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3.

091 - Introduction to
Solid State Chemistry
Lecture 1 : Wednesday, September 7, 2016

Welcome to the first day!

Jeffrey C. Grossman

Professor of Materials Science & Engineering (Course 3)

Background:

B.A. at Johns Hopkins

Ph.D. at UIUC

Postdoc at UC Berkeley

Joined MIT faculty in 2009

Research: Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage,


Water Desalination

Jeffrey C. Grossman

Research: Materials for Energy Conversion and


Storage, Water Desalination. Example:

One barrel of oil (159 liters)

1.73 MWh
1% of Carbon in the barrel

Jeffrey C. Grossman
We can change the game in energy and
water by designing new materials

And thats just carbon! How many different


elements are in your phone?

The Thesis of 3.091


Properties
Structure
Processing

Engineering

Atomic Arrangement

}
Science

Composition

Performance

Societal Impact

The Syllabus of 3.091

Part 1 : General Principles of Chemistry

Part 2 : Solid State Chemistry:


> Basic Concepts and Applications

You are not alone


You have many resources to help you learn.

You have me.

You have your TA.

You have Laura.

You have the textbook and the Internet.

You have each other.

The TAs
Sanket Kayahan

Dina

Jordan

Rebecca Jongwon

Julia

Jonathan

Kate

Jerome

Evi

Erick

How Recitation Works

Tuesdays & Thursdays for times, instructors,


locations please see 3.091 Stellar Site

Students have been assigned to recitation


sections by the Registrar.

Changing recitation sections requires


permission, by meeting with Laura von Bosau
in 13-5014 (2:00-3:00pm MWF or by
arrangement).

Laura von Bosau

Office 13-5014 Tel. 3-2561


Email: vonbosau@mit.edu

Summary of Some Stuff


Lecturer:

Professor Jeffrey Grossman


Office 13-5049 Tel. 4-3566
Email: jcg@mit.edu

Course Administrator:

Laura von Bosau


Office 13-5014 Tel. 3-2561
Email: vonbosau@mit.edu

Lectures are on Monday, Wednesday, Friday, 11:00-12:00,


Room 10-250
Recitations are Tuesday and Thursday at your assigned
time/location/TA.

Grading

(25%) Weekly quizzes: 15-minute quiz taken in


recitation, 9 total, can drop 1 (8 will count)

(45%) Monthly exams: during class, on October


5th, November 2nd, and November 30th.

(30%) Final exam: during exam week, date/time/


location TBD.
Grading: Freshmen Pass/No Record *
Upperclassmen A, B, C, D, F

* Institute requirement for Pass is performance at C-level or better

Homework/Quizzes

Homework Weekly: posted usually on Thursdays


(solutions posted following Tuesday). One week
later, in recitation on Thursday, students will take a
15-minute quiz based on the subject matter of the
homework. The scores on these weekly quizzes
will count as the homework portion of the
cumulative grade in the subject.

Homework is NOT graded, but if you do it you


will do better on the quiz which IS graded, as
well as the exams.

Exams

Exam 1: Wednesday, October 5, 11:05-11:55

Exam 2: Wednesday, November 2, 11:05-11:55

Exam 3: Wednesday, November 30, 11:05-11:55

Final Exam: 3 hours. Time and location to be set by


the Registrar. Exam Period is December 14 18.
Do not plan to leave town until after your last final.

permissible aids: periodic table, table of


constants, calculator, and an aid sheet

Resources

Schedule: Downloadable calendar for the course at


the 3.091 Stellar website (click on Calendar)

Syllabus: see stellar (http://mit.edu/3.091/www/


3091Summary.pdf) for graphical syllabus.

Notes: posted on stellar the day before each lecture

Textbook: online version of General Chemistry by


Bruce Averill and Patricia Eldredge, available at
http://students.flatworldknowledge.com/course?
cid=2410213&bid=597554

Etiquette

NO food or drinks.

YES quickly taking seat.

NO electronic devices.

YES respect the


learning experience.

Academic Honesty
It is expected that students in 3.091 will maintain the highest
standards of academic honesty. In particular, it is expected that
in the course of taking a test or examination, students will not
(1)accept information of any kind from others; (2) represent as
their own the work of anyone else; or (3) use aids to memory other
than those expressly permitted by the examiner. Following a test
or examination, students will not try to deceive the teaching staff
by misrepresenting or altering their previous work. Please consult
http://web.mit.edu/academicintegrity/handbook/handbook.pdf
Departures from the above standards are contrary to fundamental
principles of MIT and of the scientific community at large. Such
departures are considered serious offenses for which disciplinary
penalties, including suspension and expulsion, can be imposed
by the Institute.

Your Responsibility

5-0-7 :

5 hours/week lecture/recitation
7 hours/week work outside of class

Why Are We Here?

You have Prof. Sadoways lectures (OCW)

You have Prof. Cimas lectures (EdX)

Im not taking attendance.

So why should you come to class?

Reasons to come to class


1. Screens are great, but real people are better.
2. Quizzes/exams will be related to lectures.
3. You will get goodie bags as part of homework.
4. Sometimes I will light things on fire or smash
something.
5. Free stuff.

The Goodie Bag

Goodie-Bags will be given out roughly once per


week but not during exam weeks.

Hands-on materials related to the topics covered.

Take these home and do experiments with them


according to instructions in the bag.

There will be a question on the quiz related to


these materials, some of which you may need
to bring to the quiz.

End: Administrative Stuff


Start: Todays Lecture

Why Solid State Chemistry?

Chemistry: essential for understanding


much of the natural world.

Solid state chemistry: link between


chemistry and engineering.

Origins of Chemistry
Chem < Khem (Egyptian): rich soil
Chem < Khemeia (Greek): pouring
together

Origins of Chemistry

Plato (400 BC)

Aristotle (350 BC)

Origins of Chemistry

Leucippus

Democritus

Alchemy

A mere 2000 years later> modern


chemistry.

Alchemy prevailed until the 17th century.

Missing the scientific method.

The Scientific
Method

Sir Francis Bacon


The Proficience and
Advancement of
Learning (1605)

Modern Chemistry
Element: cannot be
broken down into
two or more simpler
substances by
chemical means.
Robert Boyle
(162791)

Modern Chemistry
carbon-containing
materials burn
vigorously in an
oxygen atmosphere,
combustion.
Joseph Priestley
(17331804)

Wait: Did somebody say


combustion?

Most Energy Comes from


Lighting Stuff on Fire
Paraffin Wax

Propane

Hydrogen

Energy released = 1242 kJ/mol


Chemical fuel: C25H52
Energy released = 2874 kJ/mol
Chemical fuel: C4H10
Energy released = 484 kJ/mol
Chemical fuel: H2

Modern Chemistry

Law of conservation
of mass

Antoine Lavoisier
(174394)

Lavoisier 1789 33 elements


Gases

Non-Metals

Metals

Earths

Goodie Bag #1

John Dalton
All matter is composed of tiny
indivisible particles called atoms.
Atoms of a given element possess
unique characteristics and weight.
A chemical compound always
contains the same atoms in the
same ratio.
John Dalton
(17661844)

In reactions, atoms redistribute or


rearrange but do not undergo a
change of identity.

Dalton 1808 20 elements

Plus
molecules

Dalton 1827 - 36 elements

Why Does This Matter?

Stone Age

2.6M BC 700 BC

Bronze Age

Iron Age

700 BC 100 AD

100 AD 1200 AD

Why Does This Matter?

Industrial Age
Silicon

Plastics
1760 AD 1830 AD

1930

Atomic Design
1950

2000

Why Does This Matter?

Cost per transistor:


1965: $1
2015: $0.00000001

Why Does This Matter?