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091 - Introduction to
Solid State Chemistry
Lecture 1 : Wednesday, September 7, 2016

Welcome to the first day!

Jeffrey C. Grossman

Professor of Materials Science & Engineering (Course 3)


B.A. at Johns Hopkins

Ph.D. at UIUC

Postdoc at UC Berkeley

Joined MIT faculty in 2009

Research: Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage,

Water Desalination

Jeffrey C. Grossman

Research: Materials for Energy Conversion and

Storage, Water Desalination. Example:

One barrel of oil (159 liters)

1.73 MWh
1% of Carbon in the barrel

Jeffrey C. Grossman
We can change the game in energy and
water by designing new materials

And thats just carbon! How many different

elements are in your phone?

The Thesis of 3.091



Atomic Arrangement




Societal Impact

The Syllabus of 3.091

Part 1 : General Principles of Chemistry

Part 2 : Solid State Chemistry:

> Basic Concepts and Applications

You are not alone

You have many resources to help you learn.

You have me.

You have your TA.

You have Laura.

You have the textbook and the Internet.

You have each other.

The TAs
Sanket Kayahan



Rebecca Jongwon







How Recitation Works

Tuesdays & Thursdays for times, instructors,

locations please see 3.091 Stellar Site

Students have been assigned to recitation

sections by the Registrar.

Changing recitation sections requires

permission, by meeting with Laura von Bosau
in 13-5014 (2:00-3:00pm MWF or by

Laura von Bosau

Office 13-5014 Tel. 3-2561


Summary of Some Stuff


Professor Jeffrey Grossman

Office 13-5049 Tel. 4-3566

Course Administrator:

Laura von Bosau

Office 13-5014 Tel. 3-2561

Lectures are on Monday, Wednesday, Friday, 11:00-12:00,

Room 10-250
Recitations are Tuesday and Thursday at your assigned


(25%) Weekly quizzes: 15-minute quiz taken in

recitation, 9 total, can drop 1 (8 will count)

(45%) Monthly exams: during class, on October

5th, November 2nd, and November 30th.

(30%) Final exam: during exam week, date/time/

location TBD.
Grading: Freshmen Pass/No Record *
Upperclassmen A, B, C, D, F

* Institute requirement for Pass is performance at C-level or better


Homework Weekly: posted usually on Thursdays

(solutions posted following Tuesday). One week
later, in recitation on Thursday, students will take a
15-minute quiz based on the subject matter of the
homework. The scores on these weekly quizzes
will count as the homework portion of the
cumulative grade in the subject.

Homework is NOT graded, but if you do it you

will do better on the quiz which IS graded, as
well as the exams.


Exam 1: Wednesday, October 5, 11:05-11:55

Exam 2: Wednesday, November 2, 11:05-11:55

Exam 3: Wednesday, November 30, 11:05-11:55

Final Exam: 3 hours. Time and location to be set by

the Registrar. Exam Period is December 14 18.
Do not plan to leave town until after your last final.

permissible aids: periodic table, table of

constants, calculator, and an aid sheet


Schedule: Downloadable calendar for the course at

the 3.091 Stellar website (click on Calendar)

Syllabus: see stellar (

3091Summary.pdf) for graphical syllabus.

Notes: posted on stellar the day before each lecture

Textbook: online version of General Chemistry by

Bruce Averill and Patricia Eldredge, available at


NO food or drinks.

YES quickly taking seat.

NO electronic devices.

YES respect the

learning experience.

Academic Honesty
It is expected that students in 3.091 will maintain the highest
standards of academic honesty. In particular, it is expected that
in the course of taking a test or examination, students will not
(1)accept information of any kind from others; (2) represent as
their own the work of anyone else; or (3) use aids to memory other
than those expressly permitted by the examiner. Following a test
or examination, students will not try to deceive the teaching staff
by misrepresenting or altering their previous work. Please consult
Departures from the above standards are contrary to fundamental
principles of MIT and of the scientific community at large. Such
departures are considered serious offenses for which disciplinary
penalties, including suspension and expulsion, can be imposed
by the Institute.

Your Responsibility

5-0-7 :

5 hours/week lecture/recitation
7 hours/week work outside of class

Why Are We Here?

You have Prof. Sadoways lectures (OCW)

You have Prof. Cimas lectures (EdX)

Im not taking attendance.

So why should you come to class?

Reasons to come to class

1. Screens are great, but real people are better.
2. Quizzes/exams will be related to lectures.
3. You will get goodie bags as part of homework.
4. Sometimes I will light things on fire or smash
5. Free stuff.

The Goodie Bag

Goodie-Bags will be given out roughly once per

week but not during exam weeks.

Hands-on materials related to the topics covered.

Take these home and do experiments with them

according to instructions in the bag.

There will be a question on the quiz related to

these materials, some of which you may need
to bring to the quiz.

End: Administrative Stuff

Start: Todays Lecture

Why Solid State Chemistry?

Chemistry: essential for understanding

much of the natural world.

Solid state chemistry: link between

chemistry and engineering.

Origins of Chemistry
Chem < Khem (Egyptian): rich soil
Chem < Khemeia (Greek): pouring

Origins of Chemistry

Plato (400 BC)

Aristotle (350 BC)

Origins of Chemistry




A mere 2000 years later> modern


Alchemy prevailed until the 17th century.

Missing the scientific method.

The Scientific

Sir Francis Bacon

The Proficience and
Advancement of
Learning (1605)

Modern Chemistry
Element: cannot be
broken down into
two or more simpler
substances by
chemical means.
Robert Boyle

Modern Chemistry
materials burn
vigorously in an
oxygen atmosphere,
Joseph Priestley

Wait: Did somebody say


Most Energy Comes from

Lighting Stuff on Fire
Paraffin Wax



Energy released = 1242 kJ/mol

Chemical fuel: C25H52
Energy released = 2874 kJ/mol
Chemical fuel: C4H10
Energy released = 484 kJ/mol
Chemical fuel: H2

Modern Chemistry

Law of conservation
of mass

Antoine Lavoisier

Lavoisier 1789 33 elements





Goodie Bag #1

John Dalton
All matter is composed of tiny
indivisible particles called atoms.
Atoms of a given element possess
unique characteristics and weight.
A chemical compound always
contains the same atoms in the
same ratio.
John Dalton

In reactions, atoms redistribute or

rearrange but do not undergo a
change of identity.

Dalton 1808 20 elements


Dalton 1827 - 36 elements

Why Does This Matter?

Stone Age

2.6M BC 700 BC

Bronze Age

Iron Age

700 BC 100 AD

100 AD 1200 AD

Why Does This Matter?

Industrial Age

1760 AD 1830 AD


Atomic Design


Why Does This Matter?

Cost per transistor:

1965: $1
2015: $0.00000001

Why Does This Matter?