

When one of these hypotheses is false, the other must be true.

Stating a Hypothesis

H subzero or H naught

A null hypothesis H0 is a statistical hypothesis that

contains a statement of equality such as , =, or .

H sub-a

A alternative hypothesis Ha is the complement of the null

hypothesis. It is a statement that must be true if H0 is false

and contains a statement of inequality such as >, , or <.

Writing hypotheses: translate the claim from a verbal

statement to a mathematical statement.

Stating a Hypothesis

Example 1:

an average life greater than 1,000 charges.

> 1000 Ha

H0: 1000 Condition of equality

Ha: > 1000 (Claim)

Right-tailed test

Complement of the

null hypothesis

P is the area to

the right of the

test statistic.

-3

-2

-1

1

2

Test

statistic

Stating a Hypothesis

Example 02. A cigarette manufacturer claims that less than

one-eighth of the US adult population smokes cigarettes.

H0: p 0.125

Ha: p < 0.125 (Claim)

Left-tailed test

P is the area to

the left of the

test statistic.

-3

-2

-1

Test

statistic

z

Stating a Hypothesis

Example 03. A local telephone company claims that the

average length of a phone call is 8 minutes.

H0: = 8 (Claim)

Ha: 8

Two-tailed test

P is twice the

P is twice the

of the positive

test statistic.

of the negative

test statistic.

-3

-2

-1

Test

statistic

z

Test

statistic

z

Stating a Hypothesis

Exercise:

Write the claim as a mathematical sentence. State the null and

alternative hypotheses and identify which represents the claim.

employment within six months of graduation.

p = 0.94

H0: p = 0.94 (Claim)

Ha: p 0.94

Complement of the

null hypothesis

Condition of

equality

Types of Errors

At the end of the test, one of two decisions will be made:

1. reject Ho, or

2. fail to reject Ho (accept the Ho)

statistical test:

- Type I error rate =P reject

Ho when in fact Ho is true

Ho when in fact Ho is false

Your

Decision

Actual Fact

Ho is true Ho is false

Accept Ho

Correct

Type II

Error

Reject Ho

Type I

Error

Correct

E.g. Compare varieties,

Ho: Varieties are not different

Ha: Varieties are different.

(The mistake to conclude Vars are dif. when in fact Vars are not dif.).

Type 2 error: Accept Ho when in fact Ho is not correct

(we conclude that Vars are not dif when in fact Vars are dif.)

Alpha : Level of significant: maximum allowable probability of

making a type I error.

Commonly used levels of significance: =0.10; =0.05; =0.01

small we want to be more carefully in conclude Varieties are dif.).

Or There is 1% of mistake (making type 1 error) when we conclude

Var are dif but they actually are not dif.

Statistical Tests

x

After stating the

Ho and Ha and specifying the level of

significance, a random sample is taken from the population

and sample statistics are calculated.

the Ho is called the test statistic.

Population

parameter

Test

statistic

X

p

2

p

s2

Standardized test

statistic

z (n 30)

t (n < 30)

z

X2

P-value of a hypothesis test: a probability calculated using the

test statistic (or the probability of observing a test statistic as

extreme as or more extreme than the observed value, if in fact

Ho is true.

Reject Region: The set consisting of values that support the

alternative hypothesis and lead to rejecting Ho is called reject

region. The other, consisting of values that support the null

hypothesis is called the acceptance region.

/2: level of

/2: level of

significance

significance

z

-3

-2

-1

-z/2

z/2

Left-tailed Test

1. If the alternative hypothesis contains the less-than

inequality symbol (<), the hypothesis test is a left-tailed

test.

H0: k

Ha: < k

P is the area to

the left of the

test statistic.

-3

-2

-1

Test

statistic

z

Right-tailed Test

2. If the alternative hypothesis contains the greater-than

symbol (>), the hypothesis test is a right-tailed test.

H0: k

Ha: > k

P is the area to

the right of the

test statistic.

-3

-2

-1

Test

statistic z

Two-tailed Test

3. If the alternative hypothesis contains the not-equal-to

symbol (), the hypothesis test is a two-tailed test. In a

two-tailed test, each tail has an area of P.

H0: = k

Ha: k

P is twice the

P is twice the

of the positive

test statistic.

of the negative

test statistic.

-3

-2

-1

Test

statistic

z

Test

statistic

z

Making a Decision

Decision Rule Based on P-value

To use a P-value to make a conclusion in a hypothesis test,

compare the P-value with .

1. If P , then reject H0.

2. If P > , then fail to reject H0.

meaning that the treatment are significant.

Claim

Decision

Claim is H0

Claim is Ha

Reject H0

to reject the claim.

to support the claim.

Do not reject H0

ence to reject the claim.

ence to support the claim

.

Interpreting a Decision

Example:

You perform a hypothesis test for the following claim. How

should you interpret your decision if you reject H0? If you fail

to reject H0?

one-eighth of the US adult population smokes

cigarettes.

indicate that the manufacturers claim is false.

If you fail to reject H0, conclude there is NOT sufficient

evidence to indicate that the manufacturers claim is false.

1. State the claim mathematically and verbally. Identify the

null and alternative hypotheses.

H 0: ?

H a: ?

is based on the assumption

that H0 is true.

=?

sampling distribution and

draw its graph.

and its standardized value.

Add it to your sketch.

z

Test statistic

Continued.

5. Find the P-value.

Is the P-value

No

Yes

Reject H0.

the original claim.

two-tailed tests.

7.2

Mean (Large Samples)

Population

parameter

p

2

Test

statistic

X

p

s2

Standardized test

statistic

z (n 30)

t (n < 30)

z

X2

Decision Rule Based on P-value

To use a P-value to make a conclusion in a hypothesis test,

compare the P-value with .

1. If P , then reject H0.

2. If P > , then fail to reject H0.

sampling distribution for the sample mean is normal.

Example:

The P-value for a hypothesis test is P = 0.0256. What is

your decision if the level of significance is

a.) 0.05,

b.) 0.01?

a.) Because 0.0256 is < 0.05, you should REJECT Ho at

=0.05 ACCEPT Ha

b.) Because 0.0256 is > 0.01, you should fail to reject the

null hypothesis at =0.01 ACCEPT H0

After determining the hypothesis tests standardized test statistic

(Observed z or test statistic) and the test statistics corresponding area

(P), do one of the following to find the P-value.

a. For a left-tailed test, P = (Area in left tail).

b. For a right-tailed test, P = (Area in right tail).

Example: The test statistic for a right-tailed test is z = 1.56. Find the

P-value

In Table 3, P-value= P(z>1.56) = 1-P(z<1.56) =1.9406 = 0.0594

P-value = 0.0594

0

1.56

is 1 .9406 = 0.0594.

Example:

a) The Observed test statistic for a two-tailed test is z = 2.63.

Find the P-value.

In Table 3, P-value = 2P(z<-2.63) = 2(0.0043) = 0.0086

0.0043

2.63

z

0

Example:

b) The Observed test statistic for a two-tailed test is z = 3.03.

Find the P-value.

In Table 3, P-value = P(z>3.03) + P(z<-3.03)

=2P(z<-3.03) = 2(0.0012) = 0.0086

Z-test for the mean: is a statistical test for a population mean.

Requirement of z-test:

-For any population when the sample size n 30.

-Population is normal and is known

test statistic (Observed z) is z.

z x

n

standard error

x

n

substituted for .

Using P-values for a z-Test for a Mean

In Words

In Symbols

and verbally. Identify the null

and alternative hypotheses.

Identify .

statistic)

z x

n

to z.

Use Table 3 in

Appendix

Continued.

Using P-values for a z-Test for a Mean

In Words

In Symbols

a. For a left-tailed test, P = (Area in left tail).

b. For a right-tailed test, P = (Area in right tail).

c. For a two-tailed test, P = 2(Area in tail of test statistic).

6. Make a decision to reject or fail to Reject H0 if P-value .

reject the null hypothesis.

Otherwise, fail to reject

H0.

7. Interpret the decision in the

context of the original claim.

Example:

A manufacturer claims that its rechargeable batteries are good

for an average of more than 1,000 charges. A random sample of

100 batteries has a mean life of 1002 charges and a standard

deviation of 14. Is there enough evidence to support this claim

at = 0.01?

H0: 1000

(Claim)

The observed z is

z x 1002 1000

n

14 100

1.43

Continued.

Example continued:

A manufacturer claims that its rechargeable batteries are good

for an average of more than 1,000 charges. A random sample of

100 batteries has a mean life of 1002 charges and a standard

deviation of 14. Is there enough evidence to support this claim

at = 0.01?

H0: 1000

Ha: > 1000 (Claim)

z=1.43 Table 3, P= P(z>1.43) = 1-P(Z<1.43) =0.0764.

The area to the right of

z = 1.43 is P = 0.0764.

0

1.43

fail to reject H0.

support the claim that the rechargeable battery has an average life

of at least 1000 charges.

A rejection region (or critical region) of the sampling

distribution is the range of values for which the null hypothesis

is not probable. If a observed test statistic (z) falls in this

region, the null hypothesis is rejected. A critical value z (zc)

separates the rejection region from the nonrejection/acceptance

region.

Example:

Find the critical value and rejection region for a right tailed test

with = 0.01.

= 0.01

0

2.33

right of z = 2.33.

Fail to reject Ho.

Reject Ho.

Reject Ho.

zc

0

-2.33 -1.64 -1.28

0.01 0.05 0.10

Left-Tailed Test

0.10 0.05 0.01

Right-Tailed Test

Fail to reject Ho.

Reject Ho.

Reject Ho.

zc

0.01 0.05 0.1

0.1 0.05 0.01

Two-Tailed Test

zc

Finding Critical Values in a Normal Distribution

1. Specify .

2. Decide the test is left-, right-, or two-tailed.

3. Find the critical value(s) z. If the hypothesis test is

a. left-tailed, find the z-score that corresponds to

b. right-tailed, find the z-score that corresponds to 1 ,

c. two-tailed, find the z-score that corresponds to and 1

.

vertical line at each critical value and shade the

rejection region(s).

Decision Rule Based on Rejection Region

To use a rejection region to conduct a hypothesis test,

calculate the standardized test statistic, z. If the

standardized test statistic

1. is in the rejection region, then reject H0.

2. is not in the rejection region, then fail to reject H0.

Fail to reject Ho.

Reject Ho.

z < z

Reject Ho.

z

Left-Tailed Test

Reject Ho.

z < -z/2z/2

z/2

z>z

Right-Tailed Test

Reject Ho.

z > z/2

Two-Tailed Test

Using Rejection Regions for a z-Test for a Mean

In Words

In Symbols

and verbally. Identify the null

and alternative hypotheses.

Identify .

4. Determine the critical value(s).

z (Table 3)

Continued.

Using Rejection Regions for a z-Test for a Mean

In Words

6. Find the standardized test

statistic z .

In Symbols

z x or if n 30

n

use s.

region, reject H0.

reject the null hypothesis.

Otherwise, fail to reject H0.

8. Interpret the decision in the

context of the original claim.

Example:

A local telephone company claims that the average length of

a phone call is 8 minutes. In a random sample of 58 phone

calls, the sample mean was 7.8 minutes and the standard

deviation was 0.5 minutes. Is there enough evidence to

support this claim at = 0.05?

H0: = 8 (Claim)

H a: 8

0.025

0.025

z= 1.96

z= 1.96

Continued.

Example continued: A local telephone company claims that the

average length of a phone call is 8 minutes. In a random sampl

e of 58 phone calls, the sample mean was 7.8 minutes and the s

tandard deviation was 0.5 minutes. Is there enough evidence t

o support this claim at = 0.05?

= 0.05 /2 = 0.025 P=0.975 zc =1.96

H0: = 8 (Claim)

Ha: 8

in the rejection region,

so H0 is rejected.

z x 7.8 8

n 0.5 58

3.05.

zc = 1.96

zc = 1.96

the claim that the average length of a phone call is 8 minutes.

7.3

Mean (Small Samples)

Population

parameter

p

2

Test

statistic

X

p

s2

Standardized test

statistic

z (n 30)

t (n < 30)

z

X2

Finding Critical Values in a t-Distribution

1. Identify the level of significance .

2. Identify the degrees of freedom d.f. = n 1.

3. Find the critical value(s) t using Table 4 in the row with

n 1 df. If the hypothesis test is

a. left-tailed, use One Tail, column with a sign,

b. right-tailed, use One Tail, column with a + sign,

c. two-tailed, use Two Tails, column with a and a +

sign.

Example 1: Find the critical value t for a right-tailed test

given = 0.01 and n = 24.

d.f. = n 1 = 24 1 = 23.

To find t , use Table 4 with d.f. = 23 and 0.01 in the One Tail,

column. Because the test is a right-tail test, the critical

value is positive t = 2.500

Example 2: Find the critical values t0 and t0 for a two-tailed

test given = 0.10 and n = 12.

d.f. = n 1 = 12 1 = 11.

To find the critical value, use Table 4 with d.f. = 11 and 0.10

in the Two Tail, column. Because the test is a two-tail

test, one critical value is negative and one is positive.

t0 = 1.796 and t0 = 1.796

The t-test for the mean is a statistical test for a population

mean. The t-test can be used when the population is normal

or nearly normal, is unknown, and n < 30.

The test statistic is the sample mean X and the standardized

test statistic is t.

t x

s n

d.f. = n 1 .

Using the t-Test for a Mean (Small Sample)

In Words

In Symbols

and verbally. Identify the null

and alternative hypotheses.

Identify .

and sketch the sampling

distribution.

d.f. = n 1.

Use Table 4

Continued.

Using the t-Test for a Mean (Small Sample)

In Words

6. Find the standardized test

statistic.

to reject the null hypothesis.

8. Interpret the decision in the

context of the original claim.

In Symbols

t x

s

n

If t is in the rejection

region, reject H0.

Otherwise, fail to

reject H0.

Example 1: A local telephone company claims that the average

length of a phone call is 8 minutes. In a random sample of 18

phone calls, the sample mean was 7.8 minutes and the standa

rd deviation was 0.5 minutes. Is there enough evidence to sup

port this claim at = 0.05?

= 0.05. d.f. = 18 1 = 17. t0 = 2.111 and t0 = 2.110

The standardized test statistic is

the nonrejection region,

so H0 is not rejected.

t x 7.8 8

s n

0.5 18

1.70.

t0 = 2.110

t0 = 2.110

claim that the average length of a phone call is 8 minutes.

Example 2: A manufacturer claims that its rechargeable batteries ha

ve an average life greater than 1,000 charges. A random sample of 10

batteries has a mean life of 1002 charges and a standard deviation of

14. Is there enough evidence to support this claim at = 0.01?

Usinghttp://www.danielsoper.com/statca

H0: 1000 Ha: > 1000 (Claim) lc3/calc.aspx?id=8,

= 0.01.

d.f. = 10 1 = 9

t x 1002 1000

s n

14 10

Or http://stattrek.com/onlinecalculator/t-distribution.aspx

P > = 0.01

H0 would fail to be rejected.

0.45

0

0.45

At the 1% level of sig, there is not enough evidence to support the claim that

the rechargeable battery has an average life of at least 1000 charges.

Statistical Significance

The critical value approach and the P-value approach

always reach the same conclusion.

The P-value approach is often preferred because:

+ Computer printouts usually calculate P-value

+ after calculating the P-value, you can make a decision at

any significance level.

If the Ho hypothesis is rejected at =0.05, what should be

conclusion at significance level of 0.1?

7.4

Hypothesis Testing

(independent sample)

Independent samples: Two samples are independent if the

sample selected from one population is not related to the

sample selected from the second population.

Two samples are dependent if each member of one sample

corresponds to a member of the other sample.

Independent Samples

Dependent Samples

Hypothesis

For a two-sample hypothesis test,

1. the null hypothesis H0 is a statistical hypothesis that

usually states there is no difference between the

parameters of two populations. The null hypothesis always

contains the symbol , =, or .

1. the alternative hypothesis Ha is a statistical hypothesis that

is true when H0 is false. The alternative hypothesis always

contains the symbol >, , or <.

Test Statistic

For a two-sample hypothesis test,

1. If Both n130; n2 30 Use Z test

X1 X 2

S12 S 22

n1 n2

x x 2 1 2

t 1

x x

1

Variances equal

Variances not equal

x x

1

s12 s 22

n1 n2

n2 1.

x x 1 1

n1 n2

1

and d.f =

n1

+ n2 2.

Example: Diary Intake

Is there any difference I average Whether one is larger than

another:

Data

- A random sample of size n1 from Population 1 with 1 & variance 12

- A random sample of size n2 from Population 1 with 2 & variance 22

- Two tailed Ha: 1- 2 # 0 or

- Right tailed Ha: 1- 2 > 0

Test statistic: Z

standard normal distribution.

X1 X 2

S12 S 22

n1 n2

Is there any difference in average daily intakes of dairy products by

men and women ? Use = 0.05.

A two-sided test is appropriate.

Avg. Daily

Intakes

Test statistic:

X1 X 2

S12 S 22

n1 n2

Men

Women

Sample size

50

50

Sample mean

756

762

35

30

756 762

352 30 2

50 50

0.92

P value approach:

P (|z |> .92) =2 P(z<-0.92) = 2(.1788) = .3576 > = 0.05

cannot reject H0 at level 0.05

observed |z| = 0.92 < 1.96

cannot reject H0 at level 0.05

Using a Two-Sample t-Test for the Difference Between

Means (Small Independent Samples)

In Words

In Symbols

Identify the null and alternative

hypotheses.

Identify .

and sketch the sampling

distribution.

d.f. = n1+ n2 2 or

d.f. = smaller of n1 1

or n2 1.

Use Table 4

Continued.

Using a Two-Sample t-Test for the Difference Between

Means (Small Independent Samples)

In Words

In Symbols

x1 x 2 1 2

x x

1

reject the null hypothesis.

8. Interpret the decision in the

context of the original claim.

If t is in the rejection

region, reject H0.

Otherwise, fail to

reject H0.

Example:

A random sample of 17 police officers in Brownsville has a

mean annual income of $35,800 and a standard deviation

of $7,800. In Greensville, a random sample of 18 police

officers has a mean annual income of $35,100 and a

standard deviation of $7,375. Test the claim at = 0.01

that the mean annual incomes in the two cities are not the

same. Assume the population variances are equal.

H0: 1 = 2

Ha: 1 2

=

(Claim) 0.005

d.f. = n1 + n2 2

= 17 + 18 2 = 33

=

0.005

-3

-2

-1

t0 = 2.576

t0 = 2.576

Continued.

Example continued:

H0: 1 = 2

Ha: 1 2 (Claim)

-3

-2

-1

t0 = 2.576

t0 = 2.576

x x

1

n1

n2

n1 1 s12 n2 1 s 22

17 1 78002 18 1 73752

n1 n2 2

17 18 2

n1

n2

1

1

17 18

7584.0355(0.3382)

2564.92

Continued.

Example continued:

H0: 1 = 2

Ha: 1 2 (Claim)

-3

-2

-1

t0 = 2.576

t0 = 2.576

x1 x 2 1 2

x x

1

35800 35100 0

2564.92

0.273

There is not enough evidence at the 1% level to support

the claim that the mean annual incomes differ.

7.5

Hypothesis Testing

for Proportions

Population

parameter

p

2

Test

statistic

X

p

s2

Standardized test

statistic

z (n 30)

t (n < 30)

z

X2

The z-test for a population is a statistical test for a population

proportion. The z-test can be used when a binomial

distribution is given such that np 5 and nq 5.

The test statistic is the sample proportion p and the

standardized test statistic is z.

p p

p

p

p

pq n

Using a z-Test for a Proportion p

Verify that np 5 and nq 5.

In Words

In Symbols

and verbally. Identify the null

and alternative hypotheses.

Identify .

Use Table 3

Continued.

Using a z-Test for a Proportion p

Verify that np 5 and nq 5.

In Words

In Symbols

6. Find the standardized test

statistic.

z p p

pq n

reject the null hypothesis.

If z is in the rejection

region, reject H0.

Otherwise, fail to

reject H0.

context of the original claim.

Example: A college claims that more than 94% of their graduates find

employment within 6 months of graduation. In a sample of 500 rando

mly selected graduates, 475 of them were employed. Is there enough

evidence to support the colleges claim at a 1% level of significance?

Verify np & nq 5: np =(500)(.94)= 470; nq =(500)(.06)= 30 Normal

Distribution

H0: p 0.94

= 0.01P=0.99 Table 3, the critical value Z= 2.33.

p 475 / 500 0.95

0.95 0.94

z p p

pq n

(0.94)(0.06) 500

z 0.94

nonrejection region H0 is

not rejected.

0

2.33

support the colleges claim.

Example: A cigarette manufacturer claims that 1/8 of the US

adult population smokes cigarettes. In a random sample of 100

adults, 5 are cigarette smokers. Test the claim at = 0.05.

p 5 / 100 0.05

np = (100)(.125)= 12.5 ; nq = (100)(.875) = 87.5

* H0: p = 0.125 (Claim)Ha: p 0.125 two-tailed test

* The test statistic is

0.05 0.125

z p p

pq n

(0.125)(0.875) 100

2.27

Reject H0.

z

z/2 = 1.96

z/2 = 1.96

reject the claim that one-eighth of the population smokes.

Goal: comparing the proportion of successes in two dif. binomial

populations

Data: a random sample of size n1 from binomial population 1 with

proportion p1 and a random sample of size n2 from binomial population

2 with proportion p2

The hypothesis of interest involves the difference, p1-p2, in the form:

H0: p1-p2 = 0 vs. Ha: one of the three alternatives

Two-sided: p1-p2 0

Left-sided: p1-p2 < 0

Right-sided: p1-p2 > 0

P

n1 n2 value of p under H0: p1 = p2

Critical value & P value based on standard Z normal distribution

E.g. Is there a sig. diff. between the

proportions of male and female college students

who said that they had played on a soccer team

during their K-12 years? use level 0.01 to

conduct a test

consider a two-sided test

Youth Soccer

Male

Female

Sample size

80

70

Played soccer

65

39

p1q1 p2 q2

n1

n2

SE

1 1

p q

n1 n2

p p

1

SE

SE

Since the p-value < = .01, H0 is rejected There is strong evidence to indicate

that the rates of participation are different for boys and girls.

Exercising

The daily yield of a chemical plant has averaged 880 tons for

several years. The quality control manager wanted to know if

this average has changed. She randomly selected 50 days and

recorded an average yield of 871 tons with a standard

deviation of 21 tons. Perform a test at the significance level

= 0.01

Suppose that the national average hourly wage of

construction workers is $14. A random sample of 100 workers

in California shows the mean hourly wage to be $14.66, with

standard deviation $3. Is there sufficient evidence to conclude

that the average hourly wage in California is greater than the

national average ? Use = 0.01

Exercise 3. Internet

An Internet server claimed that its users averaged 13 hours

per day. To determine whether this was an overstatement, a

competitor conducted a survey of 250 customers and found

that the average time spent online was 10.5 hours per day

with a standard deviation of 5.2 hours.

Does the data provide sufficient evidence to indicate that the

average hours of users are less than that claimed by the first

Internet provider? Test at the 0.01 level of significance.

Regardless of age, about 20% of American adults participate in fitness

activities at least twice a week. A random sample

of 100 adults over 40 years old found 15 who exercised at least twice a

week. Is this evidence of a decline in participation after age 40? Use a

= .05.

The daily yield of a chemical plant has averaged 880 tons for

several years. The quality control manager wanted to know if

this average has changed. She randomly selected 50 days and

recorded an average yield of 871 tons with a standard

deviation of 21 tons. Perform a test at the significance level

= 0.01

we should reject H0

Suppose that the national average hourly wage of construction

workers is $14. A random sample of 100 workers in California shows

the mean hourly wage to be $14.66, with standard deviation $3. Is

there sufficient evidence to conclude that the average hourly wage in

California is greater than the national average? Use = 0.01

exactly at 0.01 in the right-tail of the

standard normal distribution? z = 2.33

Observed Z = 2.2 which does not exceed the critical value 2.33

we cannot reject H0 at evel 0.01.

Exercise 3. Internet

An Internet server claimed that its users averaged 13 hrs/day. To

determine whether this was an overstatement, a competitor

conducted a survey of 250 customers and found that the average

time spent online was 10.5 hrs/day with a standard deviation of 5.2

hours. Does the data provide sufficient evidence to indicate that the

average hours of use are less than that claimed by the first Internet

provider? Test at the 0.01 level of significance.

Left sided test.

Critical value approach:

- = .01 is set in the left tail of the distribution as -z = -2.33 .

- Observed value Z=-7.6<-2.33 H0 is rejected.

There is sufficient evidence that the average time is less than claimed

by the Internet provided at level 0.01.

p-value=P(Z<-7.6) 0< = 0.01 H0 is rejected.

Regardless of age, about 20% of American adults participate in fitness

activities at least twice a week. A random sample of 100 adults over 40

years old found 15 who exercised at least twice a week. Is this evidence

of a decline in participation after age 40? Use a = .05.

Left sided test.

Critical value approach:

0.05 -z=-1.64.

can not reject H0 at level 0.05

There is not enough evidence to claim

a decline in participation after age 40 at

significance level 0.05

7.5

Hypothesis Testing

for Variance and

Standard Deviation

Finding Critical Values for the 2-Distribution

1. Specify the level of significance .

2. Determine the degrees of freedom d.f. = n 1.

3. The critical values for the 2-distribution are found in Table

6 of Appendix B. To find the critical value(s) for a

a. right-tailed test, use the value that corresponds to

d.f. and .

b. left-tailed test, use the value that corresponds to d.f.

and 1 .

c. two-tailed test, use the values that corresponds to

d.f. and and d.f. and 1 .

Example:

Find the critical value for a left-tailed test when n = 19

and = 0.05.

There are 18 d.f. The area to the right of the critical

value is 1 = 1 0.05 = 0.95.

From Table 6, the critical value is 20 = 9.390.

Example:

Find the critical value for a two-tailed test when n = 26

and = 0.01.

There are 25 d.f. The areas to the right of the critical

values are = 0.005 and 1 = 0.995.

From Table 6, the critical values are 2L = 10.520 and

2R = 46.928.

The 2-test for a variance or standard deviation is a

statistical test for a population variance or standard

deviation. The 2-test can be used when the population is

normal.

The test statistic is s2 and the standardized test statistic

2

(n 1)s 2

d.f. = n 1.

Using the 2-Test for a Variance or Standard Deviation

In Words

In Symbols

and verbally. Identify the null

and alternative hypotheses.

Identify .

and sketch the sampling

distribution.

d.f. = n 1

Use Table 6 in

Appendix B.

Continued.

Using the 2-Test for a Variance or Standard Deviation

In Words

In Symbols

6. Find the standardized test

statistic.

7. Make a decision to reject or fail to

reject the null hypothesis.

8. Interpret the decision in the

context of the original claim.

(n 1)s 2

If 2 is in the

rejection region,

reject H0. Otherwise,

fail to reject H0.

Example:

A college professor claims that the standard deviation

for students taking a statistics test is less than 30. 10

tests are randomly selected and the standard deviation

is found to be 28.8. Test this professors claim at the

= 0.01 level.

H0: 30

Ha: < 30

(Claim)

0.01

X2

Continued.

Example continued:

A college professor claims that the standard deviation

for students taking a statistics test is less than 30. 10

tests are randomly selected and the standard deviation

is found to be 28.8. Test this professors claim at the

= 0.01 level.

Ha: < 30 (Claim)

H0: 30

2

= 2.088

0.01

X20

= 2.088

X2

(n 1)s 2

(10 1)(28.8)2

302

8.29

to support the professors claim.

Example:

A local balloon company claims that the variance for the

time its helium balloons will stay afloat is 5 hours. A

disgruntled customer wants to test this claim. She

randomly selects 23 customers and finds that the variance

of the sample is 4.5 seconds. At = 0.05, does she have

enough evidence to reject the companys claim?

H0: 2 = 5 (Claim)

H a: 2 5

1

0.025

2

1

0.025

2

X2L

X2R

X2

Continued.

Example continued:

A local balloon company claims that the variance for the

time its helium balloons will stay afloat is 5 hours. A

disgruntled customer wants to test this claim. She

randomly selects 23 customers and finds that the variance

of the sample is 4.5 seconds. At = 0.05, does she have

enough evidence to reject the companys claim?

Ha: 2 5

H0: 2 = 5 (Claim)

The critical values are 2L = 10.982 and 2R = 36.781.

1

0.025

2

1

0.025

2

10.982

36.781

X2

Continued.

Example continued:

A local balloon company claims that the variance for the

time one of its helium balloons will stay afloat is 5 hours. A

disgruntled customer wants to test this claim. She

randomly selects 23 customers and finds that the variance

of the sample is 4.5 seconds. At = 0.05, does she have

enough evidence to reject the companys claim?

Ha: 2 5

H0: 2 = 5 (Claim)

2

(n 1)s 2

(23 1)(4.5)

19.8 Fail to reject H0.

5

19.8

10.982

36.781

X2

evidence to reject the claim that the

variance of the float time is 5 hours.

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